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Womans World In the 19th Century

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Cutaway view of crinoline, Punch, 1856. Idealization of Woman as Angel/Goddess/Fairy/Mother ... Men have permission for moral laxity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Womans World In the 19th Century


1
Womans World In the 19th Century
Portrait of Miss Margaret Henderson by John
William Waterhouse, 1900
2
Victorian
  • ??????

3
(No Transcript)
4
(No Transcript)
5
Keira Knightley in Pirates of the Caribbean
6
The Corset
Camille Clifford
7
  • Corsets, crinolines, hoopskirts exaggerate hips,
    breasts, waist
  • Impede movement,
  • breathing
  • Foster unrealistic
  • image of womans
  • body

Cutaway view of crinoline, Punch, 1856
8
Idealization of Woman as Angel/Goddess/Fairy/Mothe
r
  • Paradox of ideal vs. real
  • The Angel in the House
  • (Coventry Patmore)
  • Blessed Damozel
  • Lady of Shalott
  • (Alfred Lord Tennyson)

Emily Patmore, The Angel in the House by John
Brettx
9
Goddess
The Blessed Damozel by Dante Gabriel Rossetti
10
Fairy
Midsummers Eve by Edward Robert Hughes
11
Angel
Angel by Abbot Handerson Thayer, 1889
12
Mother
Mother and Child by Lord Leighton
  • Womans highest calling

13
Influence of Queen Victoria 1819-1901
  • Icon of femininie domesticity
  • Devoted wife to Albert and mother of nine
  • Retreated to seclusion at Alberts death in 1861

Portrait of Queen Victoria Sir Francis Grant, 1843
14
Impact of Industrial Revolution
  • Separate Spheres
  • Social theory enforcing gender polarity

Home
Work Place
15
Separate Spheres
  • Men are rational, independent, competitive, and
    aggressive
  • Women are emotional, maternal, domestic, and
    dependent.
  • Men leave home to work public sphere
  • (business politics)
  • Men have permission for moral laxity
  • Women rule the home and are confined to it
    private sphere
  • Role of helpmeet, domestic manager, moral
    exemplum
  • Home is haven from factory, firm, world
  • Plush décor reflects cocooning

16
Marriage
  • All wealth owned, inherited, or earned went
    legally to husband until 1882
  • Divorce extremely rare
  • for woman to secure
  • Inheritance through
  • male line
  • Until 1891, runaway wife
  • could be arrested and imprisoned
  • Husband could divorce for adultery wife could
    not.

1850 Wedding Attire
Victorian wedding attire
17
Accidental Pregnancy
  • Birth control literature
  • illegal
  • Activities heavily chaperoned--unwed pregnancy in
    upper class rare
  • Domestic servants often seduced by employer
    (typically expelled from house)
  • Infant abandonment/murder common
  • Unwed mother could sue father in court for child
    support

Richard Redgraves The Outcast 1851
18
Careers
19th century milliners
  • Low-paid jobs only
  • 1851, 43 of British women over 20 had no husband
    (30 single, 13 widowed)
  • 90 of these worked

19
Upper Work
  • Upper tradeswomen in
  • towns milliners
  • dressmakers
  • Upper servants of the
  • wealthy governesses,
  • skilled cooks, housekeepers, senior
    parlour-maids, head house-maids and lady's maids

20
Lower Work
  • Lower working classes
  • began work age 8-12
  • Worked until marriage if . . .
  • All earnings belonged to husband
  • Lower street hawkers flowers,
  • sweets, seafood, and fortune-telling
  • Lower servants of middle class kitchen-maid,
    scullery-maid, laundress, nursemaid, housemaid
  • Single maid-of-all-work 14-16 hours/day

21
Domestic Servants
  • Largest category of womans work--50

1880-1890
22
No job-No family
  • Charity of wealthy benefactors or church
  • Prostitution
  • Begging
  • Workhouses
  • Suicide

Watts Found Drowned
23
  • The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse

24
(No Transcript)
25
Acknowledgements
  • Young servant www.history.powys.org.uk
  • Wedding gowns www.victoriana.com
  • Milliners www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/w
    elfare/womens_work_02.shtml
  • Hunts The Awakening Conscience
    www.csun.edu/jaa7021/h498/part3.htm
  • Corsets www.staylace.com/gallery/index.html
  • Crinoline www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/victcfsh.htm
    l
  • Camille Clifford www.staylace.com/gallery
  • Queen Victoria www.victorianweb.org
  • Servants www.sensibility.com/vintageimages/victor
    ian/
  • Leighton Mother www.victorianartinbritain.co.uk/l
    eighton_mother.htm
  • Pirates of the Carribean www.erasofelegance.com
  • Hughes www.denison.edu/art/fairy
  • Waterhouses Portrait of Miss Margaret Henderson
    http//.cgfa.sunsite.dk/
  • Thayer Angel www.fineartcompanyltd.co.uk
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