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AJJ Fall Meeting November 2, 2002 Sophia University Ichigaya Campus

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Title: AJJ Fall Meeting November 2, 2002 Sophia University Ichigaya Campus


1
AJJ Fall MeetingNovember 2, 2002Sophia
UniversityIchigaya Campus
  • Session 1B Global Encounters

2
Hail Japan's Conquering Heroes
3
sports reports
  • and the discourse of national efficacy

4
Todd Joseph Miles Holden
Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
(GSICS)Tohoku UniversitySendai, Japan
http//lark.langc.tohoku.ac.jp/holden/Presentatio
ns/AJJ-02
5
I. Introduction Sports, Globalization, and the
Discourse of National Efficacy
6
Aim for Shinjo
  • Peter Tasker is a British commentator who has
    lived and worked in Japan. He has penned a couple
    of books about the politics and economics of the
    country.

7
Aim for Shinjo
  • After discussing
  • the possible rebirth of Japanese nationalism,
  • The populist stylings of Prime Minister Koizmi,
  • The problems inherent in an elite model of
    technocratic leadership,
  • The frustrated pathways for youth and women
    workers

8
Aim for Shinjo
  • The host displayed Taskers message to Japans
    citizens
  • It read the kind of spirit needed to open the
    country

9
Aim for Shinjo?
  • Host What do you mean by that?
  • Tasker I mean, the top-level players like
    (baseballs) Ichiro or (soccers) Nakata, for
    example, go overseas and achieve big results
  • but even players who cannot excel to that level
    but can reach their potential and achieve a
    result at that (lesser) level thats the kind
    of role model (Japan needs now).

10
Role Models and Challenges
  • Female announcer You are not seeing that in
    Japanese today?
  • Tasker Right. Not that degree of challenge
  • From the international forum we see a good
    trend. (But) there is a wall between the outside
    world and Japan that must be overcome (in order
    for Japan to prosper).

11
During this interchange the host jokedLets
not make a mistake you dont mean the Shinjo
city in the state of Niigata
The joke being that Niigata is one of Japans
less progressive areas, home to rural farm
interests. Niigata was home to Prime Minister
Tanaka, one of the more powerful politicians in
the Post-War era. It is because of him and the
conservative policies of his Liberal Democratic
Party, in power for 5 decades of nearly
continuous reign, have led Japan into its
current lethargy
12
To some, not very funny
  • At the close of the show, the host apologized for
    having joked about Niigata in that way.

13
International Sports / the Global and the Local
  • In this vignette we encounter discourse about
  • internationalism,
  • domestic economic policy,
  • spiritual renewal,
  • the engineering of success, and
  • global versus local

14
International Sports / the Media
  • Most importantly, we see how Japans sports
    exports players like Ichiro, Nakata and Shinjo
    have become essential text in mainstream media

They are Sports Exports who become Media (or
Information) Imports
15
Media and The Discourse of National Efficacy
  • They are part of the public conversation about
    things other than sports
  • Things such as will, ability, achievement
  • They serve as signifiers for what Japan can be,
    as opposed to how it normally is
  • They tell viewers about a Japan that is potent
    and efficacious

16
A Telling Example,A Research Thesis
  • This vignette is far from uncommon
  • In fact, one thesis of this research is that the
    outflow of cultural goods in the form of sports
    stars over the past decade (but moreso in the
    past 2 years) has had profound, but relatively
    invisible effects in Japanese society

17
Consider France?
  • But it is not just Sports stars.
  • It is all things sport that somehow pertain to
    Japan.
  • For instance news about this guy

18
Who is that man?
  • The recently departed head coach of the Japanese
    national squad

Here exchaging a few words to Prime Minister
Koizumi before bidding adieu to Japan
19
  • For the two weeks he was negotiating to become
    the head of the French National soccer team his
    name was in the Japanese press more than this guy

20
Sports more significant than world politics?
  • When this would-be assassin pulled a rifle out of
    a guitar case and fired a shot at French
    President Jacques Chirac, it was news for 30
    seconds on one day in Japan.
  • Moreover, it was the rare time that France ever
    appears in national television news in Japan

21
II. Terms
22
Term 1 Globalization
  • One aspect of the Export / Import phenomenon,
    clearly, is globalization
  • But what is globalization?

23
An Early Conception Wallerstein and World System
Analysis
  • Capitalism the economic rather than the
    political has been the fundamental global
    influence
  • It has been the most adept at enabling the
    penetration of goods, values and practices
  • It has been the least resistant to the
    integration of these elements into local contexts

24
Giddens 4 Dimensions of Globalization
  • Nation-state system

World capitalist economy
World military order
International division of labor
25
Eades on GlobalizationGlobalization and Social
Change in Contemporary Japan (with Tom Gill and
Harumi Befu, 2000)
  • Invokes Castells, who sees the world economy
    through the aegis of multinational companies --
    speeding up the flow of capital (and,
    consequently, labor) both within and across
    international boundaries
  • Adds a cultural dimension
  • globalisation is "the global diffusion and
    'creolization' of cultural forms and meanings,
    manifested in phenomena such as the
    'McDonalidization' of eating habits, the
    proliferation of theme parks, or the popularity
    of international brand name goods.

26
Appadurai On Globalization
  • Of all the formal theories of globalization, the
    most widely cited is Appadurais (1990).
  • In his conception, globalization was about the
    push-pull between
  • cultural homogenization
  • cultural heterogenization

27
Appadurai Applied
  • As we consider in conclusion, the Sport Export /
    Media Import phenomenon engages Appadurais
    categories in almost every contemplated way

28
Sports and globalization
  • For now we can observe that numerous changes have
    prepared the foundation for sport export / media
    import (globally). Among these
  • the advent of professional sport leagues
  • the proliferation of electronic forms of
    communication
  • the steady accretion of leisure-time
  • the concomitant ascent of sport as a fixture in
    many national cultures
  • The lessening difficulty of international travel
  • The increased connection between local clubs and
    foreign-based media markets
  • The rise of a global pool of athletes

29
Term 2 Sports Imports
  • Sports imports have long served as a potentially
    powerful globalizing force
  • One of a small list of external infuences that
    are allowed to enter a relatively hermetic Japan
  • Now, however, we are in the throes of a different
    phenomenon
  • A reverse process of cultural flow

30
Term 3Sports Exports
  • This flow can be called Sports Exports

Now we are in the throes of a diaspora of
Japanese athletes, competing in foreign markets,
participating in professional leagues from
America to England, Holland to Italy.
31
Term 4Information Imports
Stories of these human exports exploits and
information about the worlds they venture out
into, is re-imported by news and entertainment
media.
32
Information Importsare Media Re / Imports
  • And due in large part to the media, these exports
    have served a powerful transformative function
    in Japanese society influencing attitudes and
    behaviors about self and society

33
III. Theses
34
Thesis 1 Sports Imports are part of the
Discourse of Self
  • This importation transpires ONLY because it
    touches and concerns Japan, its information
    consumers and their interests.
  • However, once imported, this information takes
    the form of valuable knowledge.
  • It carries a potent moralizing and socializing
    function
  • In a word, it is socially productive

35
An Example
  • Hidetoshi Nakata was Japans first
    high-visibility soccer export.
  • Not the first to venture out, but the first to
    project confidence
  • Brash, by Japanese standards
  • Possibly even arrogant

36
Hide Individualist
  • Hide as Nakata is called was one of Japans
    so-called new, new human beings.
  • He thought and acted for himself
  • He didnt defer, he didnt apologize, he said
    little, but when he did he was outspoken
  • Advertisers soon moved to use this image as a
    signification for their unique or bold products

37
Hide Signifier
  • And so, Hide was presented in a copier ad in a
    vaulted, Baroque European chamber full of chairs
  • Each chair was different some ornate, others
    austere, heavy, delicate, antique, modern.
  • Hide is depicted considering each chair
    carefully sitting in each, feeling the fit,
    choosing which he wishes to be seated in
  • Hide becomes a signifier for a company, but also
    for a different kind of Japanese, a different
    kind of Japan

38
Thesis 2 Sports Exports Become Information
Imports
  • The examples we have seen or will see
  • Tasker/Shinjo
  • Troussier/Chirac
  • Hide/Individualist
  • Ono/persistence
  • All exemplify how individual lived text becomes
    part of the public discourse
  • through media

39
Thesis 3 Cultural Production is linked to
Societal Transformation
  • Re-Importation works to communicate numerous
    things to Japanese. Not the least of which is
  • Their identity
  • Their possibilities
  • The status of their country in the world of
    nations
  • The thoughts and behaviors of others beyond
    Japans borders

40
Thesis 4 Media Plays a Central Role
  • It is because of the media that this
    transformation is transpiring
  • Without the importation of information about
    these cultural exports, everyday Japanese and
    the life that they live here would not be much
    affected
  • The transformation is via TV
  • News, advertising, game and quiz shows primarily
  • (but also newspapers and magazines)
  • The content centers on
  • the players travels and daily exploits,
  • the sights, sounds, values and behaviors of the
    places in which they are plying their trade
  • But for the active hand of the media the lessons
    learned (or interpreted or invented) would not
    strike the information consumer back home

41
Thesis 5 Sports Imports are Information Imports
  • Clearly, sports provides more opportunities to
    learn about the world than via cultural exports
    (and many other imports).

42
An Example
  • In the recently completed World Cup, Japan
    encountered large segments of the world that it
    normally never thinks about.
  • Some of this was due to its role as host
  • But the rest of it simply was because Japanese
    media was passing national experience through the
    filter of sport

43
Through Sports Information Imports learning
about the Other
  • Thus, cities that played host to the
    participating nations set up
  • Special language courses for their citizens,
  • Food and cultural fairs,
  • Sponsored web pages that introduced the history
    and cultures of the nation they were hosting
  • Introduced the foods of the visitors into the
    school lunches of the children

44
Thesis 6
  • Sports Exports / Media Imports are a major
    component of Japans contemporary globalization

45
IV. Media Role
46
The Media Filtering the Imports
  • In communicating information about the imports,
    news and entertainment media play an essential
    role
  • They educate Japanese about the thoughts and
    practices of the various nations participating,
    for example, in the world cup
  • Same with the traditions of Wimbledon or the
    British Open

47
Sports-Inspired Discourse Entertainment
  • For example, consider the popular Wonders of the
    World quiz show, aired on Saturday nights at
    900 p.m.
  • The shows format is to explore a particular
    country, explain various aspects of its history
    and culture, then raise obscure riddles. Based on
    these descriptions six celebrity panelists seek
    to solve the puzzles.
  • Just before the World Cup, Belgium one of the
    teams in Japans preliminary round group was
    presented.
  • What wonders were presented? What riddles to
    solve? After showing some preferred foods (like
    waffles and parfaits) that Belgians like to eat,
    the question was asked with what topping do the
    Belgians eat french fries? The answer
    mayonnaise. And television viewers in Japan
    suddenly knew that much more about Belgian
    culture.

48
Sports-Inspired Discourse News
  • Such Infotainment shows are pervasive on
    Japanese TV today.
  • And it has become the dominant mode of discourse
    in news, as well.
  • With sports content as one of the core thematic
    areas.
  • Consider the following example, again just prior
    to the World Cup

49
Sports-driven Infotainment
  • One of the news stations (set to broadcast a few
    of the matches) sent their anchor to Tunisia
  • Why Tunisia? Because, like Belgium, it was
    another team in Japans preliminary group.
  • The anchor
  • Interviewed the people of the country,
  • Explained Tunisias history,
  • Visited important sites,
  • Ate their food and drank their coffee
  • Need it be mentioned that under normal
    circumstances, Tunisia is never on Japanese
    television, never in the news.

50
V. Japan, Globalization and Sport
51
Japan and globalization
  • In trying to understand Japans relationship to
    globalization, some precursor work exists.
  • Most notably

52
Befu on Globalization
  • Befu has argued that there are 3 distinct periods
    to Japans globalization
  • pre-Tokugawa
  • mid-19th century through 1945
  • the period following the Pacific War
  • He terms this Nikkei
  • Defined as those who moved away from Japan and
    resided or reside outside Japan and their
    descendants
  • Nikkei in the Context of Globalizing Japan
  • -- http//www.janm.org/inrp/english/sc_befu.htm

53
Period 1 Pre-Tokugawa
  • From the 15th century to 17th centuries Japanese
    patrolled the coasts of China and Southeast Asia
  • as pirates and merchants
  • establishing "Japan towns" abroad
  • This era came to end by governmental fiat

54
Period 2 Mid-19th Century to WWII
  • This era was marked by Japanese emigration by the
    millions to
  • Hawaii
  • North and South America
  • East and Southeast Asia
  • Oceania
  • This period of diaspora was brought to a close
    with the conclusion of the Pacific War in 1945

55
Period 3 Post-War Diaspora
  • The third period started soon after the end of
    the war and continues to the present
  • According to Befu, it is characterized by 8
    distinct categories of diaspora

56
8 Diasporic Types
57
Alternative Conceptualizations
  • The categories above quite accurately reflect
    Japans diaspora until the contemporary moment of
    cultural exchange involving, above all, sports
    and entertainment
  • Could the historical data be coded in other ways?
  • Inward Flow (Import) v. Outward Flow (Export)
  • The dimensions military, economic, political,
    social and cultural

58
Globalization and Japan Outflow (historically)
  • Athletes were not Japans first globalizers
  • First were the diplomats who went to China in the
    early 3rd century
  • Next were the militarizers who went to what is
    now the Korean peninsula in the late 4th century
  • More diplomacy followed with missions to China
    in the 7th century and finally to Europe in 1613
  • And then the militarists had their day they
    fought with China in 1894 and Russia in 1904.
    They then moved to occupied China in the 1920s
  • Following the generalized Asian expansion that
    preceded the Pacific War, the next bout with
    outward-reach was in the mass-production
    export-driven era, running from the mid 1950s to
    mid-1980s.

59
Globalization and Japan Inflow (historically)
  • Inflow has been more extensive
  • Buddhism came in the 6th century
  • The gun and then Christianity in the middle of
    the 16th century
  • Business from Holland came in the early 17th
    century and Russia in the later stages of the
    17th century
  • The forced opening of Japan by the United States
    transpired in the mid-19th century
  • Once again, the enforced reconstruction by the
    United States following armed conflict between
    the nations

60
Athletics An alternative way of coding
globalization
  • Viewed as a swinging door
  • Post-war inward flow (sports imports)
  • Recent outward flow (sports exports)
  • Viewed in stages
  • From tentative trickle
  • To steady flow

61
Athletic Globalization I at first a tentative
trickling
  • Stockholm Olympics 1912
  • Davis Cup 1921
  • Wimbledon 1934
  • Professional baseball 1914 1915
  • Mikami Goro, a graduate student, was the first
    pro baseballer in the U.S.
  • He played on a multiracial team in the (now
    defunct) Federal League.
  • Pro-baseball redux 1964 1965
  • Murakami Masanori, was sent to the San Francisco
    Giants by his parent club for seasoning
  • He pitched 54 games.

62
Athletic Globalization II now a steadily
accreting stream
  • Number of Japanese currently on MLB rosters 15
  • 1995 1
  • 2000 7
  • 2002 15
  • Number of Japanese currently on European soccer
    rosters 7
  • 1995 0
  • 2000 1
  • 2001 4
  • 2002 7

63
The Nomo Experiment
  • It was not until the mid-1990s that the real
    cultural outflow of athletes began
  • After pitching for 6 years in Japan, Hideo Nomo
    exploited a loophole in Japanese baseball rules
    retirees are free to resign with whomever they
    chose
  • Nomo promptly quit and was signed by the Los
    Angeles Dodgers
  • He was excoriated by the press and scorned by
    the public, but when he started winning games,
    all Japan became his fan club
  • His games were transmitted live via satellite.
  • Nomo Tours were arranged for Japanese to fly
    into LA, catch a Nomo game and perhaps visit
    Disneyland and Universal Studios
  • In 1995, Nomo was voted the National League
    Rookie of the Year
  • In 1996, he pitched a no-hitter against the
    Colorado Rockies.
  • His three year record with the Dodgers 43 wins,
    29 losses 703 strike-outs 627 innings.

64
The Ends of Nomo-ism
  • With many of Japans best players jumping to the
    States, interest in the Japanese game is on the
    decline.
  • Telecasts from the U.S. are now a daily even
    twice a day -- occurrence
  • The Mariners with Ichiro, Sasaki and Hasegawa
  • The Dodgers with Nomo and Ishii, and
  • The Giants with Shinjo
  • As a consequence, Japanese pro TV ratings are
    down
  • MLB Sports merchandise seems more trendy and
    popular than Japanese team goods
  • Many worry that Japan will become merely a minor
    league whose role is to season players before
    they jump to the U.S.

65
VI. Measuring Impacts
66
Most Popular Sports
Source Yomiuri Shimbun, February 2002 Sample
3,000 Japanese aged 20 or older
67
A Media Effect?
  • Japanese professional baseball was the number-one
    choice of fans for the eighth year in a row
  • So what is all this noise about media, sport and
    globalization?
  • It turns out that Major League Baseball was up
    six percentage points over the previous year
  • Moreover, it cracked the top ten for the first
    time ever.
  • It is likely the result of Ichiro, Shinjo and
    Sasaki, taking the Export Challenge (and the
    media choosing to focus on it)

68
More on the Media Effect
  • The likely power of media in shaping public
    consciousness and tastes comes through in the
    next survey question.
  • There, we see that Ichiro topped all Japanese
    athletes -- foreign-based or domestic by a
    whopping 2 to 1 margin
  • Moreover, 5 of the 10 listed athletes are playing
    in foreign leagues
  • Two other athletes a marathoner and a speed
    skater -- compete in foreign locations against
    international fields
  • Only 3 are based primarily in Japan. All 3 play
    for the Japanese cultural icon, the Yomiuri
    Giants baseball team

69
Most Popular Players
70
Interest in Japanese Players Overseas
  • 71 of all respondents indicated that they were
    "very interested" or "somewhat interested" in the
    exploits of Japanese players in the U.S.
  • Over 70 of respondents between age 20 and 50
    answered this way
  • 80 of those in their thirties
  • By profession
  • 88 of managers and professionals
  • 80 of students

71
VII. A Time-Out About Gender
72
A Time-out About Gender
  • Of the Top ten athletes in the poll, only one is
    a woman.
  • Naoko Takahashi, the Olympic Champion marathoner
    and one-time World Record holder
  • Sports news is not impervious to female athletes
    in a global context
  • Tennis players Kimiko Date (now retired) and Ai
    Sugiyama, as well a golfers a couple of
    professional golfers receive regular media
    attention.
  • However, whether due to uneven success, lack of
    widespread sport popularity or gender bias, these
    women are not fixtures in news and entertainment
    shows

73
A Time-out About Gender
  • Meaning that, as with many things in media (and
    life), there is an invisible gendering at work in
    media activity
  • here vis-à-vis sport/exports

74
VIII. How Advertising Treats Sport Exports
75
Moral 1 An Adventurous Japan
  • In an ad for a digital camera, Hide Nakata is
    pictured traveling in the savannah of Africa,
    snapping digital pictures which he posts on his
    own website
  • Here a signifier of a Japan/ese bold enough to
    venture forth to alien climes and thrive

76
Moral 2 An Admired Japan
  • In another ad, again for copiers, an Italian
    pre-teen practices overhead kicks with a color
    picture of Hide attached to his face.
  • To the ad world, Hide is not only capable of
    serving as Taskers role model for Japanese
    viewers, but to a foreign population, as well

77
Moral 3 A Can-do Japan
  • Even more successful than Nakata has been Shinji
    Ono. While Hides Roma won the Serie A
    Championship, they did so with Hide coming off
    the bench.
  • Onos Feyenoord won the Holland League
    championship in Shinjis first year, with him
    serving as starter and midfield catalyst

78
Moral 4 No Barriers / Ultimate Success
  • And advertisers, again, were quick to take
    advantage. Consider this ad
  • Shopping in a supermarket in Holland, Ono lifts
    the soccer ball as he moves his carriage down the
    food aisles. The ball never touches the ground.
  • Now settled into his car (its a car ad), he
    notices a blond-haired, pre-teen girl in the
    parking lot trying to lift unsuccessfully. He
    calls out to her You just have to keep
    practicing dont give up!
  • For those familiar with Japanese soccer, this
    advice perfectly matches Onos personal soccer
    history

79
IX. How News Treats Sport Exports
80
A Representative Broadcast
  • To provide some idea about how the media does
    some of its work, lets consider one broadcast
    from April 2001.
  • While this was one broadcast on only one station,
    it is fairly typical of how the news media has
    reacted to sport export in the past couple of
    years
  • This treatment can be seen in soccer and golf,
    primarily, in addition to baseball

81
Broadcast Background
  • This particular broadcast occurred within the
    first two weeks of Ichiros and Shinjos initial
    seasons (2001)
  • For Sasaki it was year two
  • For Nomo, year six

82
The Tease
  • The Sports Segment begins with the close of the
    previous segment
  • the veteran anchors perspective corner.
  • Upon his close, the Sports anchor, a woman, comes
    in with the frame for the upcoming sportscast

83
The Tease I
  • This particular tease begins with a sequence of
    Ichiro collecting a hit and righting his body for
    a throw

84
The Tease II
  • Cut to a shot of Nomo receiving some kind of
    object in an official-looking ceremony

85
The Lead-in
  • After commercial there is some introductory
    comments by the Anchor.
  • He comments that this was the first game that
    Ichiro didnt start this season
  • His tone is one of surprise
  • This serves to provide the frame for the story to
    follow

86
The Mariners Story
  • A pre-recorded voice-over by a male narrator
    begins
  • To the title Ichiro Bench Start the reports
    begins in the 8th inning with Ichiro entering to
    pinch hit

87
The Mariners Story
  • Ichiro singles and the crowd is shown celebrating
    (with signs in Japanese reading hit-it, Ichiro)

88
The Mariners Story
  • Ichiro eventually scores, then goes on to make a
    perfect throw to third base to cut down a runner.
    A final shot displays his days output and his
    gaudy batting average.

89
The Mariners Story
  • This recap finishes by showing Sasaki on the
    mound, ending the game with a strikeout.
  • His line is posted 1 inning, no hits, one
    strikeout, no runs
  • along with his 5th save and the final score.

90
The Mariners Story
  • In a final scene Sasaki and Ichiro are pictured
    exchanging congratulatory words.

91
Shinjos story
92
Shinjos Story
  • After detailing each (all unsuccessful) at-bats,
    Shinjos average (in the mid-.300s) is displayed.
  • The implicit question asked of Shinjo was whether
    this one pitcher (a Cy Yound award winner, Greg
    Maddox) was simply too good

93
Shinjos response
  • Were both the same Major Leaguers (therefore)
    next time, absolutely (Ill get a hit)

94
Nomos story
  • Finally, there is a story about Hideo Nomo
    receiving an award for pitching a no-run, no-hit
    game

95
Nomos story
  • After showing images of his two No-hitters, it is
    observed that Nomo is only one of four players to
    have pitched No-hitters in both baseball leagues
    in America

96
Nomos story
  • He is then depicted receiving the baseball
    rubber on the pitchers mound the day he
    pitched the no-hit game.

97
Nomos story
  • In a final exchange the anchor jokes with the
    sports caster I didnt realize that that actual
    thing could be considered as an award
  • (as in what a strange practice they have over
    there)

98
Next UpThe Japanese Game
  • The foreign players coverage complete, the news
    program now turns its attention to the domestic
    game.
  • Not unlike the American highlights, there is a
    tease for the Japanese action, prior to breaking
    for commercial.

Here, the tease centers on the premier star of
Japanese baseball Godzilla Matsui
99
The Japanese Game The Broadcast
  • But when it comes time to air the domestic game
    highlights, a very different approach the
    systematic unfolding of the game as a storyline

100
X. Analysis
101
Key Findings
1. Prioritization Global over Local 2.
Prioritization Japanese over Foreign 3. Story
Structure Telling Global and Local Differently 4.
Ideational Subtext 5. Immediate Implications
Sayonara Gaijin Complex 6. Longer-Range
Implications Nationalism Redux?
102
1. Prioritization Global over Local
  • In this news station (and numerous others) a main
    segment of sports reportage concerns Sports
    Exports
  • They are generally featured first or else
    spotlighted as a tease prior to commercial break.
  • They often are placed ahead of the domestic
    league games

103
2. Prioritization Local in the Global
  • At the same time, the only foreign action shown
    are those games in which Japanese players appear
  • News from foreign leagues only occasionally is
    presented
  • and then only highlights of foreign players if
    they have accomplished a major feat

104
Local in the Globalan example
  • In the recently completed World Series in
    America, the Anaheim Angels won the series in
    seven games.
  • However, the tease for the Japanese news
    broadcast that night was Shinjo swinging at a
    pitch.
  • After the ad, the news highlighting Shinjos 9th
    inning strikeout (and reminding us he was the
    first Japanese to play in the World Series).
  • The only interview segment was with Shinjo
  • Not the MVP of the series
  • Not the winning manager
  • Not even Shinjos star teammate, Barry Bonds

105
3. Prioritization Japanese over Foreign
  • Generally, the feats of foreign players will take
    a back seat to those of Japanese players, even if
    those achievements are out of the ordinary

106
Prioritization Japanese over Foreign an
example
  • For example, earlier this year a Dodger player
    hit 4 home runs in one game.
  • This tied a major league record only a handful
    of players have ever achieved this feat
  • Yet, the only reason it made the Japanese news
    was because Kazuhisa Ishii happened to be
    pitching for the Dodgers.
  • He was the frame around which the story was
    built.
  • His strike-outs and moments in peril were shown
    first.
  • As was his ultimate victory reported on.
  • Only then was it reported By the way, Ishiis
    teammate, Shawn Green, hit 4 home runs

107
4. Story Structure Telling Global and Local
Differently
  • A clear difference between news reports about
    Japanese and American games featuring Japanese
    players is the structure of the story.
  • In the U.S. games, the action is
    decontextualized each at-bat for the Japanse
    player is shown the game scoring, key plays and
    ultimate result are often neglected
  • That is, unless a Japanese player figures into
    the them
  • Japanese games, by contrast, are more
    traditional news stories
  • They are stories, told with heroes and villains,
  • Engaged in a systematic unfolding of linked
    action
  • There is context, drama and often a message

108
5. Ideational Subtext
  • The messages that Japanese media have taken from
    their sports exports is one of success out in the
    world of an ability to compete on an equal (if
    not greater) footing
  • In the newscast detailed above, we saw these
    themes in
  • Ichiros benching and subsequent heroics
  • Sasakis 5 saves in 7 seven games
  • Nomos award and discussion of his 2 no-hitters
  • Shinjos confidence in his ability to succeed

109
6. Immediate Implications Sayonara Gaijin
Complex
  • At a time when Japan is down, and there is so
    much to hold in disdain about Japanese society,
    one thing that is transpiring is this
  • Japans age-old gaijin complex is being put to
    rest by media reports of these sports-imports
  • Gaijin Complex is the term coined by
    Christopher (1984) to capture Japans
    centuries-old sense of inferiority vis-à-vis the
    west

110
7. Longer-Range Implications Nationalism Redux?
  • At mid-season the Dodgers Ishii faced Barry
    Bonds the third leading American home run
    hitter of all time, and struck him out twice
  • It not only made the headline of many of the
    daily sports newspapers
  • It was presented as part of the introduction to
    the nationally-televised variety show Akko ni
    omakase! hosted by Wada Akiko.

111
Nationalism Redux?
  • This is the kind that Stronach has referred to as
    cultural as opposed to political nationalism
  • The kind of nationalism McVeigh has labelled
    soft nationalism (2001)
  • This is a potentially dangerous force because, as
    McVeigh writes Nationalism is implicated in the
    mundane practices of everyday life, and like
    other hegemonic ideologies, it garners its
    strength from its invisibility.
  • And gains power because it is widely re/produced
    in and transmitted by media

112
XI. Concluding Theorizations
  • The View from the Sociology of Culture Raymond
    Williams
  • Social Re / Production Berger and Luckmann
  • 3. A Discourse on Identity Stuart Hall
  • 4. Globalization Harumi Befu, Arjun Appadurai,
    Anthony Giddens

113
1. The View from Sociology of Culture
  • Raymond Williams (198133-5)
  • Any adequate sociology of culture must be an
    historical sociology
  • It must recognize on the one hand, the variable
    relations between cultural producers and
    recognizable social institutions on the other
    hand, the variable relations in which cultural
    producers have been organized or have organized
    themselves, their formations.

114
Applying Williams
  • The phenomenon outlined on these pages is
    generated in the first instance by the flow of
    capital (in terms of salaries) from cultural
    producers in exchange for a cultural good
    (athletes) who both represent and finalize the
    end product.
  • However, in the second instance, this phenomenon
    is the result of the organization of cultural
    producers and their products
  • This comes in the form of news, entertainment and
    advertising media

115
2. Social Re / Production
  • Berger and Luckmann (1967) observed that an
    institutional world tends to present society
    members with an objectified external reality.
  • This objectivated social reality is
    internalized in the course of socialization or
    encounters with influential information sources,
    such as media.
  • If the messages are persistent or forceful
    enough, they then can work to reproduce that very
    same social reality.

116
TVs Social Reproduction Function
  • Television plays a major role in the
    internalization and reproduction (maintenance)
    processes
  • It contributes to, nurtures and replenishes a
    societal members cultural stock of knowledge
  • Ultimately it can be critical in attitude
    formation, as well as assisting in identity
    re/formation.

117
3. A discourse on Identity
  • Stuart Hall has written Precisely because
    identities are constructed within, not outside,
    discourse, we need to understand them as produced
    in specific historical and institutional sites
    within specific discursive formations and
    practices by specific enunciative strategies

118
Applying Hall
  • Sports Exports are transpiring in a specific
    historical moment
  • connected with cultural, social and economic
    imperatives both inside and outside Japan

119
Applying Hall
  • The Media are institutional sites which
  • 1. Operate within specific discursive formations
  • Often related (in critical media studies) to
    questions of economy and power
  • 2. Themselves serve as a discursive formation
  • Its routines serve to re/produce discourse about
    contemporary Japanese identity

120
4. Harumi BefuOn Japans Globalization
  • We explored Befus 3 periods in Japans
    experience with globalization
  • So, too his 8 categories of diaspora
  • I have argued that this phenomenon of sport
    export is a new form of diaspora and constitutes
    a distinct era of globalization, or stage in
    Japans globalization career

121
Applying Befu
  • First of all, the attention to stages reminds us
    that every country has its own global
    fingerprint
  • Every country has its own distinct global career
  • Thus, Japans career will look not much like
    other countrys
  • whether that is measured in terms of economy,
    polity, morality, social activity, or culture

122
Applying Befu
  • Secondly, this contemporary diasporic flow is
    having very direct, integrative effects back
    home
  • Rather than serving to fragment, this
    information-based return flow works to nurture
    and solidify national identity
  • In its two parts export and re/import we
    encounter a cohesive, binding phenomenon
  • Thanks in large part to media intervention

123
5. Giddens On Globalization
  • Among the earliest formal theorists of
    globalization was Giddens (1991).
  • In his conception of globalization he identified
    two dynamic sources which we can associate with
    Japans sports exports
  • The development of disembedding mechanisms
  • The reflexive appropriation of knowledge

124
a. The development of disembedding mechanisms
  • Such mechanisms lift out social activity from
    localized contexts, reorganizing social relations
    across large time-space distances
  • While Giddens did not have baseball or soccer in
    mind, the phenomenon we discuss here applies
  • The global flow of athletes, brings activities
    from other spaces into our immediate context,
    normally removed from our consciousness and
    everyday experience

125
b. The reflexive appropriation of knowledge
  • The production of systematic knowledge about
    social life becomes integral to system
    reproduction, rolling social life away from the
    fixities of tradition
  • This is apparent in the sample newscast, above,
    where the anchor offers comments that implicitly
    compare the American practice of resting key
    players during a long season with the Japanese
    practice of daily play and endurance despite
    fatigue and injury

126
b. The Reflexivities of Global Modernity
  • Specifically, he said because the Japanese
    players are playing key roles in the majors (now)
    we are coming to know the details of the major
    league (system). Now I understand that it is a
    long and hard season, therefore main personnel
    has to be rested.
  • Sportscaster yes it seems so like McGuire (was
    rested last year).
  • After the newscast the anchor said of Ichiro
    hes been working hard. I thought that he
    wouldnt play today and then he came out as a
    pinch hitter and he still played a key role.

127
6. AppaduraiOn Globalization
  • The push and pull between hetero- and
    homogenization creates disjunctures best
    assaying in terms of a set of scapes
  • Ethnoscapes
  • Technoscapes
  • Mediascapes
  • Financescapes
  • Ideoscapes

128
Appadurai Applied 1Ethnoscape
  • Sports players (and the media and fans who follow
    them) are part of the landscape of persons who
    constitute the shifting world in which we live
    tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles and
    guestworkers (Appadurai, 1990297).
  • These groups change the cultural landscape with
    the traditions they signify, the values they
    bring with them, the activities they influence
    elsewhere, or else transmit back home.

129
Appadurai Applied 2 Technoscape
  • Technology both mechanical and Informational,
    now moves at high speeds across various kinds of
    previosly impervious boundaries. (Appadurai,
    1990 299).
  • For instance, the technical capability of
    broadcasting games from America and Europe live,
    or to send taped highlights back overseas for
    nightly reportage are important features of the
    import dimension
  • They serve not to homogenize, but to extend local
    reach and integrate Japanese from afar into the
    indigenous domain

130
Appadurai Applied 3Financescape
  • This scape concerns the global flow of capital.
  • It involves currency markets, stock exchanges and
    also commodity speculation (this latter element
    is what sport exports are).
  • An example of how this speculation works is that
    when certain Japanese soccer players were first
    signed in England, it was alleged that a major
    reason was increased trade in goods sales of
    replica jerseys and team items which would find
    an avid market in Japan.
  • This hidden financial dimension of the sport
    export phenomenon would be assisted by the active
    domestic mediascape.

131
Appadurai Applied 4Mediascape
  • Mediascapes refer both to the distribution of
    the electronic capabilities tp produce and
    disseminate information (newspapers, magazines,
    television stations) and to the images of the
    world created by these media. (Appadurai,
    1990299)
  • This is the phenomenon at the heart of Media
    Re-Import (in TV news, in particular, but also
    Morning and Afternoon Wide Shows, newspapers
    and weekly magazines)

132
Appadurai Applied 4Mediascape
  • Mediascapes tend to be image-centered,
    narrative-based accounts of strips of reality
    (Appadurai, 1990ibid.)
  • Which we have seen in the treatment of Sports
    Exports by the news media
  • They engage complex sets of metaphors by which
    people live as they help to constitute
    narratives of the other (Appadurai,
    1990ibid.)
  • The entire discourse of national efficacy is
    lived through the metaphor of Japanese sport
    exports toiling (and succeeding) in foreign
    climes.

133
Appadurai Applied 5Ideoscape
  • Appadurai means here concatenations of images
    that are often directly political and frequently
    have to do with the ideologies of states
    (1990299).
  • However, the ideology that is transmitted by
    sport exports/media exports is the implicit
    nationalism that comes less from the state than
    from information producers operating ought of
    inbred national affection or unconscious bias
  • The brand of soft or cultural nationalism
    discussed above

134
X. Final Thoughts
135
Global and Local
Work like Appadurais turns our attention to the
local impacts of global phenomena. Japan is in
another new incarnation or period of --
globalization moment. It is a moment where
internationally staged activities have local
ramifications
136
Domestic Media,Global Content,Local Effects
In this moment -- whether intentionally or not
Japanese media appear to be serving as a filter,
conveying and centering these many episodes of
Japans global involvement. Stated more
strongly BECAUSE of media, this reflexive
process of globalized identity discourse is
transpiring
137
In the words of Shinjo
  • Whether this is a good thing or not is less
    clear.
  • But the local response seems perfectly consistent
    with other local responses throughout Japanese
    history the age-old questions of how Japan
    measures up with the world are still there.
  • The new twist on this historical discourse
    appears to be the resounding response were
    okay.
  • In the words of Shinjo were both the same
    major leaguers. (Ill get him) next time

138
In the Globalizing World of Sports Exports /
Media Imports
  • We will have many opportunities to test whether
    this is true
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