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## Metric Measurement

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### 1975 -The Metric Conversion Act of 1975 (Public Law 94-168) passed by Congress. ... However, the Metric Act was devoid of any target dates for metric conversion. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Metric Measurement

1
Chapter 6
• By Tens and Tenths
• Metric Measurement
• by Holly Baust and Chris Conover

2
History of Measurement
• Measure became important when humans began to
• i.e. how much grain, how large a horse, how long
a rope, etc.
• Units were agreed-upon and became standards for
systems of measurement
• Early standards included
• Span
• Palm
• Digit
• Foot
• Cubit
• Fathom

3
History of Measurement
• Example

4
English System of Measurement
• The standards were based on a king or another
prominent person.
• King Henry I
• Yard
• Tip of his nose to the tip of his thumb with his
arm stretched out
• Became basis for English system
• Still used in the United States
• Used almost nowhere else

5
History of the Metric System
• In 1790, Bishop Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
proposed a system.
• Based on one full swing per second made by a
pendulum
• Rejected by the French Academy of Sciences
because temperature and gravity differs
throughout the world.
• Instead, a system based on the length of a
sea-level meridian arc

6
The Meter
• Meter one ten-millionth of the meridian arc
• Advantage system is comprised of multiples of
powers of ten
• Multiples of ten less than a meter are named with
Latin prefixes
• Multiples of ten greater than a meter are named
with Greek prefixes

7
The Meter
Nano 0.000000001 10-9 Micro
0.000001 10-6 Milli 0.001 10-3
Centi 0.01 10-2 Deci 0.1
10-1 no prefix 1.0 100 Deka 10.0
101 Hecto 100.0 102 Kilo
1000.0 103 Mega 1,000,000. 106 Giga
1,000,000,000. 109
8
The Meter
• How did they determine the length of the meridian
arc?
• Instead of using the unit degree, the French
angular measure based on the powers of ten.
• Area, volume, and mass

9
History of the Metric System
• 1795 Republic of France accepted the French
• 1812 Napoleon discarded this system
• 1840 Napoleon reinstated it as the mandatory
French system
• 1875 17 countries signed the Treaty of the
Meter
• 1960 Meter redefined in terms of wavelength.
• 1983 Redefined again to the distance traveled
by light inside a vacuum during a second.

10
The U.S. and the Metric System
• 1866 Made the metric system legal, but not
mandatory in commerce.
• 1875 Signed the Treaty of the Meter
• 1975 Metric Conversion Act
• Urged voluntary conversion to the metric system
• U.S. is one of the last to adopt the metric
system as its official measurement system

11
Activity
Length

12
Timeline
• 1790 - Bishop Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
proposed a system based on the length of a
pendulum that would make one full swing per
second.
• 1795 -France officially adopted the metric
system.
• 1812 -Napoleon temporarily suspended the
compulsory provisions of the 1795 metric system
• 1840 -The metric system reinstated as the
compulsory system in France.
• 1866 - The use of the metric system made legal
(but not mandatory) in the United States. This
deal in metric quantities.

13
Timeline
• 1875 -The Convention of the Metre signed in Paris
by 17 nations, including the United States. The
Meter Convention, often called the Treaty of the
Meter in the United States, provided for
improved metric weights and measures and the
establishment of the General Conference on
Weights and Measures (CGPM) devoted to
international agreement on matters of weights
and measures.
• 1960 -The meter was redefined in terms of
wavelengths of light.
• 1975 -The Metric Conversion Act of 1975 (Public
Law 94-168) passed by Congress. The Metric Act
established the U.S. Metric Board to coordinate
and plan the increasing use and voluntary
conversion to the metric system. However, the
Metric Act was devoid of any target dates for
metric conversion.
• 1983 -The meter is redefined in terms of the
speed of light.

14
Future Timeline
• before the end of 2009
• The U.S. should allow metric-only packaging by
amending the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act
(FPLA). This would be a good step towards meeting
EU requirements for SI-only labels in 2009.
• 2009 December 31
exceptions) will be required to have only
SI-metric units on their labels. Dual labeling
will not be permitted. Implementation of the
labeling directive, previously 1999 December 31,
was extended by the EU Commission for 10 years,
giving more time for companies to comply and for
U.S. regulations to allow metric-only labeling on
consumer products.

15
Works Cited
• Berlinghoff, William P., and Fernando Q. Gouvêa.
Math Through the Ages a Gentle History for
Teachers and Others. Farmington Oxton House,
2002. 87-90.
• "Early Measurement History." ThinkQuest. Oracle
Education Fund. 11 Sept. 2006 kquest.org.
• "Toward a Metric America." The National Institute
of Standards and Technology. Dec. 2003. NIST. 6
Sept. 2006 .
• U.S. Metric Association. 3 Sept. 2006. U.S.
Metric Association. 3 Sept. 2006
.