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As part of the New Jersey component of the Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program for NYNJ Har

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This work is coordinated with water and sediment quality sampling studies ... Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the Kills system responds to a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: As part of the New Jersey component of the Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program for NYNJ Har


1
Abstract
As part of the New Jersey component of the
Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program for
NY-NJ Harbor, hydrodynamic and water and
suspended sediment quality studies are underway
in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill, and Kill van
Kull. This work is coordinated with water and
sediment quality sampling studies undertaken at
the head-of-tide and within the tidal reaches of
the major New Jersey tributaries that discharge
to NJ-NJ Harbor. The goal of these synoptic
studies is to develop an understanding of the
contaminant transport pathways within the
estuary. The program uses a combination of three
(3) fixed mooring stations and five (5) shipboard
measurement locations. Measurements include (1)
current profiles using a towed RDI Acoustic
Doppler Current Profiler (2) conductivity-tempera
ture-depth measurements using an Applied
Microsystems CTD system (3) measurements of
turbidity using a D A Optical Backscatter
Sensor (4) measurements of suspended sediment
concentration and particle size spectrum using a
Sequoia LISST (laser-based scatterometer) and
(5) water and suspended sediment quality
measurements using Trace Organic Platform
Samplers (TOPS) and grab sampling devices.
Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that
the Kills system responds to a complex
combination of forcing influences, including
tide, wind, and freshwater inflow. These
influences are responsible for dramatic
variations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport
characteristics, including, for example, the
direction and magnitude of the net, residual flow
within the Newark Bay Kills system, and the
location and intensity of the turbidity maxima in
Newark Bay and the Arthur Kill. These physical
characteristics play a significant role in
determining the fate of sediment and water-borne
contaminants.
Objectives
  • Characterize the physical estuarine structure to
    aid in the interpretation of chemical data
    included in this physical characterization is
  • The characterization of the spatial structure of
    the suspended load and of the relationship
    to the hydrographic and morphological estuarine
    structure.
  • The relationship the temporal structure of the
    suspended load to the variable forcing (i.e.
    tides, winds and river discharge).
  • These characterizations will aid in the carrying
    out the specific objectives outlined by the New
    Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
  • To quantify the levels and loadings of the
    contaminants of concern in New York-New Jersey
    Harbor estuary.
  • To identify and trackdown significant sources of
    these contaminants.

Approach
Sample currents, temperature, salinity, and
suspended sediment concentrations during high and
low flow events.
Passaic and Hackensack Rivers
Methods
Hudson River
(A) Deploy three bottom moorings with ADCPs,
CTD/OBSs, and LISSTs to collect month-long time
series at selected locations. (B) Conduct 2-3 day
spatial surveys with boat-towed ADCPs, profiling
CTD/OBSs and LISSTs during selected events (C)
Tributary and bay water quality TOPS measurements
Port Newark/ Port Elizabeth
Lower New York Harbor
Newark Bay
Kill Van Kull
Arthur Kill
Perth Amboy Raritan River
Figure 1 The Hudson River Estuary Major
Tributaries and Ports Newark and Elizabeth
2
Sampling Stations
  • TRIBUTARY ESTUARY SAMPLES
  • Grab Samples
  • Metals (Dissolved Total)
  • PAHs (Dissolved)
  • 4-Hour Composite/TOPS Samples
  • PAHs (Sediment)
  • Dioxins/Furans (Sediment)
  • Pesticides (Dissolved Sediment)
  • PCBs (Dissolved Sediment)
  • Physical Data
  • 3-Dim Current Velocity Data
  • Salinity Profiles
  • Turbidity Profiles
  • Sediment Concentration/Grain Size Distribution
    Profiles

Figure 2 Sampling Stations for Shipboard
Surveys (blue-green markers) tributary chemical
sampling (red, violet and green markers)
head-of-tide sampling (navy-blue markers)
Instrumentation for Chemical Data
Trace Organic Platform Samplers (TOPS)
Chemicals of Concern
  • Dioxins/Furans (17)
  • Pesticides (27)
  • PAHs (28)
  • Metals Total Hg, Cd, Pb
  • Dissolved Hg, Cd, Pb
  • Dissolved ( Total) methyl-Hg

Figure 3 TOPS Sampler
3
Instrumentation for Physical Data
ADCP--Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler--measures
current profiles throughout the water column
either from a bottom tripod or when towed behind
a boat. Acoustic backscatter (ABS) intensity is
used as a proxy for sediment concentrations.
CTD/OBS--Conductivity Temperature Depth/Optical
Backscatter--Bottom mounted CTDs measure
temperature, salinity, and tidal height time
series. Profiling CTDs measure temperature and
salinity profiles in the water column.
LISST--Laser In Situ Scattering and
Transmissionometry--measures sediment
concentrations and size distribution
directly. Optical backscatter (OBS) is another
proxy for sediment concentration.
The R/V Phoenix is the primary survey vessel
used for this study. Real-time ADCP currents and
ABS are displayed on the computer during surveys.
Bottom Mooring--A portable hexapod was designed
for a month-long deployment of the ADCP (center),
CTD/OBS and battery case (bottom center), and
LISST (back leg). An acoustic release used for
recovery is on the floor.
Shipboard Surveys
Shipboard surveys were conducted with one
transecting vessel for physical data and two
stationary vessels for both chemical and physical
data. Shipboard Surveys for Year 2001
Figure 4 Passaic River Discharge, Subtidal Sea
Level (at Sandy Hook) and Tidal Range (at Sandy
Hook) Shipboard Surveys were conducted on days
marked by an arrow Surveys occurring in March
and April were high-flow (high river discharge)
events, and May was a low-flow (low river
discharge) event.
4
Estuarine Circulation Background
Meteorological effects also impact circulation
and mixing in estuarine systems. These effects
occur due to the direct response of the estuary
to the wind and remotely as the estuary is
influenced bye the coastal ocean response to the
wind forcing.
5
March/April 2001 Turbidity Maximums in the Kills
and Tributaries
Results
ADCP along channel currents (colorfill), optical
backscatter (red contours), and salinity (black
contours) observed along the transect shown
above. The turbidity maximum is located in the
region of converging currents.
Turbidity Maximum
LISST suspended sediment concentrations observed
along the same transect. Direct measurements of
sediment concentrations by the LISST agree well
with the OBS.
Turbidity Maximum
A similar transect was run for the Hackensack
River on March 13, 2001. A turbidity maximum is
again observed upstream of the salt wedge in the
region of converging currents.
Turbidity Maximum
6
A turbidity maximum was again observed on April
12, 2001 in the Raritan River during maximum ebb.
March/April 2001 Estuarine Circulation in Newark
Bay and the Kills
Density driven currents drive near-bottom
residual flows up-estuary, toward the
tributaries. In both Newark Bay and in the Kill
Van Kull, we observe this types of residual
circulation. This circulation pattern can have
implications for the fate and transport of
suspended material. We might expect that
suspended material near the estuary bed will be
transported up-estuary over large time-scales.
Conclusions
Hydrodynamic and water and suspended sediment
quality studies were performed in Newark Bay, the
Arthur Kill, and Kill van Kull where coordinated
measurements of water currents, salinity,
temperature, turbidity, suspended sediment
concentration, and trace organics using TOPS were
obtained. We have identified three turbidity
maxima in the Newark Bay Complex where suspended
material tends to accumulate. In the Arthur
Kill, we found that material accumulates at the
head of the salt wedge, about 10 km from Perth
Amboy. In both the Hackensack and Raritan
Rivers, we have similarly found turbidity maxima
at the head of the salt wedge. We have also
determined that the residual estuarine
circulation in the shipping channel of Newark
Bay and the Kill Van Kull is up-estuary for
near-bottom flows and out toward the ocean for
surface currents. These physical characteristics
play a significant role in determining the fate
and transport of sediment and water-borne
contaminants.

Aknowledgements
Funding for this study was provided by the New
Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
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