Pathways of Introduction and Pest Risk Assessment Issues for Exotic Pests of Regulatory Significance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Pathways of Introduction and Pest Risk Assessment Issues for Exotic Pests of Regulatory Significance

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Title: Pathways of Introduction and Pest Risk Assessment Issues for Exotic Pests of Regulatory Significance


1
Pathways of Introduction and Pest Risk Assessment
Issues for Exotic Pests of Regulatory Significance
  • Joe Cavey
  • National Identification Services
  • Plant Safeguarding Pest Identification
  • USDA, APHIS, PPQ
  • Riverdale, Maryland

2
Why Pest Pathway Trends Concern Us(Van Lenteren
1995)
  • Establishment potential of insects into new areas
    is extremely unpredictable
  • We cannot predict what effect an insect species
    will have on the ecosystems it invades
  • 2 of accidentally introduced spp. become
    established
  • 65 of 212 insect major pests accidentally
    introduced into the US were not known as pest
    insects in their native areas
  • 7 of animal plant accidental introductions
    become pest species

Analysis This is why it is important to follow
what happens in pathways rather than focusing
only on individual, high profile pests
3
Elements of a Pest Invasion
  • Entry Potential
  • Establishment Potential
  • Ability to Reproduce Spread

4
Plant Pest Groups
  • Insects
  • Mites
  • Snails slugs
  • Plant Pathogens
  • Nematodes
  • Weeds

5
Pest Pathways
  • Any means of disbursing pests
  • Defined broadly or narrowly
  • Characterizing pathway risk is a key to
  • Effective pest exclusion
  • Effective domestic surveillance

6
Major Pest Pathways
  • plants for propagation as cargo, e.g. imported
    nursery stock
  • plant products not for propagation as cargo, e.g.
    fruit and vegetables
  • miscellaneous cargo, e.g. machinery, ceramic
    tiles
  • plant material carried by international travelers
  • conveyances, e.g. ships, aircraft or railroad
    cars
  • mail
  • organism imports, e.g. live insects for butterfly
    houses

7
PPQ Pest Interception Database(PestID)
  • 1.4 M records
  • 1984 to present
  • Mostly records of q-significant taxa
  • Add 70-80K new q-significant records/yr.
  • Add many more if records of all intercepted
    organisms are entered

8
PestID DataKey Elements of an Interception Record
  • Final pest name
  • Tentative pest IDs
  • Identifier
  • Commodity inspected
  • Biological host
  • Where found
  • Pest life stage pest
  • No. pests found
  • General pathway
  • Origin (Country)
  • Interception date
  • Inspector
  • Port
  • Conveyance method
  • Conveyance name
  • Shipment size

9
Interception Nos. (McCullough et al. 2006)
(1984-2000 PestID data)
  • By month May 73,542 Dec. 54,515
  • By pest group Insects 78
  • By intended use of imported item
  • Consumption 87
  • Propagation 7
  • Analysis
  • insects easier to find but also are abundant,
    diverse, survive transport well many have high
    mobility
  • Intended use of item propagation riskier

10
Insect Interceptions
  • Analysis
  • Cargo riskier
  • Pests tougher to detect
  • Shipped to multiple sites
  • Large volumes infested
  • Only 2 inspected
  • Cargo/baggage proportion has increased since
    2000
  • Marine finds
  • low due to difficulty of inspecting in
    containers?
  • Pathway baggage 61
  • Pathway cargo 31
  • Airport 73 land border 13
  • marine 9

11
Insect Interceptions by Taxa
  • Nos. by order Homoptera 37, Diptera 21,
    Lepidoptera 21, Coleoptera 13
  • Most diverse at genus-level ID Coleoptera,
    Lepidoptera, Homoptera
  • Most diverse at species-level Coleoptera

12
Pest Interceptions by Ports
  • Miami, JFKIA Los Angeles 43
  • Mexican border ports 15
  • HI PR to the US 16

Analysis No surprise here larger ports see
larger volumes and greater diversity of
commodities.
13
Insect Interceptions by Origin
  • Central S. America 21
  • Caribbean 19
  • North America 17
  • Asia 14
  • Europe 10
  • Pacific Islands 9

Analysis Volumes of off-season fruits
vegetables from CAM SAM have increased
14
Notable Interception Increases(1985-86 vs.
1999-2000 for countries with gt 999 interceptions)
  • Peru up 41
  • Vietnam 24
  • Ecuador 22
  • Domincan Republic 21
  • Costa Rica 19
  • Analysis
  • Peru asparagus imports increased 10X were
    mitigated since, by mandatory fumigation
  • normalized relations with Vietnam trade

15
Pathways of High Concern
  • Nursery stock
  • Wood packing materials
  • Cut flowers
  • Ceramic tiles quarry products

16
Limitations of Pathway Analysis Based on Pest
Interception Records
  • Pest interception data are biased
  • Inspector focus not random
  • Biases not always uniform from port to port
  • Negative inspection results are not recorded
  • Data error rate varies
  • 2000 inspectors data entry clerks
  • Interpretation of fields incomplete info

17
All Interceptions are Not Equal
  • Short long-term use of infested item
  • Shipment size
  • Taxonomic resolution

18
Value of Pest ID Data (McCullough et al.
2006)
  • Historical record of patterns in origins,
    commodities and locations of pest interceptions
  • Ability to monitor changes in trends in
    interception rates over time as new policies and
    regulations are implemented

19
Acknowledgements
Deborah McCullough, Michigan State
University Timothy Work, University of Quebec at
Montreal Andrew Liebhold, USDA Forest Service,
Morgantown, WV David Marshall, USDA, ARS,
Raleigh, NC Paul Courneya, APHIS PPQ, NIS
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