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Title: English, French, German, and Russian Education


1
English, French, German, and Russian
Education Chapters 17, 18, 19, and
20 Presented by Alma Rangel and Elsa
Barron EDCI 658 October 30, 2006
2
English Education
3
Early Efforts to Combat Illiteracy
  • The majority of Englands lower socioeconomic
    classes were illiterate.
  • Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838) and Andrew Bell
    (1753-1832) independently developed an
    educational innovation called the "monitorial
    system.
  • The method was based by using the older boys
    enrolled in his school as monitors he gave them
    charge of instructing the younger students in the
    basic skills and routine tasks of school
    management.

Joseph Lancaster
  • The monitorial schools established by both Bell
    and Lancaster attempted to teach reading,
    writing, and simple arithmetic.
  • The method is now commonly known as Learning by
    teaching.

Andrew Bell
4
Factory Reform and Education
  • The various developments of English education
    were related to Industrialism. The factory
    system, had been established in England at the
    end of the eighteenth century.
  • There was widespread use of child labor in
    English factories, mills, and mines.
  • By 1830s, several leaders focused their attention
    against child labour. One of them was Michael
    Sadler, who introduced a bill in Parliament to
    regulate working conditions of child laborers in
    textile mills.
  • The strongest opposition to factory reform
    legislation often came from the industrial
    manufacturers, many of whom were prominent
    members of the Liberal party. John Bright is one
    of them, who believed that any governmental
    interference with working conditions violated
    individual liberty and freedom of contract.

5
  • In 1833, the first law against child labour, the
    Factory Act of 1833, was passed in England. It
    was an attempt to establish a regular working day
    in the textile industry. Factory inspectors
    supervised the execution of this law.
  • The act had the following provisions
  • 1. Children under nine were prohibited form
    working in the textile mills.
  • 2. Children (ages 9-13) must not work more
    than 9 hours (48 hours per week).
  • 3. Young people (ages 13-18) must not work
    more than 10 hours.

Thomas Savage in Wandsworth Prison
  • In the 1840s, Legislative acts were passed to
    remedy working conditions. Between those are
    Ashleys Act of 1842, Grahams Factory Act of
    1844, and Fieldens Act of 1847.
  • Fieldens Act established a normal working day of
    ten and a half hours for women and for young
    people in factories.

6
Laissez-Faire and Educational Reform
  • English elementary education throughout most of
    the nineteenth century was a product of the
    voluntary efforts of private philanthropic and
    religious organization.
  • The first significant government efforts in
    education came in 1833 when Parliament provided
    limited national grants to schools.
  • In 1862, the Revised Code of Regulations
    inaugurated the schools grant system, popularly
    referred to as payments by results. This system
    of examinations stimulated the emergence of a
    national elementary school system
  • According with this Code
  • 1. Each child was expected to attain a
    specified level of achievement in the basic
    subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic by
    the end of each year.
  • 2. Each child was to be examined annually to
    determine his or her competency in the required
    subjects.
  • 3. The amount of the grant awarded to each
    school was to be calculated according to the
    number of children who passed the examination in
    each of the subjects an by the total number of
    attendance days recorded per child.
  • The Educational Department, established earlier
    in 1856, gradually shaped the curriculum as the
    elementary schools came to emphasize success on
    the examinations as a major educational
    objective.
  • The elementary schools became a separate track
    with the aim of providing mass literacy rather
    that preparing students for entry into secondary
    schools.

7
Gladstone and Educational Reform
  • William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) was leader of
    the British Liberal Party and Primer Minister.
  • His first term office, from 1868 to 1874, was
    characterized by legislative reforms, among them
    the Foster Act, or Education Act of 1870.
  • The Education Act of 1870 set up a Primary School
    system and provide schooling for all children
    between the ages of 5 and 13. The Act laid the
    foundations of English elementary education.

William Ewart Gladstone.
  • This legislation divided the country into local
    school districts, under the jurisdiction of
    local, secular school boards, and it authorized
    taxation to establish an maintain elementary
    school.
  • As a result of his legislation, the board
    school, jointly supported by local taxes and
    national grants, appeared as a rival to the
    voluntary schools (church schools) which
    received national grants but did not received
    local tax support.
  • Although the Act of 1870 did not establish
    completely free and compulsory elementary
    education, it gave impetus to the movement for
    popular education.

8
Secondary Education
  • In the nineteenth century, English secondary
    education generally served the needs of the upper
    and middle classes who sent their children to
    private schools.
  • The famous public schools, between these
    Winchester, Rugby, St. Pauls etc.., had their
    origins in the classical humanist grammar
    schools, and, proud of their classical
    traditions, they were resistant to change.
    However, some criticism of these institutions did
    make some attempt to modernize and expand the
    curriculum but generally the educational beliefs
    represented a tension between to modernize and to
    maintain the traditional.
  • Public schools education reflected the social,
    political, and economic forces that determined
    upper-class behavior. Its values were classical
    and traditional and inclined toward religion,
    patriotism, and manliness.
  • Although only slight progress was made in
    changing the patterns of secondary education,
    some limited responses were made to satisfy the
    demands for increased secondary educational
    opportunities.
  • The Education Act of 1902 laid the foundation for
    the establishment of a secondary school system.
  • The Code of Regulations of 1904 attempted to
    define the relationships and objectives of the
    different types of English schools.
  • The elementary schools was to provide for the
    education of the mass of children and was to
    identify children of exceptional ability so that
    they might be properly prepared for secondary
    education.

9
Twenty-Century Developments
  • In the twenty century, additional to Liberal and
    Conservative Party, was formed the Labour Party
    (1906).
  • In the forefront of the new movement was the
    Fabian Society, founded by a group of
    intellectuals in 1883 to promote a socialized
    democracy. The society laid many of the
    foundations of the Labour Party during this
    period.
  • After World War I, the Labour party displaced the
    disintegrating Liberal party (major political
    force particularly in the nineteenth century) as
    one of the two major parties.
  • While the old Conservative party remained a major
    force, the Liberals lost support and became a
    small faction in the Parliament.

Clement Attlee
  • The greatest success of the Labour party came in
    1945 when Clement Attlee. He was Prime Minister
    of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
    Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. The Labour
    Party under Attlee won a landslide election
    victory over the conservative Winston Churchill,
    immediately after Churchill had led Britain
    through World War II.
  • The Attlee government introduces the welfare
    state, based on socialist patterns, to extend
    economic security to all citizens.

10
Education in the Twenty Century
  • The Act of 1918, which resulted form the efforts
    of H. A. Fisher, provided for secondary education
    compulsory up to age 14 and gave responsibility
    for secondary schools to the state. Under the
    Act, many higher elementary schools and endowed
    grammar schools sought to become state funded
    central schools or secondary schools. However,
    most children attended primary (elementary)
    school up until age 14, rather than going to a
    separate school for secondary education.
  • The concept of streaming has characterized
    English education since the Hadow Report of 1926.
  • Brian Simon, an English educational historian,
    defined streaming as the grouping of children of
    a given age into parallel classes on the basis of
    scholastic achievement and intelligence test. The
    objective of it was to form homogeneous groups of
    children of the same age, intelligence level, and
    competence in basic subject so that instruction
    could be gradated according to the capacity of
    the class.
  • The Butler Education Act of 1944, introduced
    major innovations into English education. The Act
    divided education into three major stages
    primary, form ages two to eleven secondary, form
    twelve through fifteen and advance schooling.
  • The Butter Act also provided for three types of
    secondary schools grammar school, with a college
    preparatory curriculum technical and vocational
    and modern, which provided non-preparatory and
    non-technical general education consisting of
    cultural and work experiences.
  • School attendance was made compulsory until age
    fifteen, and provision was made for its later
    extension to sixteen.

11
The Return of Neoconservatism
  • In establishing the British social welfare state,
    the Labour Party emphasized the government
    management of the economy through centralized
    social and economic planning and the
    nationalization of key industries such as coal
    and steel production.
  • Through such economic centralism, Labour sought
    to create greater equity in British society
    between the socioeconomic classes.
  • During the years when Labour formed the
    government, the welfare states progressive
    taxation and welfare state benefits had weakened
    socioeconomic class stratification and
    identification.

Margaret Thatcher
  • Margaret Thatcher, who led the Conservatives to
    victory in 1979, alleged that mounting social
    welfare costs had sapped the vigor of the British
    economy and had stifled private initiatives.
  • In contrast to the Labour Party, Thatcher urged
    reduce government intervention, privation of
    public enterprises, decreased social welfare
    programs, and lower taxes. She encouraged greater
    privatization in both the economy and in
    education.

12
  • The Thatcher government achieved some economic
    successes such as controlling the rate of
    inflation, stimulating economic growth, and
    reducing the national budged deficit.
  • The educational initiatives of the Conservative
    government sought to establish a national
    curriculum, encourage initiatives, and forge
    closer links between business and schools.
  • Part of a general trend in the Western world
    during the 1980s, the Conservative Thatcher and
    Major governments saw educations results in terms
    of economic productivity.
  • The Conservative government has also encouraged
    greater options or choice in education. They
    argue that decentralization will encourage
    greater citizen participation and involvement in
    educational matters.
  • While Conservative governments encouraged
    decentralization in school governance, they
    established a more centralized national
    curriculum
  • In 1989, the national curriculum was introduced.
  • The important demographic and ethnic changes
    occurred in British society in the 1970s and
    1980s have impacted education. The considerable
    immigration form Jamaica, Barbados, Pakistan,
    India, Nigeria, Kenya, and other former colonial
    nations, have developed multicultural education
    that seeks to identify and respect cultural
    differences and styles of learning.

13
French Education
14
The July Monarchy
  • The July Monarchy lasted From 1830 to 1848
  • It was controlled by upper-middle-class liberal
    capitalists.
  • They wanted restricted moderate reforms.
  • They believed that the primary function of
    government was to maintain public order.
  • Francois Guizot (1787-1874) personified the
    right-wing liberalism of Louis Philippes
    bourgeois monarchy
  • Guizot believed that only the upper middle class
    had the talent and intelligence to rule.

Francois Guizot (1787-1874)
  • Guizot wrote a number of significant historical
    works. Between those are General History of
    Civilization in Europe (1828), where revealed his
    worldview.
  • He opposed both absolutism and popular
    government.
  • Guizot also had a remarked preference for French
    and European civilization

15
The Law of 1833
  • The law of 1833 established the framework for
    French primary education.
  • Each commune in France was to establish a public
    primary school, pay teachers, and provide for a
    school building.
  • Free for those who needed.
  • The curriculum of primary schools should consist
    of reading, writing, spelling, grammar,
    composition and arithmetic.
  • This law showed distrust of religious control of
    schooling.
  • Public primary schools were established, but
    Private schools were permitted to function.
  • All private teachers were to be certified by the
    mayor of the commune.
  • Higher primary schools offering vocational
    education in commercial, agricultural, and
    industrial subjects.
  • Separate school systems were to be maintained for
    lower and upper socioeconomic classes.

16
Second French Empire Louis Napoleon
  • In 1848, the regime of Louis Philippe was
    overthrown.
  • Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected
    president of France by popular vote.
  • He dissolved the Assembly (1851). In 1852, he was
    proclaimed Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
  • Napoleon III controlled education. In the French
    universities there were substantial opposition to
    his rule.
  • In 1850, the Falloux Law was promulgated, which
    gave the Roman Catholic Church control over
    French education.
  • Catholic schools were to be given state support.
  • Religious teachers of the recognized religions
    Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish-were
    eligible without examination for appointments in
    the public schools.
  • The clergy was given power to supervise
    instruction in primary schools.

Napoleon Bonaparte
17
The Third Republic
  • After the French armies suffered a crushing
    defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870,
    Napoleon III abdicated and fled to England in
    disgrace.
  • France returned to a genuinely republican
    government in what was termed the Third Republic.
  • The leading educational direction in the Third
    Republic came from Jules Ferry (1832-1893), who
    sought to modernize French education through a
    series of laws passed in the 1880s.
  • In 1881, tuition fees were abolished in primary
    schools.
  • In 1882, compulsory attendance was required
    between the ages of six and thirteen.

Jules Ferry (1832-1893)
  • In 1886, education was further centralized.
  • In order to eliminate religious instruction in
    public education, members of religious
    communities were not allowed to teach in the
    public schools.
  • Only the public schools were eligible to receive
    financial support from the state.
  • In 1914 all private schools were closed.
  • The law was not enforced French private and
    religious schools continued to operate due to the
    World War I.

18
Between the Wars
  • Between World War I and World War II France was
    plagued by internal divisions called Three
    Frances
  • - The most conservative group was composed of
    aristocrats, landowners, and conservative
    Catholics
  • - The middle classes, small landowning
    peasantry, retailers, businessmen, teachers, and
    civil servants formed the second group and
  • - The third group consisted of industrial
    workers.
  • This threefold division was also reflected in
    French politics, where a host of parties ranging
    from the extreme right to the Communists on the
    far left competed against one another.
  • The depression made its greatest impact on France
    after 1934.
  • In opposition to the right-wing threat, a popular
    front was formed in 1935 consisting of a
    coalition of Socialists, Radical Socialists, and
    Communists. The popular front won in 1936 it was
    formed by Leon Blum.
  • Education enactments between the wars tended to
    consolidate rather than innovate.
  • In 1933 the principle of free tuition was
    established for both secondary and technical
    education.
  • In 1936 schooling was made compulsory through age
    fourteen. As in other western nations during the
    depression of the 1930s, France had to retrench
    its education expenditure.

19
Vichy France
  • When the third republic collapsed before the
    invading German armies in June 1940, this
    reactionary minority emerged under the leadership
    of Marshal Henri Petain.
  • Petains government, established at Vichy regime,
    sought to create a semi-fascist corporate state
    in the part of France unoccupied by German
    armies.
  • There was underground resistant to both the
    German occupation and to Petains Vichy
    collaborators.
  • Petain and Laval established an authoritarian
    regime modeled on fascism, that enacted
    repressive legislation and excluded Freemasons
    and Jews form legal protection.

The prevalence of spying for and against the
Nazis in southern France after the German
invasion.
  • Petains government tried to reestablish the old
    order and, with it, traditional education along
    clerical conservative, and classical lines. In
    1941, the paternalistic and authoritarian regime
    of Petain hoped to eradicate permissive, liberal,
    democratic and individualistic attitudes from the
    schools and from French society.
  • Petain based his education on the concept of the
    corporate state.
  • He felt that industrialism had undermined the
    French craftsmanship. Therefore, basic elementary
    education was to emphasize the manual vocation.
  • Political undesirables, Jews, and Freemasons were
    barred from teaching positions.
  • After liberation of France, The Vichy regime
    disintegrated.
  • Petain was tried for treason by the Fourth
    Republic and imprisoned until his death.

20
France under German Occupation 1940-44
21
French Education After Liberation
  • In 1944, Paul Langevin, planed the Postwar reform
    of French education.
  • Langevin was succeeded by the psychologist Henri
    Wallon. Both were communists, a fact that
    stimulated opposition to their recommendations
  • Their suggested reforms were
  • recognition of individual aptitudes and
    differences among children
  • the use of guidance so that every child could
    receive the education appropriate to his or her
    talents
  • a respect for the dignity of labor.
  • In terms of sequence and structure, the Langevin
    -Wallon plan proposed that schooling be available
    for students from ages seven though eighteen.
  • The first phase, from ages seven to eleven, would
    emphasize the acquisition of basic skills and
    powers of observation and appreciation.
  • The second phase, from eleven through fifteen
    would emphasize guidance so that the student
    could become aware of and consider the various
    career and vocational alternatives.
  • The third phase, from fifteen through eighteen,
    the student would determine his or her dominant
    interest and pursue it.
  • The Langevin -Wallon proposals were not accepted
    by the National Assembly.
  • The Langevin -Wallon recommendations were
    significant, however, in that they indicated the
    direction that French education would take in the
    postwar world.

22
French Education After Liberation
  • De Gaulle, in the Fifth Republic, succeeded in
    enacting legislation that strengthened the power
    of the president and the executive branch.
  • During the 1960s, students expressed their
    discontent with French secondary and higher
    education.
  • University students protests were directed not
    only against the kind of education they were
    receiving but against the prevailing social order
    and the Gaullist regime.
  • Although some of the political agitation by
    students was only remotely related to educational
    reform, it was symptomatic of the more pervasive
    discontent of the students with the highly
    centralized and rigorously selective university
    system.

De Gaulle
  • As is true in most advanced national, higher
    education is the mean to success and material
    security in France. While the numbers of French
    students seeking entry to universities increased
    in the post-World War II era, the universities
    responded slowly.
  • The Ministry of Education in 1968 agreed to
    introduce reforms to permit greater popular
    participation and to encourage more institutional
    autonomy in higher education.
  • The critics charged that the Ministry of
    education proposed to retained control of the
    distribution of funds and of faculty
    appointments.
  • In 1969, De Gaulle resigned as president and
    retired from public political life.

A May 1968 poster "Be young and shut up.
23
A Partial Turn Leftward
  • In 1981, Francoise Mitterrand led a rejuvenated
    Socialist Party to victory in the presidential
    elections and to control in the National
    Assembly.
  • Mitterrands government signaled a slight turn to
    the left as it increased social benefits, raised
    the minimum wage, and imposed higher taxes on the
    higher income groups.
  • In order to reduce inflation he encouraged more
    privatization and reduced public expenditures.
  • In education, one of the persistent issues has
    been that of government aid to religious schools,
    particularly those conducted by the Roman
    Catholic Church.
  • Although church-state tensions have diminished
    since World War II, the issue still remains as a
    point of potential conflict.

Francoise Mitterrand
  • In 1960, a compromise was effected that provided
    government subsidies to private schools that
    conformed to the state-mandated curricula and
    standards.
  • Before, leftist political parties have sought to
    reduce or to eliminate government subsidies to
    the church schools.
  • During the 1980s, the socialist government
    proposed reduction in the amount of support for
    church schools.
  • This is still a point of conflict.

24
Contemporary Education Structures
  • Despite the reforms of French education after
    World War II, it remains a highly centralized
    national system.
  • French secondary education remains closely tied
    to the goals of literary expression,
    philosophical understanding, the use of correct
    language, and the power of cultivating abstract
    thought.
  • The lyceum, remains the key educational
    institution that prepares one for social,
    economic, and political power. Admission to the
    lycee is highly competitive and its curriculum is
    rigorously.
  • Completing the lycee bring the student at age
    eighteen to the examinations for the coveted
    baccalaureate. About 30 percent of the age group
    earn the baccalaureate which entitles them to
    automatic admission to the university.
  • A unique feature of French higher education is
    the Grandes Ecoles, the Great Schools, which
    prepare future leadership elites in
    administration, engineering and management.
  • -The Ecole Polytechnique provides high
    specialized preparation in engineering,
    technology, and management.
  • -The Ecole Normale Superieur is notable by
    the highly academic nature of its curriculum
    designed to prepare a select group of secondary
    teachers for careers in the lycees.
  • -The Ecole Nationale dAdministration
    prepares administrators and civil servants for
    upper-level positions in the government.
  • These highly prestigious Grandes Ecoles are
    considered even more important than the
    universities.

25
German Education
  • In 1808, Johann Gottlieb Fichte called for
    education according to Pestalozzi
  • Fichte believed that all Germans should be
    educated in order for the world to be
    progressively better
  • Fichte was known as a founding figure of the
    philosophical movement known as German idealism,
    bridges knowledge attained by reason and
    knowledge attained by the senses influenced by
    Immanuel Kant

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
26
Jahn recommended the curriculum to include
patriotic history and literature. Jahn
believed education to include the child's entire
physical and cultural environment. Jahn was a
German Prussian gymnastics educator. He had a
role in forming Burschenschaften, group of young
men who pledged to bring about a united
Germany. 1819 Prince Klemens Metternich In
1819, Prince Klemens Metternich led the decision
that established conservative ideology in the
universities after a journalist was assassinated
by a student during a patriotic festival,
sponsored by the Burschenschaften.
Metternich's full name was Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk
Lothar von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein. He
was idolized by Henry Kissinger, who wrote his
dissertation on Metternich's achievements in
holding together the crumbling Austrian Empire
and was published in 1957.
Friedrich Jahn
Also in 1808, Friedrich Jahn had an educational
philosophy which called for a national unity that
would ultimately break down class divisions.
27
From 1817 1838, Prussian education followed
the Hegelian philosophy (Georg Friedrich Hegel)
as a result of being ruled by Baron Karl von
Altenstein, and his supervisor of secondary
schools, Johannes Schulze, fervent disciples of
Hegel. (Prussia was one of five large kingdoms
that was part of the German Confederation,
established in 1789.) Through their vision of
Hegel's philosophy, education meant that 1) the
individual's life acquired meaning only through
complete identification with the state, and 2)
the state was justified in exercising
unrestricted power. Organizational structure
of Prussian education followed socioeconomic
class divisions 90 received a basic education
in Volksschulen, primary vernacular schools, and
10 attended the gymnasium, a college preparatory
school. Those attending teacher training
institutions had the benefits of receiving a
broadened curriculum. Herbartianism Johann
Friedrich Herbart had great impact on German
education. He believed that moral development
was ultimate goal of education. He was known for
the phrase apperceptive mass, a destination
where repeated ideas were lodged, and these ideas
in turn were to be emphasized by the teacher
since Herbart considered these ideas to dominate
a student's life.
28
Herbartian teaching method consisted of five
phases ? preparation prior knowledge ?
presentation actual teaching ? association
compare/contrast ? generalization
formation of a general idea ? application
comprehension Herbartianism was accepted by
other countries, namely Japan and the
U.S.
Around 1870, German kingdoms
were united and as a means of becoming a major
world power, education included the teaching of
nationalistic and patriotic values.
Vocational and adult technical schools became
popular, due to Germany being a leader in
industrialization. This continued through 1918,
and also the two-track system (separation of
lower and higher classes)
Johann Friedrich Herbart
Herbart studied under Fichte. Johann was a
very popular name during the 19th century because
it was the custom to give the child two names,
the first being a Christian name.
29
Mittelschule was established like a middle
school, it came between elementary and secondary
schools attended by children of lower middle
classes Three types of secondary schools 1)
traditional gymnasium prestigious school,
graduates were given preference in university
admissions 2) Realgymnasium more modern
school 3) Oberrealschule emphasized math,
science, and modern languages
Weimar Republic From 1918-1933, Germany was
under the Weimar Republic, and as such continued
to have public and private elementary schools
(with religion now part of curriculum in the
public schools) In addition to elementary and
secondary schools (Gymnasium, Realgymnasium, and
Oberrealschule) a new secondary school,
Aufbauschule, was introduced educate gifted
children from lower classes for entry into
universities
National Assembly convened in the city of
Weimar to produce a new constitution after the
German Empire was abolished following nation's
defeat in WWI. Population - 62,000.
30
Adolf Hitler's Days From 1934-1945, Germany
came under Nazi philosophy fostering of sound,
healthy, and pure Germanic racial stock
development of citizens who were obedient to
authority and accepted responsibilities
dissemination of ordinary and useful culture
A major implementation at the universities was
politicalization (Hitler disfavored
intellectuals, and solely concentrated on
political accomplishments.) Hitler had an
incestual affair with his half-sister's daughter,
Geli Raubal, who was found shot to death (rumored
to have been murdered by Hitler for her
infidelity). Hitler was involved with Eva Braun
for 12 years, married her the day before both
committed suicide.
Around 1946-1960s, Germany was recovering from
Nazi hell, and the 10 German states were given
control of their own state's education. From
1989-1991, states had most direct responsibility
for primary and secondary education, with each
state having a Minister of Education. At this
time, there was an extensive development of
vocational and technical schools, due to
Germany's national economic development
Eva Braun
Geli Raubal
31
German Education Today Grundschule
elementary school, lasts for four or six years,
depending on state (parents have choces for
elementary schools state school, Waldorf
School, Montessori method, Protestant or Catholic
parochial schools) After Grundschule four
options to secondary schooling
Hauptschule least academic, until grade 9
Realschule middle school until grade 10
Gymnasium Grammar school, until grade 12 or
13, with exit exam qualifying for
university Gesamtschule comprehensive
school, with all options of three tracks
above
32
Russian Education
In 1828, Nicholas I established Nicholas
System - stop Russian liberalism by suppressing
people and ideas He favored an education that
called for autocracy, Orthodoxy, and nationalism
Parish schools existed for children of lowest
social classes, and district schools for children
of merchants, townspeople
Nicholas I
In 1864, Alexander II (Nicholas' son) created
zemstvo schools, which provided education in
rural villages and small towns outside of
Russia. Peasants were hesitant to receive
education preferred farm work. From
1881-1917, zemstvos enjoyed popularity and
improved elementary education.
Alexander II
33
Count Leo Tolstoy was significant in Russian
education because of his writings. He opened
school at Yasnaya Polyana, his estate, in 1859.
He proposed to establish a Society of National
Education in order to improve Russian
education. Tolstoy saw education as a morally
creative force advance human community.
Tolstoy married Sophia Behrs, who was 16 years
his junior, and had 13 children with her (five of
whom died). Tolstoy ran up a gambling debt while
at the university, failing academically and
socially. Had an illegitimate son with a married
peasant before marrying Behrs. In 1881,
Alexander III implemented tsarist autocracy
reinforce autocracy, Orthodoxy, and nationalism
(much like Nicholas I in 1828) On Jan. 25,
1905, Bloody Sunday occurred initial event
that led to end of tsarism Lenin's Bolsheviks
took power in 1917, and imposed a Communist
dictatorship in Russia. Nikolai Lenin
supported the implementation of coeducational
working-class schools in 1919 to achieve
economic modernization of the Soviet Union
34
Anatoli Lunacharski Worker's School
reflected Soviet philosophy of a classless
society in which every child would have an
identical education and an opportunity for higher
education Lunacharski borrowed from
Montessori, Dewey, Thorndike theories
Polytechnical education became popular (helped
produce classless society) In 1928, Joseph
Stalin introduced Five-Year Plan, which focused
on industrialization, and school became
authoritarian again. (train scientists,
technicians, and skilled workers) From
1945-53, A. A. Zhdanov implemented Stalinism very
harsh distorted scholarly research In 1956,
Nikita Khrushchev recommended returning to
polytechnical education (vocational schools),
however education in Russia focused on subject
matter disciplines, especially math and
science. In 1970, Russian education aimed to
establish academic skills with some vocational
training
35
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev applied principles
of Perestroika, restructuring the Soviet Union
(in education, re-educate the young generation),
and Glasnost, making the country's management
transparent and open for debate, therefore Soviet
people would support Perestroika (in education,
willingness to innovate) In 1991, Gorbachev
faced many difficulties trying to keep a unified
central government that he failed In 1995,
Gorbachev resigned as president of what was
Soviet Union. Gorbachev marked 20 years of
Perestroika in 2005 he resides in Moscow. In
May 2006, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was
signed between the U.S. Dept. of Education and
the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia
Federation to ensure a quality education and
skills to succeed in a global economy. Focus of
agreement is on math, science, information
technology, and foreign languages.
36
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tp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_Herbar
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37
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