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CTE, STEM and the Real World


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Title: CTE, STEM and the Real World

CTE, STEM and the Real World
  • Myths and Reality What the Data Show

James R. Stone III Director National Research
Center for CTE james.stone_at_louisville.edu
(No Transcript)
The work reported herein was supported under the
National Dissemination for Career and Technical
Education, PR/Award (No. VO51A990004) and /or
under the National Research Center for Career and
Technical Education, PR/Award (No. VO51A990006)
as administered by the Office of Vocational and
Adult Education, U. S. Department of
Education.However, the contents do not
necessarily represent the positions or policies
of the Office of Vocational and Adult Education
or the U. S. Department of Education, and you
should not assume endorsement by the Federal
Todays Agenda
  • A quick look at the labor market
  • A quick look at the 4x4
  • Strategy An Evidence Based Approach to
    Curriculum Integration
  • Strategy Building Effective Programs of Study
  • First, a bit of context . . .

HS Reform Labor Market Realities
  • to right these workplace problems, policy makers
    are looking in the wrong directionpaying
    attention to skills workers really need to
    succeed, not on an assumed set of skills that may
    not be so critical after all . . .
  • Robert Lerman (2008)

What does it take to obtain good jobs (Myth or
  • Research by American Diploma Project indicates
    that regardless if students go on to college or
    into the workforce after graduation, they still
    need the same knowledge and skills, particularly
    in English and mathematics. At a minimum, high
    school course requirements need to cover four
    years of rigorous English and four years of math,
    including Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, and
    data analysis and statistics.
  • The 4x4 approach

What the data show
  • 94 of workers reported using math on the job,
    but, only1
  • 22 reported math higher than basic
  • 19 reported using Algebra 1
  • 9 reported using Algebra 2
  • Among upper level white collar workers1
  • 30 reported using math up to Algebra 1
  • 14 reported using math up to Algebra 2
  • Less than 5 of workers make extensive use of
    Algebra 2, Trigonometry, Calculus, or Geometry on
    the job2
  • M. J. Handel survey of 2300 employees cited in
    What Kind of Math Matters Education Week, June
    12 2007
  • Carnevale Desrochers cited in What Kind of
    Math Matters Education Week, June 12 2007

The Fallacy of Composition What is true for the
individual will also be true for the large group
or society as a whole.
  • (Cappelli, 2008)

The Effect?
  • This would (and some argue has) lower the price
    of an educated worker (Cappelli, 2008)
  • Downward occupational mobility

Jobs Education A Growing Mismatch
  • Current Population Survey (2000)
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics (2002)

More Rhetoric
  • If trends in U.S. research and education
    continue, our nation will squander its economic
    leadership, and the result will be a lower
    standard of living for the American people. By
    2015 the country needs to double the number of
    bachelors degrees awarded annually to U.S.
    students in science, math, and engineering.
    (National Summit on Competitiveness 2005)
  • The United States faces an unprecedented
    challenge to its long-term global economic
    leadership. And a fall from leadership would
    threaten the security of the nation and the
    prosperity of its citizens. High school students
    in the U.S. perform well below those in other
    industrialized nations in the fields of
    mathematics and science and thus we need to
    make STEM education a national priority.
    (Council on Competitiveness 2004).

Based on Urban Myths
  • India China are producing more engineers than
  • US222,000 India215,000 China352,000
  • We are not graduating enough engineers
  • SE wages have actually declined in real terms
    and unemployment rates have increased

Duke University Study, 2006 Rand, 2006
What the data show
  • Analysis of the flow of students up through the
    SE pipeline, when it reaches the labor market,
    suggests the education system produces qualified
    graduates far in excess of demand
  • SE occupations make up only about one-twentieth
    of all workers,
  • and each year there are more than three times as
    many SE four-year college graduates as SE job
    openings Urban Institute, 2007.
  • 435,000 U.S. citizens and permanent residents a
    year graduated with bachelor's, master's, and
    doctoral degrees in science and engineering. Over
    the same period, there were about 150,000 jobs
    added annually to the science and engineering
    workforce. . http//www.businessweek.com/print/sma

The Real Labor Opportunity
  • Middle Skill Occupations

Fastest Growing Jobs - 2016
Real employment opportunities 45 growth in
Middle Skill Occupations (164 Million Workers by

Labor Market Skill Distribution - 2016
Jobs and Education What is Required
Middle Skill Occupations (B.A./B.S. NOT Required)
Salary 102,300 66,600 66,600 59,300 58,920 58,902
58,720 58,710 58,350 53,990 53,870
Occupation Air Traffic Controller Storage and
distribution manager Transportation
manager Non-retail sales manager Forest fire
fighting/prevention supervisor Municipal fire
fighting/prevention supervisor Real estate
broker Elevator installers and repairer Dental
hygienist Immigration and Customs
inspector Commercial pilot
Farr, M. Shatkin, L. (2006) The 300 Best Jobs
That Don't Require a Four-Year Degree. (US
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics)
What Employers Really Need
What are Employers not Getting?
What are the real school problems?
  • A high and rising drop out rate
  • Students who graduate are lacking in basic math
    and science skills
  • Most students think they are going to college but
    do not prepare for it or any other possible future

Getting kids ready for success requires a focus
  • Engagement attending school and completing
    (graduating) high school
  • Achievement academic (and technical) course
    taking grades, test scores
  • Transition to postsecondary education without
    the need for remediation and to the workplace.

  • What do we know?

of 9th Graders who complete High School
Source One-Third of a Nation (ETS, 2005)
National Graduation Rates for the Class of 2001
Urban Institute, 2002
81 of dropouts said real world learning may
have influenced them to stay in school
  • Bridgeland, et al - Gates Foundation Report, 2005

CTE and School Engagement
To be college and work ready, students need to
complete a rigorous sequence of courses
To cover the content American Diploma Project
research shows students need to be college and
work ready, high school graduates need to take
  • In math
  • Four courses
  • Content equivalent to Algebra I and II, Geometry,
    and a fourth course such as Statistics or
  • In English
  • Four courses
  • Content equivalent to four years of grade-level
    English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English)

Achievement Flat or Declining in Reading, 17 year
olds, NAEP
12.9 Academic Credits
19 Academic Credits
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress.
NAEP Science Scores 17 Year Olds
3.2 Science Credits
1.5 Science Credits
2.1 Science Credits
CTE Achievement
  • CTE concentrators take more and higher level math
    than general track counterparts (Stone Aliaga,
  • CTE concentrators increased 12th grade NAEP by 8
    scale points (vs 4 for non-CTE students) in
    reading 11 points (vs. no change for non-CTE
    students) in math (NAVE, 2004)
  • Students in schools with highly integrated,
    rigorous academic CTE programs have
    significantly higher student achievement in
    reading, math science than students in other
    schools (SREB, 2004)

Transition to college The Challenge
31 Leave with 0 Credits
68 Graduate HS in 4 Years
18 Graduate a 4-College in 5 Years
100 Start 9th Grade
40 Start College
27 Start Sophomore Year
Source Education Weekly March 2005
  • Once many of these same students get into
    college, 40 of four-year students and 63 of
    two-year students require remediation. (a report
    from Education Commission of the States)

Patrick M. Callan, Joni E. Finney, Michael W.
Kirst, Michael D. Usdan and Andrea Venezia, The
Governance Divide A Report on a Four-State Study
on Improving College Readiness and Success (San
Jose The National Center for Public Policy and
Higher Education, 2005).
Source NCES (2003), Remedial Education at
Degree Granting PS Institutions in fall 2000
College readiness (2005 ACT tested students)
College Degree At What Cost?
According to the Public Interest Research Group's
Higher Education Project, 39 percent of new
graduates with loans carry an "unmanageable debt,"
College Attendance and Completion
NAVE, 2004
Credential Acquisition
NAVE, 2004
CTE Transition to Work
  • CTE graduates are 10-15 more likely to be in the
    labor force and earn 8-9 more than academic
    graduates (Sage Foundation Report, 2001)
  • 7 years following graduation, CTE students had
    earnings that increased by 2 for every CTE
    course they took (NAVE,2004)
  • HS CTE concentrators are 2.5 times more likely to
    be working while pursuing postsecondary education
    than are college prep students (SREB, 2006)

CTE What do we know?
  • CTE keeps kids in school
  • CTE helps kids focus their PS education plans
  • CTE is an economic benefit to participants and to
  • CTE-based structures can affect achievement and
    transition of youth to college and work, but . .

Perkins IV requires . . .
  • Develop challenging academic and technical
    standards and related challenging, integrated

One approach
  • Math-in-CTE An evidenced based approach to
    improving academic performance of CTE students

Focus of the Study
  • Does enhancing the CTE curriculum with math
    increase math skills of CTE students?
  • Can we infuse enough math into CTE curricula to
    meaningfully enhance the academic skills of CTE
    participants (Perkins IV Core Indicator)
  • Without reducing technical skill development
  • What works?

HS Achievement In Math
3.6 math credits
2.4 Math Credits
1.7 Math Credits
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress and
NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.
Taking more math is no guarantee
  • 43 of ACT-tested Class of 20051 who earned A or
    B grades in Algebra II did not meet ACT College
    Readiness Benchmarks in math (75 chance of
    earning a C or better 50 chance of earning a B
    or better in college math)
  • 25 who took more than 3 years of math did not
    meet Benchmarks in math
  • (NOTE these data are only for those who took
    the ACT tests)

ACT, Inc. (2007) Rigor at Risk.
Key Features
  • Random assignment of teachers to experimental or
    control condition
  • Five simultaneous study replications
  • Three measures of math skills (applied,
    traditional, college placement)
  • Focus of the experimental intervention was
    naturally occurring math (embedded in curriculum)
  • A model of Curriculum Integration
  • A new model for Professional Development

Study Design Participants
  • Participants
  • Experimental CTE teacher
  • Math teacher
  • Control CTE teacher
  • Primary Role
  • Implement the math enhancements
  • Provide support for the CTE teacher
  • Teach their regular curriculum (health, auto
    tech, ag, business/mkt, IT)

Measuring Math Technical Skill Achievement
  • Global math assessments
  • Technical skill or occupational knowledge
  • General, grade level tests (Terra Nova,
    AccuPlacer, WorkKeys)

The Experimental Treatment
  • Professional Development
  • The Pedagogy

Professional Development
  • CTE-Math Teacher Teams occupational focus
  • Curriculum mapping
  • Scope and Sequence
  • Lesson Plan Development
  • On going collaboration CTE and math teachers

Auto Tech Electrical (partial)
Health Occupations (partial)
What we tested The Seven Elements Pedagogy
  • Introduce the CTE lesson
  • Assess students math awareness
  • Work through the embedded example
  • Work through related, contextual examples
  • Work through traditional math examples
  • Students demonstrate understanding
  • Formal assessment

Perkins IV Required Activity
  • Professional Development
  • Cannot be 1-day or short-term
  • Currency
  • Integration/rigor
  • Meet levels of performance
  • Coordinated with title II of ESEA

(No Transcript)
Pre Test Fall Terra Nova
Difference in Math Achievement
Post Test Spring Terra Nova Accuplacer WorkKeys
Skills Tests
What we found All CTEx vs All CTEcPost test
correct controlling for pre-test
p .08
p .03
p .02
Controlling for pre-test measures of math ability
Magnitude of Treatment Effect Effect Size
Terra Nova
the average percentile standing of the average
treated (or experimental) participant relative to
the average untreated (or control) participant
X Group
C Group
Carnegie Learning Corporation
Cognitive Tutor Algebra I
Does Enhancing Math in CTE
  • Affect Technical Skill Development?

What we found Time invested in Math Enhancements
  • Average of 18.55 hours across all sites devoted
    to math enhanced lessons (not just math but math
    in the context of CTE)
  • Assume a 180 days in a school year one hour per
    class per day
  • Average CTE class time investment 10.3

Power of the New Professional Development Model
Old Model PD
Total Surprise!
New Model PD
Perkins IV Programs of Study Another Strategy
  • Include . . .
  • Coherent and rigorous content
  • Aligned with challenging academic standards and
    relevant career and technical content
  • in a coordinated, non-duplicative progression of
    courses that align secondary education with
    postsecondary education . . . to adequately
    prepare students to succeed in postsecondary
  • Lead to an industry-recognized credential or
    certificate at the postsecondary level, or an
    associate or baccalaureate degree.

Replicating the Math-in-CTE ModelCore
  • Develop and sustain a community of practice
  • Begin with the CTE curriculum and not with the
    math curriculum
  • Understand math as essential workplace skill
  • Maximize the math in CTE curricula
  • CTE teachers are teachers of math-in-CTE NOT
    math teachers

Final thoughts Math-in-CTE
  • A powerful, evidence based strategy for improving
    math skills of students
  • A way but not THE way to help high school
    students master math
  • (other approaches NY BOCES)
  • Not a substitute for traditional math courses
  • Lab for mastering what many students learn but
    dont understand
  • Will not fix all your math problems

For more James.Stone_at_Louisville.edu
  • www.nccte.org
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