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Body weight and composition for health and sport

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Percent body fat is based on triceps (mm) biceps (mm) subscapular (mm) ... performance dependent upon technique used and time over which weight is lost ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Body weight and composition for health and sport


1
Body weight and composition for health and sport
  • Williams, 8th edition
  • Chapter 10

2
  • Body composition assessment - Table 10.1 on p.
    367
  • Anthropometrics body segment girths to predict
    body fat
  • Skin folds Using calipers (figure 10.4 p. 369)
  • Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) figure 10.2 p. 368
  • Body plethysmography (figure 10.3 on p. 368)
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
  • Near infrared interactance (NIR)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Underwater weighing (Hydro-densiometry)

3
What is the composition of the human body?
  • Chemical elements
  • Recall that Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and
    Nitrogen in various combinations make up protein,
    CHO and fat and compose about 96 of the human
    body
  • Remaining 4 consists of minerals (calcium and
    phosphorous in the bones also iron, potassium,
    sodium, magnesium, chloride distributed
    throughout the body)

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Composition of human body, cont.
  • Scientists divide body into four components
  • a. Total body fat
  • b. Fat-free mass
  • c. Bone mineral
  • d. Body water
  • Each component has a different density
    (mass/volume)
  • a. Water, 1.0 or 1 g/ml
  • b. Bone, 1.3-1.4
  • c. Fat-free tissue, 1.1
  • d. Fat, 0.9

6
Condensing body composition into two components
  • A. Total body fat
  • 1. Essential fat
  • a. Adult males, 3 of body weight
  • b. Adult females, 12-15 of body weight
  • 2. Storage fat varies considerably
  • a. Found around body organs
  • b. Fifty percent is subcutaneous fat
  • c. Visceral fat is associated with ? health
    risk

7
Two components of body comp, cont.
  • B. Fat-free or lean body mass
  • 1. Components
  • a. Protein
  • b. Water
  • c. Minerals
  • d. Glycogen
  • 2. Bone mineral
  • a. 50 water and 50 solid matter
  • b. Total bone weight may be 12-15 of total
    body weight
  • c. Mineral content is only 3-4 of total
    body weight

8
Body composition assessment
  • 1. Anthropometry
  • Circumferences abdominal, hips, iliac (between
    hips and waist) and waist
  • Estimating body-fat distribution waist to hip
    ratio (should be lt 0.9 for men and lt 0.8 for
    women)
  • Skin folds abdomen, biceps, chest, subscapular
    (under shoulder blade in back), suprailiac
    (between hip and navel), and triceps
  • Jaws of calipers should be opened at right angles
    to fold. Tips should come into contact with
    skinfold about 1 cm. below point where skinfold
    was raised.
  • Record in millimeters. Note 3 measurements
    should be taken at each site.
  • Percent body fat is based on triceps (mm)
    biceps (mm) subscapular (mm) suprailiac (mm)
    compared to a standard table.

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Body comp assessment, cont
  • 2. BIA disposable surface electrodes are placed
    on hand, wrist, foot, and ankle.
  • Current sent through proximal electrodes to
    distal electrodes, measuring resistance.
  • Theory greater resistance or impedance ?
    greater body fat
  • Variables in equation height, weight, sex, and
    age
  • Not accurate in significantly overweight and
    underweight individuals.

11
Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) Source
http//www.uky.edu/Education/KHP/Body_comp/Equipme
ntPhotos.htm
12
Body comp assessment, cont
  • 3. Body plethysmography (Body Pod) individual
    sits inside chamber measures air displacement
    and calculates body density
  • 4.Computed tomography (CT) X-Ray scanning also
    used to measure bone mass

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14
Body comp assessment, cont
  • 5. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) X-ray
    technique used to separate fat, fat-free tissue,
    and bone mineral
  • 6. NIR (near infrared) uses light absorption and
    reflection
  • 7. Densiometry (underwater and hydrostatic
    weighing) measures H20 displacement since fat
    is less dense and bone and muscle are more dense,
    a given weight of fat will displace a larger
    volume of water and have a more buoyant effect.

15
Dual X-ray absorptiometry Source
http//www.bcm.edu/cnrc/images/4_stories/Dexaadult
.jpg
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18
Ideal weight?
  • Accurate balance beam scales or digital scales
    best for obtaining accurate body weight.
  • Breadth of elbow best for measuring frame size
    can use calipers or estimate using metric ruler.
    Need to place thumb and index finger on outside
    of each epicondyle and measure distance between
    them with ruler. (Procedure completed in class)
  • Percent ideal weight Current weight
    reference weight x 100
  • Current weight

19
Ideal weight cont.
  • Example 175 is weight
  • 140 is reference weight
  • 175 -140 20 above reference weight
  • 175

20
Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • BMI Weight (kg)
  • Height (m2)
  • Also BMI Body wt in pounds X 705
  • (Height in inches)2
  • BMI uses total body weight, not estimates of fat
    and lean mass.
  • See Method A in Appendix D for sample calculation

21
How to interpret BMI -See Federal obesity
guidelines National Institutes of Health pub
98-4083)
  • Underweight BMI lt 18.5
  • Normal 18.5-24.9
  • Overweight BMI gt 25-29.9
  • Obesity BMI gt 30
  • Obesity
  • Level I 30-34.9
  • Level II 35-39.9
  • Level III gt 40

22
Federal obesity guidelines, cont.
  • Anyone gt age 18 with BMI gt 25 is at risk
  • Treatment is recommended in overweight or obese
    individuals with 2 or more risk factors (table
    10.3).

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25
Other considerations
  • Fat free mass body weight (kg) fat weight
    (kg)
  • Fat weight in kg
  • Body weight (kg) x percent fat
  • 100
  • Total body water almost all of bodys water is
    in fat-free mass.
  • Essential (meaning the minimum) fat for women
    is 12 and for men 3-4

26
Percent body fat ranges
  • Minimal levels of total fat for health
  • a. 5-10 percent for males
  • b. 15-18 percent for females
  • Average levels
  • a. 15-18 percent for males
  • b. 22-25 percent for females
  • Obesity levels
  • a. 25 percent for males
  • b. 30 percent for females

27
How body normally controls its own weight
  • Appetite regulation/Physiological factors
  • 1. Hypothalamus in brain (appestat controls
    hunger and satiety)
  • 2. Feedback from neural centers outside brain
    (sight, smell, appetite)
  • 3. Metabolism, stomach fullness, blood glucose
    level, body temp (as it rises, appetite
    decreases)
  • 4. Hormone actions (insulin, thyroxine, leptin)

28
Resting energy expenditure (REE) changes may be
involved in regulation of body weight
  • Brown fat releases E without ATP production. In
    rats, ? levels of brown fat ? ? obesity
  • White fat tissue and muscle tissue thermogenesis
    without ATP production associated with high
    caloric intake, especially dietary fat.
  • Hormones
  • A. Thyroid hormones may be involved in
    stimulation of brown fat
  • B. Epinephrine increases energy expenditure
  • C. Decrease in hormonal activity may depress
    energy metabolism

29
Leptin and energy expenditure
  • Leptin protein made by fat cells
  • Obesity gene (ob) is expressed in the fat cells
    and codes for leptin (a protein produced by fat
    cells under direction of ob gene ? associated
    with ? appetite and ? E expenditure)
  • Leptin appears to promote negative balance by ?
    appetite, and ? E expenditure
  • Deficient "ob gene" (expressed in fat cells and
    code for leptin) ? obesity
  • Leptin activity ? efficiency in obese people 

30
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31
Feedback control of energy intake and expenditure
  • Short-term feedback
  • a. Stomach expansion
  • b. Body stores of carbohydrates, proteins, and
    fat regulated on short-term basis
  • Long-term, set point theory
  • a. Hypothalamus contains redundant systems to
    regulate energy balance
  • b. Activity-stat may function to increase or
    decrease physical activity
  • c. Theory may explain why many people maintain
    normal weight throughout life

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33
Other factors causing obesity
  • Genetics
  • 1. Obesity genes may maintain an unhealthy
    set-point
  • 2. A predisposition to craving sweet, high-fat
    foods
  • 3. Impaired hormonal functions (e.g. Insulin
    and blood sugar control)
  • 4. A lower REE
  • 5. A decreased TEF

34
Genetic factors, cont.
  • Inability of nutrients or hormones in blood to
    suppress appetite control center (?)
  • Enhanced metabolic efficiency in storing fat?
  • A greater number of fat cells
  • Low rates of fat oxidation, low plasma leptin
    concentrations
  • Decreased levels of human growth hormone
  • Lower levels of spontaneous physical activity
    during the day
  • Lower levels of energy expenditure during light
    exercise

35
Environmental factors
  • Excess Calories, particularly dietary fat
  • A chronic high-fat diet leads to leptin
    resistance in hypothalamus, physiological changes
    in body
  • Physical inactivity
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Smoking cessation

36
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37
How is fat deposited in body
  • Early theories on fat deposition
  • a. Hyperplasia
  • b. Hypertrophy
  • Fat cell numbers may continue to increase as
    long as excess energy intake occurs
  • Genetic predisposition to inherit gt number of
    fat cells, facilitating development of obesity
  • Individuals without this genetic predisposition
    may still become obese with positive energy
    balance stored as fat

38
Health conditions associated with excess body fat
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD)
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Obesity does not increase mortality unless it
    adversely effects several factors
  • a. Blood pressure
  • b. Glucose tolerance
  • c. Serum cholesterol levels
  • d. Physical fitness

39
Location of body fat appears to be more important
than overall obesity
  • Android-type obesity (apple shaped)
  • Greater health risk than obesity itself
  • a. Hyperinsulinemia
  • b. Insulin resistance
  • c. Impaired glucose tolerance
  • d. Hypertriglyceridemia
  • e. Increased LDL and decreased HDL
    cholesterol
  • f. More common in males

40
Location of body fat, cont.
  • Gynoid-type obesity (pear shaped)
  • 1. Health risks are not as great
  • 2. More resistant to change (fat is not as
    readily mobilized from hips and buttocks as it
    is from abdomen)
  • Both android and gynoid obesity are assessed by
    measuring waist circumference

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42
Health risks in youth
  • Obese adolescents greater risk for chronic
    diseases in adulthood
  • Obesity contributes more greatly to
    social-emotional problems at this time than
    during adulthood
  • Psychological problems
  • Rejection
  • Negative self-image
  • Low self-esteem
  • Another contributing factor to development of
    psychological problems may be adverse effect of
    excessive body fat on physical fitness and
    athletic performance

43
Treatment and prevention of health risks
  • 30 of adult population are carrying too much
    body fat for optimal health
  • 25 percent of adolescents and children in U.S.
    are carrying too much body fat for optimal health
  • Prevalence of overweight is increasing
  • Treatment of obesity helps reduce risk factors
    associated with chronic diseases
  • Exercise is particularly important
  • Prevention is key

44
Health problems result from excessive weight loss
  • Dangerous techniques used to achieve rapid weight
    loss (NOT recommended)
  • Starvation
  • Self-induced vomiting
  • The use of diet pills
  • The use of laxatives and/or diuretics

45
General effects of excessive rapid and long-term
weight losses on health
  • Dehydration techniques problems
  • 1. Heat illnesses
  • 2. Increased loss of potassium from body
  • a. Electrolyte imbalances
  • b. Disturbed neurological function
  • c. Possible cardiac arrest
  • 3. Disturbed kidney function

46
Weight loss drugs FDA recommends only short term
use combined with sound stress management and
diet program
47
Weight loss drugs various effects
  • Appetite suppressants
  • Increase energy expenditure
  • Block intestinal absorption of dietary fat
  • NOTE Lost weight is regained upon cessation of
    drug use if life-style is not changed
  • Adverse side effects of long-term drug use
  • (a) Tremor
  • (b) Seizures
  • (c) Psychoses
  • (d) Heart arrhythmias
  • (e) Pulmonary hypertension
  • (f) Habituation
  • (g) Addiction
  • (h) Death

48
Complications VLCD
  • May lead to a decreased TEF
  • May decrease REE
  • May lead to weight cycling
  • Not satisfying
  • Seldom result in any long-term weight loss

49
Health problems severe weight restriction over
long time period with children
  • Studies on adolescent female gymnasts and
    swimmers showed that growth velocity of gymnasts
    was lower than the swimmers
  • Theorized that growth rate was impaired by two
    factors
  • a. Heavy training
  • b. Metabolic effects of dieting

50
Eating disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa diagnostic criteria
  • 1. Refusal to maintain body weight over a
    minimal normal weight for age and height
  • 2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming
    fat, even though underweight
  • 3. Disturbance in the way one's weight or shape
    is perceived
  • 4. Amenorrhea in females
  • Typically found in women lt age 25

51
Medical consequences Anorexia
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Anemia
  • Decreased heart muscle mass
  • Heart beat arrhythmias attributed to electrolyte
    imbalances
  • Death

52
Bulimia nervosa diagnostic criteria
  • Recurrent episodes of binge eating, at least 2
    per week for 3 months
  • Lack of control over eating during binge
  • Regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxatives,
    diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise to
    control body weight
  • Persistent concern with body weight and body
    shape
  • NOTE Bulimia is more common than anorexia

53
Adverse health effects of bulimia
  • Erosion of tooth enamel (from acidity of stomach
    acid that is regurgitated during vomiting)
  • Tears in the esophagus
  • Aspiration pneumonia (inappropriate passage of
    food, water, stomach acid, or vomit into the
    lungs resulting in pneumonia)
  • Heart failure (low potassium)
  • NOTE Prevalence of eating disorders in general
    population is only 1-3, but number of people who
    experience eating problems without meeting strict
    criteria is much higher

54
Eating problems associated with sports
  • Loss of excess body weight may cause drop in
    weight class, improve appearance and/or
    biomechanics, and enhance potential for success
    in some sports
  • a. Wrestling
  • b. Gymnastics
  • c. Ballet
  • d. Figure skating
  • e. Diving
  • f. Distance running
  • g. Lightweight football
  • h. Lightweight rowing

55
Anorexia athletica, criteria
  • Excessive fear of becoming obese
  • Restriction of caloric intake
  • Weight loss
  • No explaining medical disorder
  • Gastrointestinal complaints
  • PLUS one or more of these related criteria
  • (a) Disturbed body image
  • (b) Compulsive exercising
  • (c) Binge eating
  • (d) Use of purging methods
  • (e) Delayed puberty
  • (f) In women menstrual dysfunction

56
Anorexia athletica, cont.
  • 20-40 female athletes may exhibit criteria for
    this disorder
  • 50-74 have been reported for
  • (1) Gymnastics
  • (2) Distance running
  • (3) Competitive bodybuilding
  • What begins on short-term basis may develop into
    long-term medical problems

57
Female athlete triad
Source http//www.hkeducationcenter.com/courses/O
EC_Previews/hf-ft303_preview/images/fig_03.gif
58
Problems associated with female athlete triad
  • Athletic amenorrhea related to excessive loss of
    body fat
  • Decreased fat levels ? decreased estrogen
    production ? impaired bone tissue formation ?
    loss of bone mass
  • Exercise does not appear to counteract adverse
    effects associated with decreased estrogen levels
    in athletic amenorrhea
  • Amenorrheic athletes more prone to
    musculoskeletal injuries
  • Resting metabolic rate may be reduced

59
Treatment of athletic amenorrhea
  • Exercise somewhat less
  • Increase calories and amounts of animal protein
  • Increase protein and calcium from milk and other
    dairy products
  • Nutritional supplements may be used to improve
    energy balance and nutritional status
  • Prevention of eating disorders is key

60
What effect does excess body weight have on
physical performance?
  • Extra body weight might prove to be an advantage
    in some sports
  • Football
  • Ice hockey
  • Sumo wrestling
  • NOTE Increases in body weight for sports
    competition should maximize muscle mass and
    minimize body-fat gains

61
Sports for which excess body weight may be
disadvantageous
  • High jump
  • Long jump
  • Ballet
  • Gymnastics
  • Sprinting
  • Long-distance running

62
General guidelines, body fat for sports
performance
  • 5-10 body fat
  • Male sprinter
  • Long-distance runners
  • Wrestlers
  • Gymnasts
  • Basketball players
  • Soccer players
  • Swimmers
  • Bodybuilders
  • Football backs
  • 11-15 body fat
  • Baseball players
  • Football linemen
  • Tennis player
  • Weight lifters

lt 15gymnasts and distance runners 15-20 most
female athletes 25 strength-type athletes
63
Excess weight loss ? physical performance
  • Ultimate effect upon performance dependent upon
    technique used and time over which weight is lost
  • Events characterized by power, strength, and
    speed may not be adversely affected by short-term
    dehydration but will be by longer term
  • Aerobic and anaerobic endurance events are likely
    to deteriorate
  • Short-term starvation involving rapid weight loss
    impairs physical performance if blood-glucose and
    muscle-glycogen levels are lowered substantially
  • Anaerobic and aerobic endurance performance will
    suffer if dependent upon muscle glycogen or
    normal blood-glucose levels
  • Long-term semi-starvation leads to significant
    losses of lean muscle tissue and decreased
    performance in almost all fitness components
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