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Introduction to Oceanography

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Introduction to Oceanography. http://www.mohave.edu/pages/595.asp. Oceanography ... Ocean farers: people who depended on the ocean for survival (food, travel, etc. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Oceanography


1
Introduction to Oceanography
http//www.mohave.edu/pages/595.asp
2
Oceanography
  • The study of Earths oceans
  • The First Oceanographers
  • Ocean farers people who depended on the ocean
    for survival (food, travel, etc.)
  • Polynesians, Phoenicians
  • Learned about the surface ocean

http//img.search.com/thumb/6/6c/Hawaiiancanoe.jpg
/300px-Hawaiiancanoe.jpg
http//www.tuspain.com/heritage/boat.gif
3
Studying the Oceans
  • One of the youngest sciences
  • Began with Matthew Fontaine Maury
  • 1825 Entered the Navy
  • 1842 Head of the Dept. of Charts and
  • Instruments
  • 1844 First Superintendent of the
  • Naval Observatory
  • 1844 Wrote Charts of the Winds
  • and Currents
  • 1854 Wrote The Physical Geography of the Sea
  • 1861 Resigned the U.S. Navy and entered the CSA
    Navy
  • 1868 Professor of meteorology at VMI

http//www.history.navy.mil/pics/mauryglobe.jpg
4
Studying the Oceans
  • Deep ocean study began in 1872
  • British expedition of the HMS Challenger
  • Ocean currents
  • Water temperature
  • Water chemistry
  • Ocean sediments
  • Topography of the seafloor
  • Marine life
  • Used nets, dredges, trawls, and
  • weighted line

http//fermi.jhuapl.edu/student/phillips/challenge
r1.gif
http//www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03m
ountains/background/challenger/media/route.html
5
Studying the Oceans
  • Sonar sound navigation and ranging
  • Used later on expeditions like the German Meteor
  • 1925-1927 Made 13 Atlantic crossings to map
    ocean floor
  • Refined during World War II for submarine
    detection
  • After WWII, new technology used to map entire
    ocean floor
  • Ship sends sound waves to bottom and they bounce
    back
  • Velocity of sound in water 1500 m/s
  • Use time from when waves leave ship to when they
    return to calculate depth
  • Depth time x 1500 m/s
  • 2

http//www.divediscover.whoi.edu/images/sonar_mult
ibeam_top.gif
6
Studying the Oceans
  • Modern study of the oceans
  • Satellites
  • Side-scan sonar
  • Submersibles
  • Deep-ocean drilling

http//www.frequentlyasked.info/images/sub1.jpg
http//www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/images/sst/sst.gif
http//www.highlightskids.com/Science/Stories/imag
es/SS0100_oceanDrilling1.jpg
http//www.punaridge.org/doc/factoids/DigitalData/
ddfig2.jpg
7
One Big Ocean
  • All oceans on Earth are connected
  • What happens in one area can affect another
  • Geographers have divided the one ocean into 5
    major oceans, many seas, bays and gulfs
  • Major Oceans basaltic crust (dense)
  • Pacific largest, deepest ? getting smaller
  • Atlantic smaller, shallower ? getting bigger
  • Indian
  • Arctic
  • Antarctic circles the globe
  • Seas, Bays, Gulfs
  • Partially land-locked
  • Mediterranean, Caribbean

http//www.waterencyclopedia.com/images/wsci_03_im
g0373.jpg
8
Titanic
  • Named for the Titans, giant parents of the Roman
    gods
  • Called unsinkable
  • Built by the White Star Line in Belfast, Ireland
  • Could carry 3,547 passengers and crew

http//www.titanic.web2001.cz/images/13.jpg
http//www.pottsoft.com/home/gifs/titanic_photo.gi
f
9
Titanic
  • Maiden voyage Southampton, England to New York
    City
  • Captain Edward Smith
  • 2,340 passengers and crew on board
  • 20 lifeboats on board fit 1,178 passengers
  • Ship had space for 32 lifeboats
  • Morning of April 15, 1912
  • Hit an iceberg off the coast of Newfoundland,
    Canada
  • Took approximately 2 hours, 40 minutes to sink
  • Closest ship, Californian, did not respond
  • Carpathia responded
  • 705 survivors
  • 1523 dead
  • 306 bodies recovered

http//defiant.corban.edu/gtipton/net-fun/iceberg.
JPG
http//www.immigrantships.net/newcompass/ship_imag
es/c_e/carpathia.jpg
10
Finding the Titanic
  • Located on Sept. 1, 1985
  • Expedition led by Dr. Robert Ballard
  • Found at 41N, 49W
  • Returned later to explore the site with
    submersibles
  • Alvin manned
  • Jason unmanned robotic

http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/subs/alvi
n/media/alvin1_600.html
http//www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/hagen/samplers/text/JJ_
Sampler.html
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