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Environmental Data Management, Analysis and Modeling in GRASS 6

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Title: Environmental Data Management, Analysis and Modeling in GRASS 6


1
Environmental Data Management, Analysis and
Modeling in GRASS 6
  • Helena Mitasova, North Carolina State University
  • Markus Neteler, ITC-irst
  • Lubos Mitas, NCSU
  • Russel S. Harmon, ARO

2
GRASS the largest FOSSGIS

Environmental applications driving GRASS
development since its inception in 1984 at US
Army CERL as land management support system 1999
GPL, international team of developers, evolved
into general purpose GIS Portable all common
OS, 32/64bit, code in C Interoperability through
GDAL Web-based infrastructure CVS, bug reports,
users and programmers manual (doxygen), wiki, IRC
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
3
Open Source Geospatial Foundation OSGEO
  • Mission To support the development of open
    source
  • geospatial software and promote its widespread
    use.
  • Founding projects (February 2006)
  • GDAL/OGR, GeoTools, GRASS, Mapbender, MapBuilder,
    MapGuide Open Source (Autodesk), MapServer, OSSIM
  • More that 200 foss4g projects
  • need for selection and organization

GRASS GIS

Open Source Geospatial Foundation
4
GRASS community

CVS keeps track of the code
Users on the map OGC Web Feature Service and Web
Map Service compliant
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
5
Example Desktop System

Portability, interoperability
View Interact Teach
Geostatistics Predictive modeling
R-stats
QGIS
raster vector
Spatial Analysis Modeling
External data
GRASS
GDAL/OGR
Database engine Tables, attributes
MySQL PostgreSQL DBF
paraview
Visualize
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
6
WebGIS integrated services

Raster
MySQL
Vector/DBMI
PostGIS
ArcSDE
Raster GeoTIFF, IMG, ...
Vector SHAPE, MapInfo,...
PyWPS implementation of OGS Web Processing
Service standard in Python programming language.
It has native support for GRASS GIS
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
7
On-line tools

Project GEOPARK Mapserver implementation
provides on-line access to various geospatial
data including radiotracked deer paths (red
lines) for the Park of Stelvio, Italy.
W
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
8
GRASS6 spatial data types

2D raster and imagery 2D/3D topological vector
3D raster (voxels)
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
9
GRASS GUIs

gis.m powerful tcltk GUI, ported to wxPython
Quantum GIS popular, user friendly GIS viewer
with GRASS plugin
JGRASS Java based framework for GRASS, focus
on hydrologic applications
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
10
OSGEO Edu data set
Plutantw
State-of-the-art vector, raster and imagery
data 500m statewide data 10m-30m SW Wake county
(15 x 15km) 1m-2m small rural watershed (0.7 x
0.7km)
http//mpa.itc.it/grasstutor/grasslocations/nc_spm
_05_contents.html
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
11
GRASS6 functionality I
  • fully integrated 350 modules
  • add-ons managed on wiki, SVN
  • GEM (GRASS extension manager)
  • raster 2D/3D map algebra, DEM analysis,
    flowtracing, buffers, neighbourhood analysis,
    solar, cost surfaces, covariance,
  • image rectification, multispectral, radiometric
    correction, principal and canonical component
    analysis, reclassification
  • visualization 2D display, 3D interactive
    visualization

GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
12
GRASS6 functionality II
  • vector buffers, overlays, conversions, networks,
    linear referencing system, digitizing,
    triangulation, voronoi polygons
  • DBMS attribute management, SQL
  • transformations projections, raster-vector
    conversions, interpolation/approximation
  • WMS support r.in.wms (web map service, read maps
    directly from the web), Google earth through
    v.out.ogr

GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
13
ExamplesTerrain modeling and analysis for
environmental applications

GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
14
Raster Lidar data processing
per
  • per cell statistical analysis
  • binning
  • - spatial approximation
  • - smoothing
  • - topographic analysis,
  • - feature extraction

15
Raster high resolution DEM analysis
1999 lidar 1m DEM
2005 lidar-based 30cm resolution DSM, late
afternoon solar beam radiation (red high).
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
16
Raster multitemporal DEMs
0 300m
1974 peak at 108 ft. 2001 peak at 72 ft.
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
17
Raster viewshed and cost surfaces
Viewshed from a 34 story buildingw
Cost surface, shortest path and flow analysis
accident
from RedHat
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
18
Raster watershed analysis and hydrologic modeling
  • Flowtracing and watershed analysis
  • r.watershed, r.water.outlet D8, SFD
  • r.flow Dinf, SFD
  • r.terraflow D8, SFD/MFD, massive DEMs
  • r.lake
  • Process-based modeling
  • r.sim.water overland water flow
  • r.sim.sediment erosion/deposition
  • r.topmodel hydrologic simulation
  • older models not ported to GRASS6 (AGNPS,
    ANSWERS, SWAT, CASC2D)
  • PDE solvers library and 2D/3D groundwater
    modeling

HydroFOSS Tech. Univ. Milan, Como JGRASS
Univ. of Trento, Italy
erosion/deposition by r.usped
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
19
Raster and vector 3D visualization
DEM combined with 3D representation of
buildings Impact of flooding analysis
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
20
Raster stream network extraction
River profile from SRTM DEM
Extracting streams from SRTM data using
r.watershed detailed stream network that is more
accurate than existing maps or results of methods
using pit-filling r.terraflow entire Panama in
single run
21
Raster integration of IFSARE/SRTM
Extracting streams from combined 10m IFSARE and
90m SRTM DEMs random sampling and
reinterpolation to 30m by v.surf.rst ensures
correct routing along the edge
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
22
Vector to raster precipitation
Bivariate and trivariate interpolation of long
term annual precipitation totals using v.surf.rst
and v.vol.rst
precipitation only
precipitation with elevation
23
Future technology under development

Integrating real time monitoring, geospatial
analysis and numerical simulations to support
sustainable land development, management and
design
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
24
Experimental watershed
N
N
N
a
b
c
20 ha area at NCSU exp. farms sediment and
flood control studies Data available in
the OSGeo Educational data set
25
Environmental monitoring, modeling and design
Integrated dynamic virtual model Results static
and dynamic maps, summaries, graphs
representing sustainability measures for each
phase and scenario
Real-time data from terrestrial sensors ISCO
sampler, Econet station, webcams, laser scanner
GIS OSGEO software stack integration analysis mode
ling
Multitemporal GIS data multiple return lidar
data, high res. orthophoto, soil samples, …
  • Tangible GIS
  • Overlay and analyze
  • - real-time data
  • - simulation results
  • - physical model
  • Create
  • new dev. scenarios
  • BMP configurations

Dynamic simulations water flow, sediment,
terrain evolution
26
GIS and physical models
New technologies are combining easy to interpret
3d physical models of landscape with geospatial
data to facilitate communication and collaboration
Illuminated Clay - developed by MIT Media Lab and
SENSEable City lab Tangible GIS - NCSU VISSTA
laboratory
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
27
Design with TanGIS
adding a checkdam creating a depression while
watching the flow and slope to change
simulated overland flow depth for modified surface
GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial
Foundation
28
Real-world and model DEMs
lidar-based 2m DEM 2001
scanned 1mm (2m) DEMs with various modifications
50cm
braided flow
Water depth 60cm
30cm
Smoothed real-world data
modified models
29
GRASS Future
  • GRASS7
  • stable native winGRASS
  • tcltk --gt wxPython, new GUI and visualization,
    WebGIS
  • update to raster data management, including
    GDAL-based live links
  • SQL-based time series support
  • Accelerated development new approach to code
    management
  • Add-ons wiki, SVN
  • GEM extensions software maintained by
    individual developers
  • modules in incubation process
  • handling large contributions that include
    separately maintained libraries - - prevent loss
    of functionality or performance when modernizing
    the code

30
Acknowledgment

Funding by US Army Research Office, NC WRRI and
North Carolina Sediment Control Commission is
gratefully acknowledged
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