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Integration of Renewable and Green Energy Sources in Electric Power Systems

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Title: Integration of Renewable and Green Energy Sources in Electric Power Systems


1
Integration of Renewable and Green Energy Sources
in Electric Power Systems
Ali Keyhani, Professor, The Ohio State
University Keyhani.1_at_osu.edu
The Ohio State University Mechatronics Green
Energy Laboratory
2
  • Outline of the Talk
  • Historical Perspective
  • Problem Statement
  • Cyber-Controlled Smart Grid Systems of the Future
  • Education
  • Research

3
Source of Data BP (2000). Statistical review of
world energy. BP, London. Available at
http//www.bp.com/Statisticalreview
4
Source Energy Information Administration, U.S
Department of Energy (DOE), U.S Data History,
Available at http// www.eia.doe.gov/
5
Source Energy Information Administration, U.S
Department of Energy (DOE), U.S Data History,
Available at http// www.eia.doe.gov/
6
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Primary Energy All We Use Comes from the Sun.
Energy sustainability requires use of resources
at the same rate at which they are naturally
replenished on earth without externalities.
Source BMW Group, 2000
7
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Earth at night - 2007
8
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Earth at night 2030
9
Production of CO2 Since 1700
10
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Proven Energy Resources around the world

Petroleum Natural Gas Coal
Region 2002 preserved Resources (109 bbls) R/P (years) 2002 proved Reserves (1012 SCF) R/P years 2002 preserved Reserves (109 tonnes) R/P (years)
North America 49.9 10.3 252.4 9.4 257.8 240
S. Cent.America 98.6 42 250.2 68.8 21.8 404
Europe Eurasia 97.5 17 2155.8 58.9 355.4 306
Middle East 685.6 92 1979.7 gt100 ???? gt500
Africa 77.4 27.3 418.1 88.9 55.3 247
Asia Pacific 38.7 13.7 445.3 41.8 292.5 126
World 1047.7 40.6 5501.5 60.7 984.5 204
Reserves-to-production (R/P) R/P ratios
represent the length of time that those remaining
reserves would last if production were to
continue at the previous year's rate. It is
calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the
end of the year by the production in that
year. BP website www.bp.com
11
Speculate for Possible Solution
  • We need to stop and control the exponential
    growth CO2 , level it and then reduce it .
  • We need to develop a sustainable modern
    industrial society. How?
  • Efficiency. Every Energy user---an energy
    producer
  • Everyone must have a skin in the game.
  • Smart Grid Real Time Pricing
  • Distributed Generation Systems (DG)

12
This map represents smart meter deployments,
planned deployments, and proposals by
investor-owned utilities and some public power
utilities. http//www.edisonfoundation.net/IEE.
As of this writing, approximately over sixty
million customers have been equipped with a
smart meter.
13
Cyber-Controlled Smart Grid Systems of the Future
14
A Cyber-Controlled Smart Grid of the Future with
High Renewable and Green Energy
15
The Cyber System.
16
Cyber-Controlled Smart Metering Systems
17
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18
Smart Microgrid Systems DC Architecture
19
Smart Micro Grid Systems AC Architecture
20
(No Transcript)
21
Smart Grid with High Penetration of Renewable
Energy Sources
22
The Weekly Load Variation Sampled Hourly
23
The Twenty Four Hour Load Variation Sampled
Every Five Minutes
24
Smart Grid Load Management Techniques
  • Peak Clipping Peak clipping method seeks to
    reduce
  • the peak load demand
    and match it
  • with the power
    companies available
  • power generation

74
25
Smart Grid Load Management Techniques
  • Valley Filling This method is based on
    scheduling
  • certain load during the
    time of the day
  • when the load demand is
    low due
  • to consumer life style

75
26
Figure 4. The Energy Management Time Scale of
Power System Control
27
(No Transcript)
28
(No Transcript)
29
Control of Steam Generators
30
The Operation of an Inverter as a Steam
Generator
31
  • Undergraduate education Modeling of microgrid
    systems consisting
  • Sizing of Green energy microgrids
  • Power converters
  • PV farm and wind farm
  • Load models- Nonlinear loads ( power switching
    loads)
  • Storage-batteries and fuel cell based flow
    batteries
  • Combined heat hydrogen and power (CHHP) and
    micro turbines.
  • Control of Converters Active and Reactive
    power control
  • Distributed Generation (DG)

32
  • Graduate Education-Research Issues.
  • Predictive modeling and monitoring for
    self-healing (adaptive systems) diagnostics
    control technology.
  • Development of interactive smart metering to
    improve load model profiles.
  • Development of control technology for future
    cyber-interconnected smart microgrids, in which
    every node in the system will be adaptive,
    controllable, price-smart, operable as a
    microgrid, and functioning as an island or a
    synchronized system.

33
  • Graduate Education-Research Issues
  • Development of control technology for operation
    of renewable sources as steam units
  • Cyber Controlled of Smart Grid
  • Development of control technology for voltage,
    current, P and Q operation of inverter.
  • Single phase DC/AC converters
  • Three phase DC/AC Converters
  • Development of control technology for efficient
    operation of storage systems, such as flow
    batteries, battery system, flywheels, and
    supper-charging capacitors.

34
  • Graduate Education-Research Issues
  • Voltage and Current Control DC/AC converters
    Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) problem
  • PID controller works very well for linear loads
    and achieves acceptable level of THD harmonic
    reduction. However, with nonlinear load PID
    controller cannot achieve satisfactory level of
    harmonic suppression.
  • Specifically, reduction of 3rd harmonic component
    in the output of single-phase inverter can
    seriously affect the system performance.
  • The PID controller can not suppress harmonic
    frequencies even if PID controller gains are
    increased.

35
  • Graduate Education Research Issues
  • Voltage and Current Control
  • DC/AC PWM Inverter THD Reduction
  • PID Controllers can not achieve THD, specifically
    the third harmonics.
  • It is desirable to reduce THD due to 3rd, 5th, ,
    7th, 9th harmonics
  • The control design should achieve the tracking of
    reference output voltage and fast transient
    response without steady state error.

36
OSU Mechatronics-Green Energy laboratory Research
Contribution 1. Keyhani Ali, Mohammad Marwali,
Min Dai Integration of Green and Renewable
Energy in Electric Power Systems, Wiley, ISBN
978-0-470-18776-0, December 2009 2. M. N.
Marwali and A. Keyhani, "Control of Distributed
Generation Systems Part I Voltage and Current
Control," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,
Volume 19, No. 6, November 2004, pp. 1541-1550 
3. M. N. Marwali, J. W. Jung, and A. Keyhani,
"Control of Distributed Generation Systems Part
II Load Sharing," IEEE Transactions on Power
Electronics, Volume 19, No. 6, November 2004, pp.
1551-1561 4. Min Dai, M.N. Marwali, Jin-Woo
Jung, A. Keyhani, "Power Flow Control of a Single
Distributed Generation Unit", IEEE Transactions
on Power Electronics, Vol. 23, Issue 1, Jan.
2008. pp. 343 - 352   5. Min Dai, M.N. Marwali,
Jin-Woo Jung, A. Keyhani, "A Three-Phase
Four-Wire Inverter Control Technique for a Single
Distributed Generation Unit in Island Mode", IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 23, Issue
1, Jan. 2008, pp. 322 - 331  4.
37
5. Jin-Woo Jung and Ali Keyhani, "Control of a
Fuel Cell Based Z-Source Converter", IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion, Volume 22, No.
2, June 2007, pp. 467-476 6. Mohammad N.
Marwali, Min Dai, and Ali Keyhani, "Robust
Stability Analysis of Voltage and Current Control
for Distributed Generation Systems," IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion, Volume 21, No.
2, June 2006, pp. 516-526 7. A. Keyhani,
"Leader-follower framework for control of energy
services," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
Volume 18, No. 2, May 2003, pp.
837-841 http//www.ece.osu.edu/keyhani/
http//www.ece.osu.edu/ems/  
38
Thank you. Hum Dingers
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