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Providing HighQuality, MultiLevel Writing Instruction to Students with Developmental Disabilities

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Seth & Nicole. State Standards. Examples of Writing IEP Goals ... (Atwell, 1987; Calkins, 1983, 1991, 1994; Graves, 1994; Harris & Graham, 1996) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Providing HighQuality, MultiLevel Writing Instruction to Students with Developmental Disabilities


1
Providing High-Quality, Multi-Level Writing
Instruction to Students with Developmental
Disabilities
  • Janet M. Sturm, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
  • Central Michigan University
  • sturm1j_at_cmich.edu
  • Presentation for the American Speech-Language-Hear
    ing Association Annual Convention, Chicago, IL
  • November 20, 2008

2
  • Written language is a powerful and versatile
    vehicle for learning, communication, and thought,
    an all-terrain vehicle in many ways. Writing can
    transport students with developmental
    disabilities to richer participation in social,
    academic, and employment environments. The more
    severe or multiple the disabilities, the more
    important this form of transportation.
  • Sturm Koppenhaver (2000)

3
Writing Development Beginning Writers
  • In early development students
  • move from drawing to scribbling to inventive
    spelling
  • are single session writers
  • naturally choose a variety of genres topics
  • do not yet have a sense of audience
  • use spoken and written skills to convey meaning
  • use pictures to convey meaning
  • develop conventional spelling over time (after
    lots of opportunities)
  • They focus on.
  • Feeling good about writing sharing
  • Writing and saying more
  • Planning, composing, and sharing (not editing)

4
Writing Development Skilled Writers
  • In later development students
  • Convey what they know through writing
  • Focus on all processes (planning, composing,
    revising, editing)
  • Use sophisticated word choice and syntax
  • Integrate information from a variety of sources
  • Use of sophisticated structures across genres
    use writing for a variety of purposes (enjoyment,
    tell what you know, tell a story, persuade)
  • Know why they are writing and are able to
    communicate message based on their audience
  • Compose multiple drafts

5
What is Going on In First Grade Classrooms? A
Sample of Writing Activities (180 Day School
Year)
  • Sturm,
    Staples, Spadorcia, Cunningham, Cali, Erickson,
    Yoder, Koppenhaver

6
Writing Instruction Students with Developmental
Disabilities
  • Focuses on social, vocational, and daily living
    skills
  • Focused at a basic functional level
  • Decontextualized drill and practice
  • Tracing
  • Copying
  • Worksheets
  • (Summarized by Hedrick, Katims, Carr,
    1999)

7
Writing Needs of Children Who Use AAC
  • Cognitive, language, motor, and sensory needs
  • Limited world knowledge experiences
  • Lack writing instruction opportunities to write
  • Need access to writing tools
  • Attitude barriers/poor self-perceptions
  • Difficulties with grammar, spelling, etc.
  • (Sturm, 1998, Buekelman Miranda, 2005
    Blackstone, 1989 Koppenhaver Yoder, 1992)

8
Beginning Writers With DD Those Who Use AAC
Assumptions
  • Evidence of prerequisite literacy skills is
    needed
  • Writing skills should be taught in isolated tasks
  • Conventional writing isnt possible
  • Early writing should be conventional
  • Spoken communication isnt needed during writing
  • Symbol writing activities naturally lead to
    conventional writing

9
Conventional Writers With DD Those Who Use
AAC Assumptions
  • Language development is already complete
  • First draft writing products are sufficient
  • Sophisticated writing skills are acquired through
    writing assignments

10
A Framework for Writing Instruction
11
The Students In The Writers Workshop
  • Students with mild to severe cognitive abilities
  • Beginning communicators
  • Sophisticated communicators
  • Students who use AAC
  • Range in age from 14-25 years
  • Range of literacy capabilities
  • Need a scribe for his/her writing
  • Writing 2-3 page documents

12
Who Can Participate in the Writers Workshop?
  • Anyone who can
  • choose a topic to share!
  • The ability to make a clear choice
    is not a prerequisite!

13
State Standards IEP Goals
14
Examples of Traditional Writing Objectives
  • Given a list of 10 words at the 1st and 2nd grade
    level, Decker will be able to spell the words on
    his computer with at least 80 accuracy.
  • Decker will be able to learn and use the
    following rules of capitalization with at least
    80 accuracy
  • (peoples names, days, months, holidays, streets,
    cities, states)
  • Decker will learn and be able to use the
    following rules of punctuation with at least 70
    accuracy
  • (periods, question marks, exclamation marks)

15
Examples of Writing Goals Shalynne
16
Examples of Writing Goals Seth Nicole
17
Writing Quantity Quality Measures
18
Writing Quantity Quality Measures
19
Writing Quantity Quality Measures
20
Attitude Toward Writing
21
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning
Writers(Sturm Nelson, 2007)
  • Drawing
  • Scribbling
  • Strings of letters not grouped into words
  • Strings of letters grouped into words with no
    intelligible words
  • Strings of letters grouped into words with one
    or less intelligible possible real words set
    apart or embedded in a string of letters
  • Two to three semi-intelligible words
  • More than three semi-intelligible words in a list
    format

22
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning
Writers(Sturm Nelson, 2007)
  • More than three attempted words with a
    sentence-like frame
  • At least one sentence with a subject phrase or
    a verb phrase
  • Several sentences with somewhat related or
    unrelated content
  • Several sentences on one topic
  • Multiple paragraphs with different main topics
    and one or more related sentences for each topic
  • The writing has a beginning, middle, and end with
    almost all sentences relating to a main topic

23
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers
Who Require a Scribe(Sturm, Filipchuk, Nelson,
Spencer, 2008)
  • When presented with a two-word frame (e.g., It
    is), and the student is verbally offered a
    binary choice (e.g., pretty or cute), he/she
    points to a choice to complete the sentence.
  • When presented with a two-word frame, and the
    student is verbally offered a binary choice,
    he/she verbally produces a choice to complete the
    sentence.
  • The student produces single words that are direct
    labels of items in the picture (e.g., butterfly).
  • The student produces single words that are linked
    to the topic but are not a direct label (e.g.,
    cute).

24
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers
Who Require a Scribe
  • Student produces at least one sentence with a
    subject phrase or a verb phrase that is a direct
    label (e.g., This is my Mom).
  • Student produces several sentences with somewhat
    related or related content.
  • Student produces more than one sentence on one
    topic (e.g., This is my Mom. She is funny).
  • The student produces multiple paragraphs with
    different main topics and one or more related
    sentences for each topic.
  • The student produces content that has a
    beginning, middle and end with almost all
    sentences relating to a main topic.

25
Measuring Genre Diversity In Beginning Writers
(Based on Sturm Cali)
26
Beginning Writer Survey of Writing Attitude and
Self-Efficacy (Sturm, 2007)
  • I like to write.
  • I like people to read what I've written.
  • It is easy for me to write.
  • When I write, people understand what I'm saying.
  • When I write, it is easy for me to get started
    with my writing.
  • When I write, I think I am a good writer.
  • When I write, it is easy for me to write my
    ideas.
  • ? ? ?
  • I REALLY dont. I dont know.
    I REALLY do.

27
Communication Measures
28
Writing Instruction
29
You Cant By-Pass Writing
  • Students need to engage in meaningful writing
    every day!

30
What is High Quality Writing Instruction For
Adolescent Writers?
  • Six of 11 Elements from Writing Next
    (Graham Perrin)
  • Writing strategies
  • Specific product goals
  • Prewriting
  • Process Writing Approach
  • Study of Models
  • Word Processing

31
Process Writing Approaches
  • Classroom culture established known as The
    Writers Workshop
  • All work together to share and help
  • Students make decisions about what to write
  • Emphasis on student ownership responsibility
  • Students write for real audiences real purposes
  • All engage in authentic instruction collaborate
    in evaluating their writing efforts
  • Authorship is celebrated!
  • (Atwell, 1987 Calkins, 1983, 1991, 1994, 2002
    Graves, 1994 Harris Graham, 1996 Reif, 1992)

32
Components of Process Writing Approaches
  • Writing conferences (peer teacher)
  • Sharing (author groups)
  • Modeling, discussion, collaboration
  • Teachable moments mini-lessons
  • Publishing
  • (Atwell, 1987 Calkins, 1983, 1991, 1994
    Graves, 1994 Harris Graham, 1996)

33
Using Strategy Instruction Techniques in the
Writers Workshop
  • Integrated into process writing approaches
  • Personalized for individual student needs
  • Teaches metacognitive problem solving
  • Teaches students how to set goals, engage in
    self-regulation, evaluate performance
  • Provides scaffold showing what good writers do
  • (Harris Graham, 1996 Pressley Woloshyn,
    1995)

34
Components of Strategy Instruction
  • Strategy Description
  • Discussion of Goals and Purposes
  • Modeling the Strategy
  • Student Mastery of Strategy Steps
  • Guided Practice Feedback
  • Independent Performance Generalization

35
Writing Instruction in the High School Classroom
  • During all writing sessions students
  • Participate in a discussion about the purpose of
    the lesson
  • Listen watch adult peer models
  • During Mini-lessons and Authors Chair
  • Choose personally relevant writing topics
  • Students decide what to write
  • Share what they want to tell
  • Students choose whether they want to ask
    questions or make comments
  • Listen and respond to each others writing during
    writing conferences and Authors chair

36
Writing Instruction in the High School Classroom
  • Principles of strategy instruction are also
    employed that help students learn what skilled
    writers do
  • We support learning by using lesson tip sheets
    and providing repeated opportunities for guided
    practice feedback
  • A tip sheet for each mini-lesson is displayed as
    a poster on the wall referred to during
    teachable moments
  • All students have also have Literacy Toolkits
    that contain tip sheets and Internet photos of
    personal writing topics

37
Core Goals for the Writers Workshop
  • What are the core learning outcomes for the
    students?
  • To build self-confidence and intrinsic motivation
  • To contribute during the mini-lesson
  • To think about a topic make a topic choice
  • To write independently
  • To be able to write your ideas
  • Or to be able to communicate your ideas and have
    someone write for you
  • To be able to share your writing
  • Choose to share
  • Attempt to read
  • Choose a reader
  • To comment or ask a question about another
    students writing

38
Writers Workshop In This Classroom
  • 10-20 minute mini-lesson
  • 5 minute peer conference
  • Students write for 10-30 minutes
  • Authors Chair 25-35 minutes

39
  • Writing Mini-Lessons
  • Small Group Conferences

40
Writers Workshop Mini-Lessons
41
Literacy Toolkits
  • Custom Covers
  • Lesson Tip Sheets
  • Communication Boards
  • Photos for Topics
  • Writing Products

42
The Talking Stick
  • Introduced to facilitate turn taking with the
    large group during
  • Mini-lessons
  • Authors Chair
  • Unexpected outcome -- More students initiate to
    request a turn!!
  • Equalized the communication field.

43
Purposes for the Lesson Board
  • During the Mini-Lesson
  • Provides an opportunity for the students to apply
    reinforce a concept from the mini-lesson
  • During the peer/teacher conference each student
    shares his/her contribution to the lesson
  • Fosters active participation
  • Provides a literate model summary
  • During Authors Chair
  • Summarizes the writing topics for the day
  • Summarizes the genres used for the day

44
Mini-Lesson Brainstorming A Topic
  • Introduction Purpose of Activity
  • Introduce the plan for a Writers Workshop in
    their classroom
  • Share the schedule for each week
  • mini-lesson
  • Small group conference
  • independent writing
  • authors chair
  • Introduce the Authors Toolkit
  • Answer What is a topic? together as a group
  • List Ideas on easel

45
Brainstorming A Topic
  • Communication Activity (Modeling Guided
    Practice)
  • Introduce the brainstorming activity Tell what
    they are expected to do to participate
  • Share lots of ideas
  • Listen to peers ideas (Listening will help you
    think of even more ideas)
  • Share in a Think Aloud format - Model how you
    generate topics for the group (e.g., tell things
    you like to do share family topics)
  • Encourage students to generate as many ideas as
    possible
  • Suggest categories of ideas For example
  • What do you like to do on weekends?
  • What topics could you tell about your family or
    friends?
  • Use an easel with paper to record ideas

46
Brainstorming A Topic
  • Small Group Conference
  • Immediately following the mini-lesson conduct
    small group conferences to brainstorm individual
    topic lists
  • Using a dry erase marker have each student record
    one topic on a card for the Lesson Board
  • Return to the large group and have each student
    share his or her topic on the lesson board.

47
Brainstorming A Topic
  • Mini-Lesson Facilitator Notes
  • Foster enthusiasm about writing
  • Create belief in students that they are writers
  • If you have information to share, you can be a
    writer.
  • Writing is about sharing things with others
  • Ideas suggested from one student help generate
    ideas for other students.
  • A long list will be generated and students will
    be excited and proud to share with each other.

48
Brainstorming A Topic
  • Post-Activity Follow-Up
  • Create classroom poster and Authors Toolkit
    handout for the Things we all know about list
    generated by students.
  • Surf the Internet select pictures to include in
    the literacy toolkit based on individual topics
    Bring these photo images to the next writing
    session
  • Consider sending a Home Experience Log home to
    parents, especially for those students who have
    difficulty sharing topics.
  • Materials Used
  • Easel
  • Poster Board
  • Paper for recording individual ideas

49
Home Log
  • What does your child like to do outside of
    school?
  • What topics does your child like to talk about
    with friends?
  • When you read books to your child, what are their
    favorite topics?
  • Has your child had any
  • Fun outings in the community lately?
  • Fun activities at home?
  • Special events with a family member or a group of
    family members?
  • What are your childs favorite movies, TV shows,
    and music?

50
Mini-Lesson Tips for Talking
  • Communication Activity (Modeling Guided
    Practice)
  • Clinicians will demonstrate and model eye contact
    with each other (great, okay, and not good eye
    contact) -- Students will use rating scale to
    determine if the eye contact that was modeled
    was, great, okay or not good circle his or her
    choice to share with the group.
  • Clinicians break students into groups of 2 and
    practice using good eye contact while telling
    about a picture or piece of writing from their
    Literacy Toolkit.
  • Return to the large group and discuss times,
    outside of Writers Workshop, when good eye
    contact is important (e.g., school, work, home).
    Use an easel with paper to record student ideas.

51
Purposes for the Three-Point Rating Scale
  • During the Mini-Lesson
  • Involves role playing of a concept from the
    lesson
  • Provides an opportunity for the students to apply
    reinforce a concept from the mini-lesson
  • Fosters active participation
  • Allows the classroom to share where the students
    placed their votes (group tallies are taken after
    each vote)

52
Independent Writing
53
Plan for an Efficient Workshop
  • Assign seating for mini-lessons independent
    writing Rehearse movement between!
  • Choose a system to help students move easily
  • Move Move to independent writing
  • Move back to circle for Authors
    chair
  • Bell Ringing time to clean up and get ready for
    Authors Chair

54
Plan for an Efficient Workshop
  • Tip card with names setup requirements placed
    at each writing station
  • Goal is to have students set up themselves
  • Examples
  • Shalynne Dry Erase Board
  • Isaac Eye gaze frame
  • Tom - Alphasmart
  • Seth Laptop with Inspiration
  • All students pick up basic writing tool kit

55
Basic Tools for Independent Writing
  • Each student has a his or her writing toolkit.
  • Students pick up a ziplock bag containing
  • Glue Stick
  • Dry Erase Marker
  • Scissors
  • Pencils

56
Purpose for the Places to Get Topics Overlay
  • Aids in ease of topic selection
  • Ensures that student is choosing a topic that is
    personally interesting
  • Encourage topic diversity
  • Encourage genre diversity

57
Places to Get Topics Overlay
  • Magazines Magazine box in classroom
  • Field Trips Class field trip photos placed in
    white 3-ring binders with photo on cover
  • My Pictures Based on each students individual
    interests Internet photos are downloaded
    placed in toolkit to be cut out
  • My head Any new idea the student generates

58
  • Authors Chair

59
The Authors Chair
  • Authors Chair
    Framework
  • Every week authors take a
    turn sharing his/her writing
  • Author asks (voice or Big Mac)

    Any questions or comments?
  • Peers
  • Praise
  • Ask a Question
  • Make a Comment

60
Voice Amplification During Oral Reading
  • Introduced during the mini-lesson on Authors
    chair
  • Found that students typically do not read in a
    public voice
  • Consider using a lapel or hand held microphone
  • Found significant improvements in intelligibility
  • Positive response from students All chose to
    use it

61
Individual Supports
62
Finding the Best Pencil
  • Goal is for each student to have a tool that
    allows him or her to participate in repeated
    daily opportunities for writing
  • Conventional spelling skills are not a
    prerequisite!
  • The pencil should
  • Support the ability to compose text
  • Foster independence
  • Offer ease of access

63
Access to Writing
  • Paper Pencil
  • Standard Keyboard
  • Alphasmart
  • Zoom Keys
  • Intellikeys
  • Alternative Pencils
  • (Center for Literacy Disability Studies)
  • Color Encoded Eye Gaze
  • Print Alphabet Flip Chart

64
Adult Supports
  • Each student in the classroom has an individual
    tip sheet
  • Helps any adult (or peer) know the core goal for
    the student during a specific part of the
    Writers Workshop
  • Helps any adult know what they should be doing to
    scaffold that student
  • Goal is to provide the least amount of support
    and add in support as needed!
  • Goal is to work yourself out of a job!

65
Adult Supports
  • When supporting scribed writing
  • Wait for the students spontaneous language
  • Offer word choices only if needed
  • Offer an opportunity for the student to write his
    or her ideas
  • When supporting communication
  • Wait for the students spontaneous language
    before offering low or light tech options
  • Encourage all attempts to comment!!!
  • If a comment is off-topic tie in the comment to
    assist with meaning (augmented input)

66
Shalynne Individual Tip Sheet
  • Choosing a Topic
  • Goal Make a meaningful choice about what to
    write share
  • Offer Shalynne the overlay with topic choices
    (e.g., magazines) Provide the actual choices
    (e.g., set of magazines) to help foster her
    understanding. Help her get to the materials and
    make a final selection.
  • Help Shalynne review picture choices by doing a
    picture walk.
  • Model for Shalynne what you like (I like) and
    ask her to Show me what you like.
  • After she identifies one or more pictures, have
    Shalynne confirm her writing topic for the day by
    saying, Show me the picture you would like to
    use for your writing. Show me the one you want to
    share with your friends.

67
Shalynne Individual Tip Sheet
  • Writing Goal 1 Choose first and last letters
    of her name when presented with a set of letter
    tiles
  • Present the letter tiles that spell
    S-h-a-l-y-n-n-e in random order.
  • Read the letters aloud and say her name.
  • Ask her to pick the first letter in her name - If
    she struggles reduce her number of choices and
    repeat the verbal models.
  • Ask her to choose the last letter in her name
    Reduce choices as needed. Use the letter tiles to
    finish spelling her name. Spell aloud when doing
    so.
  • As a final step, write Shalynnes name and the
    date at the top of her writing for the day.
    Remember to provide a verbal model of this
    spelling/writing task.

68
Shalynne Individual Tip Sheet
  • Writing Goal 2 Generate words that are linked
    in meaning to the topic
  • Begin by waiting to see if Shalynne will make any
    spontaneous comments about the picture. Allow
    her to point and label. Model aloud labels of
    what you see in the picture.
  • If she does not share any words offer two word
    combinations aloud and pause to see if she will
    finish the sentence stem For example
  • I like It is
  • If she does not say anything offer choices. For
    example - It is. beautiful OR pretty
  • You will scribe the words above for Shalynne.
  • When Shalynnes writing is finished, read the
    entire document aloud with her a few times.
  • Have Shalynne choose a reader for Authors Chair
    (use overlay).

69
Shalynne Individual Tip Sheet
  • Authors Chair - Goals (1) Choose a reader when
    presented with a set of photo choices, (2) Hold
    up the picture for the group to see, (3) Make eye
    contact when communicating with others, (4)
    Respond to a peers writing by choosing I liked
    your picture or I liked your words on a
    digitized device, (5) Respond to a peers writing
    with a spontaneous comment.
  • Sharing
  • Encourage Shalynne to tell the group what her
    topic is for the day.
  • Remind Shalynne to
  • show her picture to everyone in the group
  • hold her head up when her writing is being
    shared.
  • After Shalynnes writing is shared, encourage her
    to ask for questions or comments (Provide a Big
    Mac switch if needed Pause 1st).
  • Also encourage Shalynne to make eye contact with
    peers when they are making a comment and to call
    a peers name to get their attention.

70
Shalynne Individual Tip Sheet
  • Commenting
  • If Shalynne raises her hand, help her to take the
    floor by saying aloud that Shalynne wants a turn
    to make a comment
  • Wait at least 5 seconds to see if she makes a
    spontaneous comment.
  • If Shalynne does not make a spontaneous comment,
    offer her the two switch digitized device and
    remind her about her two choices I liked your
    picture. Or I liked your words.
  • To help Shalynne understand the function
    purpose of comments, make meaningful connections
    between her comment and the peers writing.

71
Shawn Individual Writing Tips
  • Allow Shawn to write his own text His current
    writing development is made up of a series of
    single words listed on a page. Have him start by
    writing his name and the date. Help him with the
    date.
  • Shawn is supported in writing with a Special
    Topic Words Tip Sheet Read choices aloud that
    are linked to his topic and help him make a
    selection.
  • During his writing consider offering two word
    combinations that he can use in his writing. Show
    him these words on a two word combination tip
    sheet and read his choices aloud.
  • I like - It is
  • This is - These are

72
Seth Individual Writing Tips
  • Help him choose different types of writing
  • Provide him with access to a map template on
    Inspiration software
  • Seths job is to orally generate ideas tell the
    clinician where they should go on the map
  • clinician enters text into Inspiration
  • Assist him in organizing his writing into
    topic-based paragraphs by having him write on a
    paper that has 3 numbered headings lines that
    follow
  • provide verbal cues as needed
  • Cue him to write more talk aloud about his
    choices before writing them

73
Communication Writing Outcomes
74
Nicoles Outcomes(January 2007 February 2008)
  • Developmental Writing Scale
  • Early Samples Level 6-7
  • November 2007-February 2008 Level 11
  • Total Intelligible Words
  • 1st Samples (January/February 2007) 10
  • Most Recent Sample (February 2008) 21
  • Number of Different Words
  • 1st Samples (January/February 2007) 8.5
  • Most Recent Sample (February 2008) 19.5
  • Communication
  • Adds substantive comments during mini-lessons
    authors chair

75
Nicoles Outcomes Genre Diversity
76
Toms Outcomes (September of 2007 February
2008)
  • Developmental Writing Scale
  • September-December Scribe Level 1-2
  • Most Recent Sample (February 2008) Level 9
  • Total Intelligible Words
  • Early Scribed Sample (Fall 2007) 11
  • First Written Sample 4
  • Most Recent Written Sample (February 2008) 8
  • Number of Different Words
  • Early Scribed Sample (Fall 2007) 5
  • First Written Sample 4
  • Most Recent Written Sample (February 2008) 7
  • Communication
  • Asks clinician for spelling help during writing
  • Initiates comments uses AAC device to comment
  • Increased eye contact when communicating

77
Toms Outcomes Genre Diversity
78
Seths Outcomes(February 2007 February 2008)
  • Developmental Writing Scale
  • Early Samples (February 2007) Level 9-11
  • February 2008 Moving into Level 12
  • Total Intelligible Words
  • Early Samples (February 2007) 47
  • Most Recent Samples (Jan/Feb 2008) 67
  • Number of Different Words
  • Early Samples (February 2007) 37
  • Most Recent Samples (Jan/Feb 2008) 45
  • Communication
  • Able to vary comments with visual/verbal
    reminders
  • Improved eye contact

79
Seths Outcomes Genre Diversity
80
The Bi-Annual Meet the Author Event
81
Bi-Annual Meet the Author Event
  • Getting Ready
  • Choose Best Writing to Share
  • Write Author Biographies
  • Create Posters of Work
  • Create Special Moments Handouts
  • Meet the Author Event (December April)
  • Posters are displayed around the room students
    interact with the visitors
  • A special moment booklet is given to
    parents/guardians
  • An Authors Chair session is held Everyone
    participates!
  • Cake punch is served!

82
Who is Invited To Meet the Author?
  • Intermediate School District Administrators
  • High School Administrators
  • Families Guardians
  • Other Classrooms
  • CMU Faculty
  • SLP Graduate
  • Students

83
Student Booklets
  • Letter to Parents
  • About Meet the Author Day the Writers Workshop
  • My Writing
  • A set of the best samples
  • Special Moments
  • A summary of the weekly special moments for each
    student
  • E.g., During authors chair, Shalynne clearly
    verbalized any questions or comments after her
    writing was read.
  • My Progress
  • Summary tables of the writing measures

84
Special Moments - Tom
  • 2-14-08
  • Tom wrote six words without the use of a scribe.
  • During Authors Chair, Tom asked his peers, Any
    comments or questions? and commented on another
    peers writing by saying, I like bike.
  • 2-21-08
  • Tom offered a variety of two-word comments
    pertaining to a magazine picture of Colorado.
    Comments included, Man fishing, Look
    Colorado, and Man boat.
  • 2-28-08
  • Tom did not need to use his topic ideas in his
    writing toolkit to write today. He independently
    chose a book from the classroom to use for his
    topic.
  • Tom also independently wrote his name during
    individual writing time with no verbal cue from
    clinician.
  • Tom initiated four comments during Authors Chair
    and used the two-switch device to share the
    comments I like your picture or I like your
    words.

85
My Progress- Tom
86
The Poster Session
  • Author Biography
  • Author
  • Workshop Photos
  • Writing Topics

87
  • Writers live their lives differently because they
    write.
  • (Atwell, 1987)

88
Acknowledgement
  • A special thanks to the graduate student
    clinicians in speech-language pathology at CMU
    who dove in, with their positive energy, to help
    make this happen
  • Lynelle Tans
  • Anna Brookens
  • Stephanie Schwieger
  • Kelly Amman
  • Erin Gray
  • Allison Royston
  • Janalee Keegstra
  • Sarah Hannah
  • Erica Spencer
  • Katie Filipchuk
  • Stefanie Carbone
  • Shari Craig
  • Steven Cox
  • Laura Delaney
  • Jenna Miller
  • Danielle Mannor
  • Sarah Puvalowski
  • Jenny Feurst
  • Michelle Sawyer
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