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Creating a New Nation


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Title: Creating a New Nation

Creating a New Nation
  • Unit 2

The last thing we heard about in the last unit
  • Was the French and Indian War
  • (The French and the Indians against the British)
  • Britain had now fought 4 wars in their recent
  • Wars cost A LOT of money and Britain was starting
    to run low on money

Also dont forget what colonies are for and
what mercantilism is
  • A group of emigrants or their descendants who
    settle in a distant territory - but remain
    subjects of - or closely associated with the
    mother country
  • System of economics in Europe during colonialism
    accumulating wealth, establishing colonies and a
    merchant marine, and developing industry to
    attain a favorable balance of trade.

So if England needs money why not get it
from the colonies?
  • England passed a series of laws, acts, and taxes.
  • All were designed to make money off the colonies
  • Some were also ways to try and keep control over
    the colonies

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We always look at the colonial side of taxation,
but on the British side
  • How did they feel about taxing the colonists?
  • They were part of the same country and English
    people had to pay taxes.
  • The colonies were getting English protections
  • The colonies got all the advantages of being part
    of the British Empire.

So. American colonists began to protest
  • Protests
  • Petitions
  • Boycotts
  • Raise a militia
  • (mob action)
  • Speeches
  • Letters
  • Groups united
  • against English actions

Out of all these protests, the first place where
there was any action was in Boston
  • In 1770 some youths and dockworkers started an
    argument in front of the customs house.
  • A fight broke out and the British soldiers began
  • 5 colonists were killed (including Crispus

The colonists called this The Boston Massacre
  • These people had given their lives for freedom
  • The colonists were outraged.
  • This was the event people pointed to as why the
    British should stay out of the colonists affairs.

Actually on the day of the Boston Massacre
  • The British repealed (did away with) the
    Townshend Acts (except the tea tax).
  • Colonists had been getting tea for decades, but
    would now have to pay taxes on it.
  • This bothered people, shippers, and merchants

Some colonists decided to protest the tea tax.
  • In South Carolina, colonists unloaded tea and let
    it rot on the docks.
  • In NYC and Philly, colonists blocked the ships
    from even coming into port.
  • And in Boston.

In Boston they had a tea party
  • A group of men disguised as Native Americans
    destroyed 342 chests of tea.
  • Colonists felt Britain might now see how angry
    they were about all the taxes.

Chapter 6 The Road to Revolution
  • Section 3 The Road to Lexington and Concord
  • Section 4 Declaring Independence

By 1774, the colonies had enough, and wanted to
  • Begin organizing troops just in case they
    needed them (they really didnt want to fight if
    they didnt absolutely have to).
  • Make one final push to get England to change its
    mind about how they were treating the colonies.

In 1775, the colonists (and a group called the
Sons of Liberty)
  • Heard the British were going to arrest some
    colonists and steal some of their supplies.
  • The British put two men in charge of keeping an
    eye on what these British were up to.

William Dawes and Paul Revere (10)
  • When the British started coming, the signal would
    be put in the Old North Churchs steeple
  • 1 lantern if the British were coming by land, 2
    lanterns if they were coming by sea)

When the British arrived, they rode through the
countryside on their
  • Midnight ride (13) telling everyone the
    British are coming, the British are coming

Paul Revere
Revere's later service during the Revolution was
unremarkable he was charged with cowardice and
insubordination and forced to resign after
participating in a failed effort to oust a
British force from a fort in Maine. (This
decision was overturned in a later court-martial
sought by Revere.) After the war, he resumed his
smithing business in Boston and in 1797 opened an
iron foundry, which became noted for its cast
church bells.
The next day, the British met up with the
colonial soldiers
  • At Lexington and Concord
  • (the first real fighting of the American

The two sides
  • Loyalists (20)
  • People who loyal to England and King George
  • Patriots (21)
  • People who wanted independence from England

Some other people
  • Militiamen (22) Anyone fighting for the
  • Minutemen (23) Colonial soldiers whod be ready
    at a minutes notice
  • Redcoats (24) British soldiers

The colonists needed someone to lead their Army
  • How about George Washington (28)?
  • He was respected, well liked, and had experience
    leading troops in battle (during the French and
    Indian War) so they decided hed be okay.
  • He was NOT president yet though

Despite all this, many Americans wanted to avoid
a War
  • They knew theyd be fighting the most powerful
    nation in the world.
  • But Thomas Paine wrote a book called Common
    Sense (44).
  • After people read it, most continentals (52) were
    ready to fight for their independence.
  • Anyone who lived in the colonies

The Continental Congress decided to write a
letter to England
  • (telling them they were planning to be
  • A committee of 5 men were chosen to write this
    letter, but Thomas Jefferson actually did all the

This letter wasThe Declaration of
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Declaration of Independencehas 5 main parts
  • Introduction
  • New Theory of Government
  • List of Grievances
  • Response of the Colonists
  • Conclusion
  • (Sounds like a 5 paragraph essay)

Your book has a couple of pages aboutJohnny
  • Esther Forbes wrote stories about a young
    apprentice, and his role in colonial events.
  • But, it was fiction Johnny Tremain was just
    like Forest Gump (who often seemed to be around
    when important things were going on)

Chapter 7
  • Section 1 The Early Years of the War
  • Section 2 The War Expands

  • It looks like theres a good chance of a war with
  • After the Proclamation of 1763
  • After the Stamp Act
  • After the Quartering Act
  • After the Sugar Act
  • After the Stamp Act
  • After The Townshend Acts
  • After the Tea Act
  • After the Intolerable Acts
  • After the Boston Massacre
  • After Lexington and Concord
  • After Bunker Hill
  • After the Book Common Sense is published
  • After the Declaration of Independence is Written

At the beginning of the American Revolution
  • The colonists were fighting for
  • Their rights under English law
  • A revision (change) of certain laws
  • Remember Just writing the Declaration of
    Independence did not make the colonies an
    independent country they had to have a

1/3 1/3 1/3 rule There are three groups
of people usually involved in political decisions.
  • Those who are for the issue
  • Those who are against the issue
  • Those who dont really have a strong opinion
  • In the American Revolution
  • About 30 were Loyalists (5)
  • (loyal to England)
  • About 40 were Patriots (6) (wanted
  • About 30 were neutral (7)

The Americans did form an Army(The Continental
  • And George Washington became commander
  • Most men were only signed up for a year (and then
    just went home).
  • These soldiers were very low on supplies
    (blankets, shoes, food, and even guns and
  • They were just not a very good army.
  • The British didnt feel they had enough men, and
    they even used mercenaries (25) professional
    soldiered hired to fight in another country

There were some famous battles
  • Battle of the Mohawk
  • Fort Ticonderoga
  • The Battle of Brandywine
  • The Battles of Saratoga
  • And many others

But things didnt start getting better for the
colonists until
  • An ally (33) came to their aide.
  • The French also didnt like the British and had
    problems with them in the past ( and still wanted
  • They formed an alliance (34) and helped by
    sending funds, supplies, and troops.
  • France and they also convinced Spain to help
    the Americans even Poland and Germany sent some
  • This forced the British to fight several enemies
    at once and in several places at once.

A country with a common goal
An agreement to work together
One of the more famous places / times of the
Revolution winter at Valley Forge
  • Washingtons army was very short on supplies.
  • Men even slept in shifts because there werent
    enough blankets.
  • Men even shared clothing whoever was on guard
    duty took the others clothes to stand out in the
    weather. The others sat by the fire and waited.
  • They ran out of shoes and used old hats on their
  • Soldiers sometimes went days without food and
    when they did eat, it was often flour and water
    mixed and cooked.
  • Feet and legs froze until they were black, and
    it was often necessary to amputate them.
  • 1/4 of the men died from the weather.
  • The name Valley Forge came to stand for the great
    hardships that Americans endured in the
    Revolutionary War

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The war was also fought
  • On the frontier
  • (This was more than half the total size of the
    United States)
  • At sea
  • (But America didnt have its own ships.
  • American privateers (61) attacked British
    merchant (60) ships.
  • Privately owned American ships that were given
    permission to capture British ships, take their
    cargo and keep the money they made.

Ship used for trading and business
In one famous sea battle against the British
  • John Paul Jones (63) was commander of the
    Bonhomme Richard.
  • Jones and the British ship the Serapis were in
    the middle of a great battle.
  • The British commander demanded that Jones
  • Jones responded I have not yet begun to fight
  • The kind of successes inspired the Americans

JOHN PAUL JONES, 1747-1792, U.S. NAVY,
In a marble crypt in Annapolis, Maryland, at the
U.S. Naval Academy Chapel, lies an American hero.
In death, as in life, John Paul Jones commands
the deepest affection of his fellow countrymen.
During this war (as in any war), both sides had
advantages and disadvantages
  • English Advantages
  • Had a better trained army.
  • Had a better equipped army.
  • Had a good Navy
  • American Advantages
  • They were fighting on their own land.
  • Fighting for a cause they believed in.
  • Got help from France.
  • Knew the most effective methods of fighting
  • English Disadvantages
  • 1/3 of Americans favored the revolution.
  • Not enough money to pay for all the soldiers
    supplies or food.
  • Fighting 3000 miles from home.
  • Many English at home opposed another war.
  • American Disadvantages
  • Poorly trained army.
  • Most Indians helped the English.
  • Some Colonists were loyalists Colonists on the
    British side during the revolution

Chapter 7 The American Revolution
  • Section 3 The Path to Victory
  • Section 4 The Legacy of the War

If the British werent having as much success as
they hoped in the North
  • They didnt have enough troops to control the
    countryside and all the militia / minutemen in
    the North.
  • They thought for sure theyd do well in the South
    (the believed many southerners were loyalists).
  • They also thought a lot of slaves would help them
    (if they would promise them freedom)

The big challenges in the south were going to be
at Camden, South Carolina, and then at Charles
  • The British General in charge there was Lord
    Cornwallis (5)
  • At first, the Americans did poorly they were
    out of supplies and half starved.
  • American Patriots decided to start using guerilla
    (12) tactics and they carried out vicious raids

Small groups of fighters who use surprise raids,
and hit and run tactics
The Continental Army
  • Did much better when the avoided full scale
    battles with the British.
  • The British had superior training and firepower.

As the fighting dragged on into its 6th year
  • Opposition to the war continued to grow in Britain
  • Some British leaders began to think that American
    independence might not be such a bad idea.

By now, Cornwallis was in Yorktown, Virginia
  • Washington and the French had him trapped there.
  • When Cornwallis supply ships tried to reach him,
    French ships drove them back.
  • American and French troops bombarded Yorktown
    with cannon fire.
  • Cornwallis had no way out and was forced to

The Treaty of Paris (40)
  • (at the end of wars, both sides have meetings and
    come to some agreements)

5. Britain would return any captured and
enslaved colonists
3. The U.S. could fish off the coast of Canada
1. The United States would be an independent
4. Each side would pay the debts it owed to the
other side
6. States should return any Loyalists property to
2. Its new boundaries were established
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Costs of the War
  • 25,000 dead Americans
  • (Look at the chart on page 213)
  • 8,000 badly wounded
  • 10,000 British dead
  • Soldiers were left with no money the did get
    some free land, but many sold it so they could
  • America was left with a war debt of 27 million
  • Up to 100,000 Loyalists left the country.
  • And the United States now had some decisions to
    make about how to set up their new country.

  •      According to legend, on June 14, 1777 the
    first flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes was made
    by Betsy Ross. The Continental Congress agreed
    that it should be used as the symbol of American
    Freedom.  We now celebrate June 14th as Flag Day
    every year.

Chapter 8 Confederation to ConstitutionSection
1 The Confederation Era
So the war is over
  • America is now an independent country, and has
    some decisions to make

What does independence mean to you as a person?
  • Good things
  • Bad things

What does independence mean for a country /
  • Some new responsibilities
  • Borrow and coin money
  • Deal with other countries
  • War / Peace / Defense issues
  • Develop and maintain an Army/Navy
  • Develop a system of weights and measures
  • Develop a Post Office / communications
  • Figure out ways to deal with Indians
  • Settle disputes between states
  • Develop a system to maintain peace and order.

Also, one result of winning the revolution was
more land
  • What should the country do with it?
  • The first place open to settlement was an area
    called the Northwest Territory

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  • The Ordinance of July 13, 1787 provided "...there
    shall be formed in said territory, not less than
    three nor more than five states..." The original
    boundaries were defined as Eastern State
    (numbers 1,2,3,4) Middle State (numbers
    5,6,7,8,9) and Western State (numbers
    10,11,12,13,14,15). These divisions are marked by
    broken lines on the map.

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The big thing was
  • This territory would be set up
  • as new states
  • With democratic governments -
  • and would not be colonies to the other original

Our first new plan for running the United States
of AmericaThe Articles of Confederation
  • This plan pretty much set up the new government
    to run completely opposite of everything England
    and King George had done in running the colonies.
  • Most people wanted a republican (13) form of
    government where the people choose
    representatives to speak for them

This plan had some positives and negatives
  • Governed the nation during the Revolutionary War
  • Negotiated The Treaty of Paris
  • Took care of the Northwest Territory
  • Lacked the power to enforce laws
  • Lacked power to tax
  • Lacked power to regulate trade
  • Required approval of all 13 states to change the

Confederation to Constitution
  • Section 2 Creating the Constitution
  • Section 3 Ratifying the Constitution

The United States still hadThe Articles of
  • Taxes were very high from state to state.
  • Trade in general had some issues.
  • States were even arguing over water / river
  • But the country REALLY needed to change some

So, it was decided to hold a Constitutional
Convention (8)
  • 55 delegates (19) from around the states met,
    including many of Americas most famous men.
  • (a person named to act as a representative)
  • George Washington (came out of retirement)
  • Benjamin Franklin (famous scientist and
  • James Madison (read over 100 books in preparation
    for the convention)
  • Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were overseas
    but wrote letters to the convention

But there were no
  • Native Americans
  • African Americans
  • Women
  • These groups of people were not considered to
    citizens and they were not invited.

The first thing they had to doElect a president
(only of the convention)
  • Who else were they going to choose?
  • This person was more respected and admired than
    any other American at the time.
  • He gave a quiet, and dignified leadership to the

The rules of the convention
  • All ideas should be considered
  • People could change sides if they wanted.
  • All discussions would remain secret (even the
    windows were shut in the hot summer).
  • Guards were posted outside.
  • When any outsider came in the room, everyone
    stopped talking.

There were 2 major proposals for a new government
  • The Virginia Plan (32)
  • A government with 3 branches (legislative,
    executive, and judicial)
  • A legislature with 2 houses but each of these
    branches representatives numbers would be based
    on state populations.
  • The New Jersey Plan
  • A legislature with only one house and each
    state would have 1 vote.

Eventually they came up with a compromise
  • The Great Compromise
  • And.. We ended up with the government structure
    we still have today

But if state legislatures representatives were
based on populations
  • Do they count slaves or not?
  • With slaves, the South had more people than the
  • That might throw off the balance of the
    representatives and the votes (and give the
    South more power than the North wanted them to
  • The Compromise was to count each slave as 3/5 of
    a person.
  • This was called The Three-Fifths Compromise.

Before these compromises and new plan were
  • They had to be voted on by the states.
  • Finally enough states, and then all the states
    passed the new constitution but not before
  • A Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
  • Americans were concerned they might need some
    protections against the national government.

Anti-federalists (50) felt states and people
might lose there rights to the national government
Federalists (49) wanted states and the national
government to each have powers
First Amendment Establishment clause, freedom
of religion, speech, and press, and peaceable
assembly as well as the right to petition the
government. Second Amendment Right to keep and
bear arms. Third Amendment Protection from
quartering of troops. Fourth Amendment
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
Fifth Amendment Due process, double jeopardy,
self-incrimination, private property. Sixth
Amendment Trial by jury and other rights of the
accused. Seventh Amendment Civil trial by
jury. Eighth Amendment Prohibition of
excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual
punishment. Ninth Amendment Protection of
rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of
Rights. Tenth Amendment Powers of states and