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Earth Maps

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A map is a flat, two dimensional representation of Earth's 3-D surface. ... Polyconic. Projection. As if a paper cone was wrapped around the Earth. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Maps


1
Earth Maps
  • Lecture 12 Cornell Notes

2
I. Map
  • A map is a flat, two dimensional representation
    of Earths 3-D surface.
  • Since maps are flat, all maps are distorted in
    some way.

3
A. Cartographer
  • Mapmaker

4
B. Lines on a map
  • To find places on a map, a grid system is used.

Latitude
Longitude
5
C. Latitude
  • Parallel lines that circle the globe
    horizontally.

North Pole Arctic Circle Tropic of
Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic
Circle South Pole
90º N 66.5º N 23.5º N 0º 23.5º S 66.5º
S 90º S
Tropics
6
D. Longitude
  • Lines that circle the globe vertically and meet
    at the north and south poles. NOT parallel!

180º 90ºW 0º 90ºE 180º
International Prime
International Date Line Meridian Date Line
7
II. Map Projections
  • Cartographers draw world maps in different ways
    called projections.

8
A. Mercator
  • The Mercator Projection is like a piece of
    paper was wrapped around the equator and then a
    light projected the continents onto the paper.
  • Shows parallel lines of latitude AND longitude,
    so it distorts areas around the poles.
  • Shows correct shape of landmasses, and true
    direction (north, south, east, west).

9
B. Gnomonic Projection
  • Gnomonic Projection like a piece of paper was
    laid over 1 point on the Earth and then the
    continents were traced onto it.
  • Distorts land masses away from the center point.
    Distorts direction, and distances between
    landmasses.

10
Polyconic Projection
  • As if a paper cone was wrapped around the Earth.
  • Useful for mapping large areas of land that fall
    in the middle latitudes (like the United States)
    because it is accurate for areas where cone
    touches the globe.
  • Distorts shape AND area near top and bottom of
    cone.

11
D. Shortcoming of Projections
  • The shortcoming of these three projections is
    that they are the most accurate near where the
    paper touches the globe.

12
D. Shortcoming of Projections
  • All map projections DISTORT reality.

13
III. Topographic Maps
  • Detailed maps that show hills, valleys,
    mountains, rivers and other features of Earths
    surface.
  • These show changes in elevation (height above sea
    level, 0 feet) using lines of even elevation.

14
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15
IV. Biomes areas similar in climate and
geography that have similar plants and animals
  • Tundra ice desert
  • Far north, few trees
  • Very long winters
  • Ground remains
  • frozen, called permafrost

16
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17
B. Taiga
  • Many evergreen trees
  • Long snowy winters
  • Sub-Arctic region

18
C. Other forests
19
D. Grasslands
  • Mostly grasslands
  • Africas grasslands are called savannahs
  • Americas grasslands are called prairies

20
E. Deserts
  • Very dry, little precipitation
  • Usually located at 30º latitude

21
F. Rainforests
  • Located in tropics
  • Dense vegetation with many different kinds of
    living things.

22
G. Chaparral
23
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