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GENDER INFLUENCE ON ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF NIGERIAN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

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... that the institutions of higher learning is one of the best places to nurture ... questionnaire elicited information on socio ... OBJECTIVES OF THIS WORK ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GENDER INFLUENCE ON ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF NIGERIAN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS


1
GENDER INFLUENCE ON ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF
NIGERIAN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
  • Afolabi O. O., Siyanbola W. O.1, Egbetokun A.
    A., Dada A. D., Sanni M. and Jesuleye O. A.
  • 1 Corresponding Author
  • Willie O. Siyanbola, B.Sc (Ife), M.Sc, Ph.D
    (Sussex), FMSNDirector General/Chief
    ExecutiveNational Centre for Technology
    Management (NACETEM), Federal Ministry of
    Science Technology (FMST),Obafemi Awolowo
    University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Paper presented at the 3rd SMU EDGE Conference
in Singapore between 9th and 11th of July,2008
2
INTRODUCTION
  • An entrepreneur is a person who recognises
    opportunities, has ideas and uses them to create
    or develop a business (Gartner, 1998).
  • It has generally been argued that the
    institutions of higher learning is one of the
    best places to nurture these characteristics
    (Wang and Wong, 2004).
  • For this reason, NACETEM carried out a study of
    entrepreneurial attitudes in Nigerian tertiary
    institutions

3
INTRODUCTION
  • Female entrepreneurs are considered important for
    economic development (Verheul and Thurik, 2001).
  • Very little literature is available, even at the
    international level, on the factors that
    influence student entrepreneurship on the basis
    of gender.

4
This Presentation
  • Part of a much larger study Assessment of
    Technological Entrepreneurial Attitude in
    Nigerian Tertiary Institutions
  • Key Themes
  • Influence of
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Academic Performance
  • Entrepreneurial Education
  • Family
  • Ethnicity
  • etc

5
Objectives
  • Quantify students and lecturers interest and
    involvement in entrepreneurial practice
  • Assess the influence of specific factors on
    entrepreneurial attitude
  • Evaluate the existing entrepreneurial education
    curricula in the institutions

6
Scope
  • Undergraduate students from Nigerian tertiary
    institutions were the main subjects lecturers
    were secondary targets
  • Over 7500 students and over 1200 lecturers
    sampled
  • 13 Universities 9 Polytechnics 3 CoE (Tech)

7
METHODOLOGY
  • Data was collected among undergraduates of 25
    tertiary institutions in Nigeria using
    questionnaire.
  • The questionnaire elicited information on
    socio-economic background of the students, their
    entrepreneurial interest and involvement, among
    several other explanatory variables.

8
OBJECTIVES OF THIS WORK
  • To assess gender differentials in students
    interest and involvement in entrepreneurial
    practice in Nigeria.
  • To establish whether or not there are different
    factors explaining female and male
    entrepreneurship in Nigeria.

9
METHODOLOGY
  • Respondents were selected from penultimate and
    final year classes because they are closer to
    making career choices and will be more
    representative of student entrepreneurial
    tendencies.
  • We investigated the relationship between a set of
    explanatory variables and the entrepreneurial
    behaviour of male and female students separately.

10
Location of selected institutions
11
DEPENDENT VARIABLES
  • The dependent variables are
  • Entrepreneurial interest (EI) disaggregated on
    the basis of gender into
  • Male EI (MEI) and
  • Female EI (FEI)
  • Present entrepreneurial involvement (EINV)
    disaggregated on the basis of gender into
  • Male EINV and
  • Female EINV

12
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
  • The explanatory variables are
  • Social characteristics
  • Families entrepreneurial history
  • Academic characteristics and
  • Risk perception
  • Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the
    relationship between the dependent variables and
    independent variables

13
KEY FINDINGS
  • Our results show that there is indeed a gender
    disparity in the
  • entrepreneurial interest (EI) and
  • entrepreneurial involvement (EINV) of the
    students.

14
KEY FINDINGS
  • There was a higher incidence of male student
    entrepreneurs (29.2) than female student
    entrepreneurs (23.2).
  • The tendency of male undergraduates to do
    business while in school (MEINV) does indeed
    differ from that of their female counterparts
    (FEINV) (?2 24.51 p lt 0.001),
  • Male undergraduates are more likely to be student
    entrepreneurs (r 0.065 p lt 0.001).

15
KEY FINDINGS
  • MEI (87.4) was found to be higher than FEI
    (77.0).
  • Interest of male students in entrepreneurship
    (MEI) significantly differs from that of female
    students (FEI) (?2 104.26 p lt 0.001)
  • Male students show higher interest in
    entrepreneurship (r 0.135 p lt 0.001).

16
KEY FINDINGS
  • We also found a gender-based disparity in the
    correlates of EI and EINV.

17
KEY FINDINGS
  • Age, ethnicity and academic performance would
    matter for FEINV, they are not important for
    MEINV.
  • On the contrary, parent-related variables such as
    fathers and mothers education are significantly
    associated with MEINV.

18
KEY FINDINGS
  • Familys entrepreneurial history, as reflected in
    incidence of entrepreneurs in the family, as well
    as students exposure to entrepreneurial
    education are significantly associated with EI
    and EINV for male and female students.

19
KEY FINDINGS
  • MEI is significantly associated with marital
    status, ethnicity, family size and parents
    education.
  • FEI is similarly associated with marital status,
    ethnicity and parents education but not with
    family size.

20
POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • A gender imbalance exists in student
    entrepreneurship with male students possessing
    superior interest and level of involvement.
  • The dissimilarities in the factors that influence
    male and female student entrepreneurship suggest
    the need for gender-sensitive policies and
    programmes on entrepreneurship, especially in the
    developing country context within which this
    study is situated.
  • Specifically, attention should be paid to female
    students age, ethnicity and school grades in
    designing such policies/programmes.

21
POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • Providing entrepreneurial education to students
    would positively influence their interest in
    entrepreneurship.
  • The influence of entrepreneurial parents/close
    relatives as positive influencers is also
    indicated.
  • From the forgoing, there is the need for
    appropriate policy interventions if indeed female
    entrepreneurship is to be optimised.

22
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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