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The New Seven Q'C' Tools

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Aim was to develop more QC techniques with design approach ... Persuade powerfully. Benefits of Incorporating. New Seven Q.C. Tools. Organize verbal data ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Seven Q'C' Tools


1
The New Seven Q.C. Tools
  • A Training Presentation on the N7

By Christopher Diaz
2
What are the New Seven Q.C. Tools
  • Affinity Diagrams
  • Relations Diagrams
  • Tree Diagrams
  • Matrix Diagrams
  • Arrow Diagrams
  • Process Decision Program Charts
  • Matrix Data Analysis

3
History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 2
  • Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972
  • Aim was to develop more QC techniques with design
    approach
  • Work in conjunction with original Basic Seven
    Tools
  • New set of methods (N7) - 1977

4
History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 2
  • Developed to organize verbal data
    diagrammatically.
  • Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis,
    process control, and quality improvement
    (numerical data)
  • Used together increases TQM effectiveness

5
What are the Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?
  • Flow Charts
  • Run Charts
  • Histograms
  • Pareto Diagrams
  • Cause and Effect Diagrams
  • Scatter Diagrams
  • Control Charts

6
Relation Between New Seven Q.C. Tools and Basic
Seven Tools
FACTS
Data
Numerical Data
Verbal Data
Define problem after collecting numerical data
Define problem before collecting numerical data
The Seven New Tools
The Basic Seven Tools
  • Analytical approach
  • Generate Ideas
  • Formulate plans

Organize
Information
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
7
Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 4
  • Enhanced Capabilities
  • Organize verbal data
  • Generate ideas
  • Improve planning
  • Eliminate errors and omissions
  • Explain problems intelligibly
  • Secure full cooperation
  • Persuade powerfully

8
Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 4
  • Enhanced Keys to Organizational Reform
  • Assess situations from various angles
  • Clarify the desired situation
  • Prioritize tasks effectively
  • Proceed systematically
  • Anticipate future events
  • Change proactively
  • Get things right the first time

9
Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 3 0f 4
  • Five Objectives of Organizational Reform
  • which will establish a Culture that
  • Identifies problems
  • Gives importance to planning
  • Stresses the importance of the process
  • Prioritizes tasks
  • Encourages everyone to think systematically

10
Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 4 0f 4
Unstructured Problem must be put into solvable
form
The Seven New Tools
Problem is mapped
Problem becomes obvious to all
Thoughts are easily organized
Problem becomes obvious to all
Plans are easily laid
People understand problem
Nub of problem is identified
Problem can be clearly articulated
Nothing is omitted
Things go well
Countermeasures are on target
Cooperation is obtained
Problem is in solvable form
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
11
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7
For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic
Situation and Generating Solution Strategies
  • Gathers large amounts of intertwined verbal data
    (ideas, opinions, issues)
  • Organizes the data into groups based on natural
    relationship
  • Makes it feasible for further analysis and to
    find a solution to the problem.

12
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7
Advantages of Affinity Diagrams
  • Facilitates breakthrough thinking and stimulate
    fresh ideas
  • Permits the problem to be pinned down accurately
  • Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the problem
  • Incorporates opinions of entire group

13
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7
Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)
  • Fosters team spirit
  • Raises everyones level of awareness
  • Spurs to the group into action

14
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7
Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method
Approach
  • Select a topic
  • Collect verbal data by brainstorming
  • Discuss info collected until everyone understands
    it thoroughly
  • Write each item on separate data card
  • Spread out all cards on table

15
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7
Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method
Approach (cont.)
  • Move data cards into groups of similar themes
    (natural affinity for each other)
  • Combine statements on data cards to new Affinity
    statement
  • Make new card with Affinity statement
  • Continue to combine until less than 5 groups

16
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7
Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method
Approach (cont.)
  • Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity
    clusters together

Next, complete the diagram
17
New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing an Affinity Diagram
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
18
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7
For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying
Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes
  • Resolves tangled issues by unraveling the logical
    connection
  • Allows for Multi-directional thinking rather
    than linear
  • Also known as Interrelationship diagrams

19
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7
Advantages of Relations Diagrams
  • Useful at planning stage for obtaining
    perspective on overall situation
  • Facilitates consensus among team
  • Assists to develop and change peoples thinking
  • Enables priorities to be identified accurately

20
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7
Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)
  • Makes the problem recognizable by clarifying the
    relationships among causes

21
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7
Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method
Approach
  • Express the problem in form of Why isnt
    something happening?
  • Each member lists 5 causes affecting problem
  • Write each item on a card
  • Discuss info collected until everyone understands
    it thoroughly

22
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7
Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method
Approach (cont.)
  • Move cards into similar groups
  • Asking why, explore the cause-effect
    relationships, and divide the cards into primary,
    secondary and tertiary causes
  • Connect all cards by these relationships
  • Further discuss until all possible causes have
    been identified

23
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7
Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method
Approach (cont.)
  • Review whole diagram looking for relationships
    among causes
  • Connect all related groups

Next, complete the diagram
24
New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing a Relations Diagram
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
25
New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 5
For Systematically Pursuing the Best
Strategies for Attaining an Objective
  • Develops a succession of strategies for achieving
    objectives
  • Reveals methods to achieve the results.
  • Also known as Systematic diagrams or Dendrograms

26
New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 5
Advantages of Tree Diagrams
  • Systematic and logical approach is less likely
    that items are omitted
  • Facilitates agreement among team
  • Are extremely convincing with strategies

27
New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 5
Constructing a Tree Diagram Group Method
Approach
  • Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective card)
  • Identify constraints on how objective can be
    achieved
  • Discuss means of achieving objective (primary
    means, first level strategy)
  • Take each primary mean, write ob-jective for
    achieving it (secondary means)

28
New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 5
Constructing an Tree Diagram Group Method
Approach (cont.)
  • Continue to expand to the fourth level
  • Review each system of means in both directions
    (from objective to means and means to objective)
  • Add more cards if needed
  • Connect all levels

Next, complete the diagram
29
New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 5
Completing a Tree Diagram
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
30
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7
For Clarifying Problems by Thinking
Multidimensionally
  • Consists of a two-dimensional array to determine
    location and nature of problem
  • Discovers key ideas by relationships represented
    by the cells in matrix.

31
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7
Advantages of Matrix Diagrams
  • Enable data on ideas based on extensive
    experience
  • Clarifies relationships among different elements
  • Makes overall structure of problem immediately
    obvious
  • Combined from two to four types of diagrams,
    location of problem is clearer.

32
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7
Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)
  • 5 types L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, X-shaped,
    and C-shaped

33
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7
Constructing a Matrix Diagram
  • Write final-level means from Tree diagram forming
    vertical axis
  • Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy,
    practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.
  • Examine final-level means to identify whom will
    implement them
  • Write names along horizontal axis

34
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7
Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)
  • Label group of columns as Responsibilities
  • Label right-hand end of horizontal axis as
    Remarks
  • Examine each cell and insert the appropriate
    symbol
  • Efficacy Ogood, ?satisfactory, Xnone
  • Practicability Ogood,?satisfactory, Xnone

35
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7
Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)
  • Determine score for each combination of symbols,
    record in rank column
  • Examine cells under Responsibility Columns,
    insert double-circle for Principal and
    single-circle for Subsidiary
  • Fill out remarks column and record meanings of
    symbol

Next, complete the diagram
36
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing a Matrix Diagram
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
37
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7
For Working Out Optimal Schedules and
Controlling Them Effectively
  • Shows relationships among tasks needed to
    implement a plan
  • Network technique using nodes for events and
    arrows for activities
  • Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review
    Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)

38
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7
Advantages of Arrow Diagrams
  • Allows overall task to viewed and potential snags
    to be identified before work starts
  • Leads to discovery of possible improvements
  • Makes it easy to monitor progress of work
  • Deals promptly with changes to plan
  • Improves communication among team

39
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7
Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)
  • Promotes understanding and agreement among group

40
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7
Constructing an Arrow Diagram
  • From strategies on Tree diagram, select one
    (Objective of Arrow Diagram)
  • Identify constraints to Objective
  • List all activities necessary to achieving
    Objective
  • Write all essential activities on separate cards

41
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7
Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)
  • Organize cards in sequential order of activities
  • Remove any duplicate activities
  • Review order of activities, find sequence with
    greatest amount of activities
  • Arrange parallel activities

42
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7
Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)
  • Examine path, number nodes in sequence from left
    to right
  • Record names and other necessary information

Next, complete the diagram
43
New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing an Arrow Diagram
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
44
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 1 0f 7
For Producing the Desired Result from Many
Possible Outcomes
  • Used to plan various contingencies
  • Used for getting activities back on track
  • Steers events in required direction if
    unanticipated problems occur
  • Finds feasible counter measures to overcome
    problems

45
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 2 0f 7
Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts
(PDPCs)
  • Facilitates forecasting
  • Uses past to anticipate contingencies
  • Enables problems to pinpointed
  • Illustrates how events will be directed to
    successful conclusion
  • Enables those involved to understand
    decision-makers intentions

46
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 3 0f 7
Advantages of PDPCs (cont.)
  • Fosters cooperation and communication in group
  • Easily modified and easily understood

47
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 4 0f 7
Constructing a PDPC
  • Select a highly effective, but difficult strategy
    from the Tree diagram
  • Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome)
  • Identify existing situation (Starting point)
  • Identify constraints of objective
  • List activities to reach goal and potential
    problems with each activity

48
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 5 0f 7
Constructing an PDPC (cont.)
  • Review list. Add extra activities or problems not
    thought of previously
  • Prepare contingency plan for each step and review
    what action is needed if step is not achieved
  • Examine carefully to check for inconsistencies
    and all important factors are included

49
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 6 0f 7
Constructing an PDPC (cont.)
  • Examine to make sure all contingency plans are
    adequate

Next, complete the diagram
50
New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing a PDPC
Source Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools
(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
51
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 1 0f 6
Principal Component Analysis
  • Technique quantifies and arranges data presented
    in Matrix
  • Based solely on numerical data
  • Finds indicators that differentiate and attempt
    to clarify large amount of information

52
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 2 0f 6
Advantages of Principal Component Analysis
  • Can be used in various fields (market surveys,
    new product planning, process analysis)
  • Can be when used when Matrix diagram does not
    give sufficient information
  • Useful as Prioritization Grid

53
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 3 0f 6
Constructing a Prioritization Grid Source
Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River,
NJ Prentice Hall, 2001)
  • Determine your goal, your alternatives, and
    criteria for decision
  • Place selection in order of importance
  • Apply percentage weight to each option (all
    weights should add up to 1)
  • Sum individual ratings to establish overall
    ranking (Divide by number of options for average
    ranking)

54
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 4 0f 6
Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)
  • Rank order each option with respect to criterion
    (Average the rankings and apply a completed
    ranking)
  • Multiply weight by associated rank in Matrix (in
    example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)
  • Result is Importance Score
  • Add up Importance Scores for each option

55
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 5 0f 6
Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)
  • Rank order the alternatives according to
    importance

See completed the diagram
56
New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 6 0f 6
Completing a Prioritization Grid
Source Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper
Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 2001)
57
Review New Seven Q.C. Tools
  • Affinity Diagrams
  • Relations Diagrams
  • Tree Diagrams
  • Matrix Diagrams
  • Arrow Diagrams
  • Process Decision Program Charts
  • Matrix Data Analysis

58
Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C.
Tools
Slide 1 0f 5
  • Mental Attitudes
  • - Keen awareness to the actual problem
  • - Eagerness to solve problem
  • - Be highly motivated for the challenge
  • Four Specific Keys
  • Understand the problem
  • Select the right tool for the job
  • Obtain appropriate verbal data
  • Interpret analytical results

59
Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C.
Tools
Slide 2 0f 5
4 Specific Keys
  • Understand the problem
  • Stage 1 - problem is unclear and not obvious
  • what exact issue should be addressed
  • Stage 2 - problem is obvious, but causes unknown
  • explore causes and single out valid ones
  • Stage 3 - problem and causes are known
  • required action is unknown
  • strategies and plan must be developed

60
Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C.
Tools
Slide 3 0f 5
4 Specific Keys (cont.)
  • Selecting Right tool for the Job
  • Stage 1 - Collect verbal information on events
  • (Affinity Diagram)
  • Stage 2 - Choose tool to identify causes
  • (Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram)
  • Stage 3 - List strategies and activities
  • (Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)
  • Plan actual activities
  • (Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart)

61
Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C.
Tools
Slide 4 0f 5
4 Specific Keys (cont.)
  • Obtaining appropriate verbal data
  • Three types of verbal data
  • - Facts factual observations expressed in
    words
  • - Opinions factual information colored by
    opinion
  • - Ideas New concepts created by analyzing
    facts
  • .Group Discussions
  • - Ensures common understanding
  • - All data should be without bias or distortion
  • - Data should fit objective of the analysis

62
Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C.
Tools
Slide 5 0f 5
4 Specific Keys (cont.)
  • Interpreting Analytical Results
  • Information must be obtained for accomplishing
  • objectives from
  • - Completed diagrams or
  • - Process of completing diagrams
  • Analyze actual information obtained
  • - Prepare summarized report with findings,
  • conclusions, and processes used
  • - Check if necessary data has been obtained, if
    not
  • - Discover the cause and take appropriate
    action

63
Practical Application of New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 5
Example Relations Diagram Abilities Required
for Applying New Seven QC Tools
Complete the following Relations Diagram -
Review notes for clarity - Get in groups of 4-5
per table (work as a team!) - Topic - Using the
New Seven QC Tools skillfully - Cause cards-
will be provided (not categorized) - Arrange
cards to complete diagram (some hints have
been provided)
64
Practical Application of New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 5
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC
Tools
Primary Cause
Use N7 Skillfully
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Source Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper
Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 2001)
65
Practical Application of New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 3 0f 5
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC
Tools Cause Statements (hints are in yellow)
66
Practical Application of New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 4 0f 5
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC
Tools
F
Primary Cause
T
Use N7 Skillfully
B
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
R
L
Y
I
Source Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper
Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 2001)
67
Practical Application of New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 5 0f 5
Solution for Abilities Required for Applying New
Seven QC Tools
F
S
U
E
T
M
N
Use N7 Skillfully
B
J
C
W
G
P
H
R
L
X
Y
Z
A
V
I
Q
O
K
Source Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper
Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 2001)
D
68
Summary New Seven Q.C. Tools
69
Bibliography
  • Foster, Thomas. Managing Quality. An
    Integrative Approach. Upper Saddle River
    Prentice Hall, 2001.
  • Nayatani, Yoshingobu, Eiga, Toru, Futami, Ryoji,
    Miyagawa, Hiroyuki, and Loftus, John. The Seven
    New QC Tools Practical Applications for
    Managers. Tokyo 3A Corporation, 1994.
  • TQM The 9 TQM Tools. Internet
    http//www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm.
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