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Kame and Kettle Topography

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Title: Kame and Kettle Topography


1
Kame and Kettle Topography
  • Kyle Christenson
  • 4.8.09

2
Kames
  • Suparaglacier formations
  • Are steep-sided and gravel, formed by
    supraglacial or ice-contact glacifluvial ,
    variously shaped mounds composed chiefly of sand
    deposition (Holmes, 1947).

www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10af.html
3
  • Kame terraces are discontinuous features with
    steep sides and flats tops.
  • Term Kame is of limited usefulness
  • Gently sloping depositional features deposited by
    melt water streams
  • Composed of fluvial sands and gravels.
  • Formed during high discharge often in glacier
    decay

4
http//www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers/alps/haut_glacier
_d_arolla/icons/kame_terrace.jpg
5
Paradise Valley
Photo Dr. Locke
6
Kettle or Pitted Sandar
  • Are sandar which are cratered by hollows left by
    the melt-out of isolated buried blocks of glacial
    ice (Maizels, 1977)

www.webjogger.com/glacier/features.htm
7
  • Suparaglacial in origin, but can be proglacial.
  • Remnants of a glacier snout, detached by
    differential ablation
  • Or
  • As icebergs transported on to a sandar surface by
    floodwaters

www.webjogger.com/glacier/features.htm
8
  • Tasman Glacier New Zealand
  • www.treknature.com/gallery/photo151031.htm

9
  • In either case the ice is buried by glacial
    fluvial deposits with a delayed melt out.

http//www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/imag
es/kettles.jpg
Northwest Territories
10
  • Lethbridge, Alberta
  • libwiki.mcmaster.ca/.../RelationToOtherLandforms

11
Case Study
  • Boulder Ring Structures Produced during
    Jokulhlaup Flows. Origin and Hydraulic
    Significance
  • Author(s) Judith Maizels

12
  • Explores ring structure on Myrdalsandar, Iceland
  • These boulder rich rims are up to 4m high and 40m
    in diameter
  • Diamictation dips steeply into the center, which
    implies formation from ice melt out.

13
  • Jokuhlaup on Myrdalssandar in 1918
  • Subglacial eruption from volcano Katla
  • Flow peaked within 5 hours and receded within 24
    hours
  • 150 ring structures limited to the margins or
    reverse slopes

14
  • A ring width 20-25 meters
  • B ring width 9 meters. Flow from right to left

15
Fig. 5. Stratigraphicc ross-sectiono f typical
boulder ring structureo n Myrdalssandur,sh owing
3 units basal, granularf lood gravels (GRm)
V-shaped layer of diamicton (Dms) and upper
laminated sands and silts (SI and Fl) forming the
kettle infill. Upstream bedding is truncated,
while thin diamicton capping occurs on both
upstream and downstream rims.
16
  • A and B., with sediment concentration, C 18 per
    cent and depth of burial, Db 0.1 Hi. showing a
    raised, but collapsed, rim around a deep central
    depression and formation of a Type 3 or 'crater'
    kettle
  • C. Experiment 8.3, with C 10 per cent, and Db
    0.6 Hi. Narrow rim set within a shallow hollow
    forming a Type 2 or 'rim-med' kettle
  • D. Experiment 8.4, with C 27.5 per cent, and Db
    0.6 Hi, showing a relatively broad rim
    surrounding a deep, funnel-shaped hollow,
    producing a Type 2 or 'rimmed' kettle
  • E. Experiment 6.1, with C 40 per cent and Db
    0.6 Hi, showing broad high rim and small,
    funnel-shaped hollow with its floor lying above
    the level of the adjacent gravel surface, and
    forming a Type 3 or 'crater' kettle
  • F. Experiment 11.4, with C 90 per cent and Db
    0.3 Hi, showing a large vertical pile of melt-out
    debris which extends down into the gravel bed to
    a depth of 0.3 Hi, and forms a Type 4 'till-fill'
    kettle or 'kettle mound'

17
  • Empirical relationships showing the effect of
    sedi-ment concentration and depth of burial of
    the ice block on the morphology of ring
    structures

18
  • Type 1 comprised 'normal' ket-tle holes without
    rims, and produced by debris-free ice blocks (as
    modelled by Maizels 1977)
  • Type 2 comprised 'rimmed' kettles, characterized
    by re-latively deep hollows bounded by narrow,
    discon-tinuous rims (with 2w/D lt0.5)
  • Type 3 consisted of 'crater' kettles exhibiting
    broad, high rims sur-rounding a shallow central
    hollow (with 2w/D gt0.5) and
  • Type 4 consisted of 'till-fill' kettles or
    'kettle mounds', where rims were large enough to
    merge across the central hollow to form a mound
    of debris.

19
References
  • Benn, D.I., Evans, D.J.A. 2007. Glaciers and
    Glaciation London. Hodder Arnold. P. 487-493.
  • Holmes, C.D. 1947. Kames. American Journal of
    Science 245, 240-249.
  • Maizels, J.K. 1992. Boulder ring structures
    produced during jokulhlaup flows origin and
    hydraulic significance. Geografiska Annaler 74A,
    21-33.
  • Maizels, J.K. 1977. Experiments on the origin of
    kettle holes. Journal of Glaciology 18, 291-303.
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