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... painting in room 78 of the Domus Aurea ('golden house'


... painting in room 78 of the Domus Aurea ('golden house') of Nero 64-48 A.D. ... In the Golden House of Nero, where this mural is located, all the walls are a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ... painting in room 78 of the Domus Aurea ('golden house'

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Temple of Athena NikeClassical Greek
Temple of Portunus Rome, Italy - ca. 75 BC
Polykleitos, Doryphoros,High Classical Greek
Augustus Primaporta,Pax Romana (Roman)
Athena and Alcyoneus frieze from the Altar of
Zeus at Pergamon, c.180 BCE. HELLENISTIC GREEK
Spoils from the Temple of Solomon,
Jerusalem.Relief on the Arch of Titus EARLY
Etruscan Supremacy 700-509 BCE Provided link
between Greek and Roman ArtKEYWORDS
Period 509-27 BCE Begins with overthrowing last
Etruscan King and ends with Julius Caesar Major
buildings built more for POLITCAL use than for
RULERS Early Empire Period 27 BCE-180 CE
COLOSSEUM The High Empire 180-195 CE Five Good
Emperors (Trajan, Hadrian, etc.) kept things
prosperous and peaceful.KEYWORDS COLUMN OF
Empire 195-400 CEDiocletian had Empire divided
The Roman Architectural Revolution
Temple of Portunus Rome, Italy - ca. 75 BC
Republic Rome
  • A superb example of Roman eclecticism is the
    Temple of Portunus, the Roman god of harbors.
  • Follows the Etruscan pattern
  • High podium is accessible only at the front, with
    its wide flight of steps.
  • Freestanding columns are confined to the deep
  • The structure is built of stone overlaid
    originally with stucco in imitation of the white
    marble temples of the Greeks.
  • The columns are Ionic, complete with flutes and
  • In an effort to approximate a peripteral Greek
    temple - while maintaining the Etruscan plan -
    the architect added a series of engaged Ionic
    half-columns around the cellas sides and back.
  • The result was a pseudoperipteral temple.

Model of a typical Etruscan Temple 6th Century BC
Republic Rome
Temple of the Sibyl or of Vesta Tivoli, Italy
- early first century BC
The Romans admiration for the Greek temples they
encountered in their conquests also led to the
importation of the round, or tholos, temple
type. The travertine columns are Corinthian In
contrast with Greek practice, the cell wall was
constructed not of masonry blocks but of a new
invention concrete.
Aulus Metellus Late 2nd - early 1st century BC
Republic Rome
Artists of the Republican Period sought to create
very realistic images of their rulers. Dressed in
the traditional draped toga, Aulus Metellus poses
with authority and persuasiveness.
Republic Rome
Funerary Relief with Portraits of the Gessii Rome
(?), Italy - ca. 30 BC
The surviving sculptural portraits of prominent
Roman Republican figures are uniformly literal
reproductions of individual faces. Although
their style derives to some degree from
Hellenistic and Etruscan portraits, Republican
portraits are one way the patrician class
celebrated its elevated status. Slaves and
former slaves could not possess such portraits,
because, under Roman law, they were not people
but property. Yet when freed slaves died, they
often ordered portraits for their tombs - in a
style that contrasts sharply with that favored by
freeborn patricians. This image depicts former
slaves who have gained their freedom and right to
have their portraits created.
Republic Rome
Head of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy,
ca 75-50 B.C.
Republican patrician portraits Mostly men of
advanced age (generally these elders held the
power in the state) One of the most striking of
these so-called veristic (superrealistic)
portraits is of an unidentified patrician. We
are able to see this mans personality serious,
experienced, determined- virtues that were
admired during the Republic.
Kresilas, Pericles Classical Greece
Imperial Rome
Octavian Caesar (the great-nephew and adopted
son of Julius Caesar) became the first Roman
Emperor in 44BC. By 27 BC, the Senate conferred
him the title Augustus (meaning exalted or
sacred). For the next 41 years, Augustus
Caesar led the empire thru a period of peace and
prosperity known as the Pax Romana, or Roman
Peace. The inclusion of Venus son, Cupid, is a
reminder of Augustus divine descent (related to
Goddess Venus). Furthermore, this depicts the
return of Roman military standards by the
Parthians. The marble statue was originally
Augustus of Primaporta,Early 1st Century BCE
Imperial Rome
The Ara Pacis (or Altar of Augustan Peace) was
a monument dedicated in 9 BC to commemorate
Augustus return to Rome after establishing Roman
rule in Gaul. Included on this monument was the
Imperial Procession a relief showing the family
members and other who attended the dedication.
(This is much different than the Procession of
the Gods frieze located on the Parthenon in
Imperial Rome
  • Augustus Caesar was elevated to Divine Status
    after his death (as memorialized with the Ara
    Pacis) Here is an onyx cameo of the crowning
    of Augustus as Jupiter King of the Gods. His
    adopted son, Tiberius, holds a lance and steps
    out of the chariot on the left, ready to be the
    next Emperor.
  • This piece combines
  • The idealized heroicism of Classical Greek Art
  • The dramatic action of Hellenistic Art
  • The Roman realism and depiction of historical

Gemma Augustea, Onyxca 1st Century AD, EARLY
Pompeii theCities of Vesuvius
Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy,
ca 80 B.C.
The forum was an oasis in the heart of Pompeii -
an open, airy plaza. Throughout the rest of the
city, every square foot of land was developed. At
the southern end of the town, immediately after
the Roman colony was founded in 80 B.C.,
Pompeiis new citizens erected a large
amphitheater. It is the earliest such structure
known and could seat some twenty thousand
spectators. The word- amphitheater means double
theater, and the Roman structures closely
resemble two Greek theaters put together,
although the Greeks never built amphitheaters.
Greek theaters were placed on natural hillsides,
but supporting an amphitheaters continuous
elliptical cavea required building an artificial
mountain- and only concrete, unknown to the
Greeks, was capable of such a job. Barrel vaults
also form the tunnels leading to the stone seats
of the arena.
Arena is Latin for sand, which soaked up the
contestants blood. Instead of refined
performances, the Amphitheater held mostly bloody
gladiator combats.
Pompeii theCities of Vesuvius
Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater Pompeii, Italy,
ca. A.D. 60-79
This painting that is found on the wall of a
Pompeian house depicts an incident that occurred
in the amphitheater in A.D. 59. A brawl broke out
between the Pompeians and their neighbors, the
Nucerians, during a contest between the two
towns. The fight left many wounded and led to a
10 year prohibition against such events. The
painting shows the cloth awning (velarium) that
could be rolled down from the top of the cavea to
shield spectators from either sun or rain. It
also has the distinctive external double
staircases that enabled large numbers of people
to enter and exit the cavea in an orderly fashion.
The Roman House
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Atrium of the House of the Vettii Pompeii, Italy,
second century B.C., rebuilt A.D. 62-79
Pompeii theCities of Vesuvius
One of the best preserved houses at Pompeii,
partially rebuilt and an obligatory stop on every
tourists itinerary today, is the House of the
Vettii, an old Pompeian house remodeled and
repainted after the earthquake of A.D. 62 The
photograph was taken in the fauces. It shows the
impluvium in the center of the atrium, the
opening in the roof above, and in the background,
the peristyle garden with its marble tables and
mural paintings. The house was owned by two
brothers, Aulus Vettius Restitutus and Aulus
Vettius Conviva, probably freedmen who had made
their fortune as merchants. Their wealth enabled
them to purchase and furnished houses that would
have been owned only by patricians.
Pompeii theCities of Vesuvius
Dionysiac mystery frieze Pompeii, Italy, ca.
60-50 B.C.
Pompeii theCities of Vesuvius
Dionysiac mystery frieze Pompeii, Italy, ca.
60-50 B.C.
Especially striking is how some of the figures
interact across the corners of the room. Nothing
comparable to this existed in Hellenistic Greece.
Despite the presence of Dionysos, satyrs, and
other figures from Greek mythology, this is a
Roman design.
General view of wall paintings from Cubiculum M
of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor
Boscoreale, Italy, decorated ca. 50-40 B.C.
Early Empire
In the early Second Style Dionysiac mystery
frieze, the spatial illusionism is confined to
the painted platform that projects into the room.
This cubiculum is a prime example of mature
Second Style designs in which painters created a
3-D setting that also extends beyond the wall.
All around the room the painter opened up the
walls with vistas of Italian towns and sacred
sanctuaries. Painted doors and gates invite the
viewer to walk through the wall into the created
world. Their attempt at perspective was
intuitive and it not conform to the rules of
linear perspective that would later be discovered
by the Renaissance masters. Although this
painter was inconsistent in applying it, he
demonstrated a interest in, but lacking knowledge
of linear single vanishing-point perspective.
It was most successfully employed in the far
corners, where a low gate leads to a peristyle
framing a tholos temple see detail on next
Intuitive perspective was a favored tool of
Second Style painters seeking to transform the
usually windowless walls of Roman houses into
picture-window vistas that expanded the
apparent space of the rooms.
Detail of tholos from Cubiculum M of the Villa of
Publius Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy, ca.
50-40 B.C.
Early Empire
Illusionism The Second Style is, in most
respects, the antithesis of the First Style.
Some scholars have argued that the Second Style
also has precedents in Greece, but most believe
it is a Roman invention. The Second Style
evolved in Italy around 80 B.C. and was popular
until around 15 B.C., when the Third Style was
introduced. Second Style painters aimed not to
create the illusion of an elegant marble wall, as
First Style painters sought to do. Rather, they
wanted to dissolve a rooms confining walls and
replace them with the illusion of an imaginary
three-dimensional world, which they did only
pictorially. The First Styles modeled stucco
panels gave way to the Second Styles flat wall
Gardenscape - Villa of Livia Primaporta,
Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.
Republican Era /Early Empire
Second Style picture-window wall Second Style
painters favored linear perspective seeking to
transform usually windowless walls of Roman
houses into picture-windows vistas that
expanded the apparent space of the
rooms. Recession is suggested by atmospheric
perspective, which creates the illusion of
distance by the greater reduction of color
intensity, the shift of color toward an almost
neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the
intended distance between eye and object
- The flimsy fence is the only architectural
element - The wall seems to frame the landscape -
The fence, trees, and birds in the foreground are
precisely painted, while the details of the dense
foliage in the background are indistinct.
4th style wall painting in room 78 of the Domus
Aurea (golden house) of Nero 64-48 A.D.
4th style, Rome, Italy
In the Fourth Style the obsession with illusions
returned once again. This style became popular
around the time of the Pompein earthquake In the
Golden House of Nero, where this mural is
located, all the walls are a creamy white with
landscapes and other motifs painted directly on
the white walls. The paintings that are on the
walls are irrational fantasies They depict
fragments of buildings, columns supporting half
pediments, double story columns supporting
nothing at all. Architecture became just another
motif in the artists design.
Neptune and Amphitrite wall mosaic 62-79 A.D.
Herculanium, Italy
The house of Neptune and Amphitrite takes its
name from this mosaic. Shown here are Neptune,
sea god, and his wife Amphitrite set into an
elaborate niche. They preside over the running
water of the fountain in the courtyard in front
of them. Mosaics were usually confined to floors
in the ancient world. In the Roman times,
however, mosaics were used to decorate walls and
even ceilings. This foreshadowed the extensive
use of mosics in the Middle Ages. The subject
chosen for Roman mosaics were diverse although
mythological themes were immensily popular.
Portrait of a husband and wife Pompeii,Italy AD
Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius
Originally formed part of a Fourth Style wall of
an exedra, recessed area on the opening of the
atrium of a Pompeian house. Standard
attributes of Roman marriage portraits are
displayed here with the man holding a scroll and
the woman holding a stylus and a wax writing
tablet. These portraits suggested high education
even if it wasnt true of the subjects. The
heads are individualized to the subjects
features, not simply standard types. This is
the equivalent of modern wedding photographs.
Still life with peaches, detail from a wall
painting Heraculaneum, Italy AD 62-79
Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius
Roman painters interest in the likeness of
individual people was matched by their concern
for recording the appearance of everyday
objects. This still life demonstrates that Roman
painters sought to create illusionistic effects
while depicting small objects. Here they used
light and shade with attention to shadows and
highlights. The illusion created here is the
furthest advance by ancient painters in
representational technique. It appears that this
artist understood that the look of things is a
function of light. Also, the goal was to paint
light as one would strive to paint the touchable
object that reflects and absorbs it.
This illusion of light marks the furthest advance
by ancient painters in representational
technique it would not be seen again until the
Dutch in the 1700s.
Still Life, Dutch ca. 1700
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