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Ascent of Evolutionism

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Title: Ascent of Evolutionism


1
Ascent of Evolutionism
  • Chapter 5

2
Darwinism / Neo-Darwinism
  • Darwinism
  • Descent with modification
  • Evolution by natural selection
  • Neo-Darwinism
  • Held true to Darwin's original view of natural
    selection on inborn variations rather than on
    acquired characteristics

3
The X Club
Spencer?
Huxley?
  • Thomas Huxley - biologist professor of natural
    history at the Government School of Mines in
    London.
  • Joseph Dalton Hooker - botanist, named director
    of Kew Gardens in 1865.
  • Thomas Hirst, mathematician professor of
    mathematics at University College London.
  • Edward Frankland - chemist professor of
    chemistry at the Royal Institution.
  • John Tyndall - natural philosopher professor of
    philosophy at the Royal Institution
  • George Busk - zoologist former surgeon in the
    British Navy.
  • Sir John Lubbock - banker and archaeologist
  • Herbert Spencer - philosopher editor
  • William Spottiswoode - mathematician and
    physicist the Queen's printers.

Hooker?
4
The X Club
  • Goals
  • Change the examination procedure in natural
    history, botany, zoology and medicine
  • Remove religion from exams
  • Promote serious research in natural history
  • Promote Darwinism
  • Spread liberal opinions

5
The X Club
  • Achievements
  • Memberships
  • Linnaean society
  • Royal Society
  • Athenaeum Club
  • British Association for the Advancement of
    Science
  • As Examiners modified exams for the Army, Navy
    and University of London
  • Founded Nature in 1869
  • Fought with the Ethnological Society against
    slavery
  • Lobbied for Darwin to receive the Copley Medal

6
Haeckel
  • 1834-1919
  • Darwins bulldog in Germany
  • PhD in Medicine
  • He has completely satisfied his teachers of his
    moral fitness and in no small degree has won for
    himself their loveHe has good understanding of
    Christianity and a warm appreciation of it.
  • PhD in Zoology
  • Studied comparative anatomy, psychology,
    philosophy, marine invertebrate anatomist,
    botanist, artist

7
Tree of Life
Darwin
Haeckel
8
Pithecanthropus(Apeman)
Top views of the skulls of a chimpanzee, the Java
Man skullcap, and a Neanderthal. (Taken from
Fossil Men, Boule and Vallois 1957)
9
Haeckel
  • Recapitulation
  • ontogenesis is a brief and rapid recapitulation
    of phylogenesis, determined by the physiological
    functions of heredity (generation) and adaptation
    (maintenance).
  • "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"

10
Haeckels embryo sketches
Fish Chick Pig Human
11
Haeckel
  • Monism
  • Unity of the spiritual and the material
  • a Connecting-Link between Religion and
    Science.
  • Applied natural laws to human society
  • Championed a centralized state as he driving
    force for human progress through racial
    competition, group sacrifice and international
    war

12
Interpretation and Social Implications of
Darwinism
  • Haeckel
  • Nazi party used Haeckel's quotes and
    justifications for racism, nationalism and social
    Darwinism
  • Wallace
  • Pacifist
  • Called for the redistribution of wealth and land
  • Did not attribute humanity to natural selection
  • Do current issues in science have such polarized
    social interpretations?

13
Darwinism contested
  • Not all traits develop via natural selection
  • Natural selection is too slow to account for high
    diversity of organism for the age of the earth
  • Infrequent, though beneficial, traits will be
    swamped out
  • Not supported by discontinuities in fossil record

14
Alternation Theories of Evolution
  • Theistic evolution
  • Neo-Lamarckism
  • Orthogenesis
  • Saltational

15
Theistic Evolution
  • Asa Gray - naturalist in the United States
  • Fading among the scientific community in the late
    19th century
  • Still around todayhttp//www.theisticevolution.or
    g
  • The study of origins is a fascinating field. It
    attracts intelligent people. And these people
    will reject the existence of God if they feel
    restricted in their options
  • Creationism Theism (7 day creation)
  • Evolution Atheism (existence is by chance)
  • Insert the middle ground, and the choices are not
    so rigid.
  • Theistic Evolution Theism (theistic creation
    via evolution)

16
Neo-Lamarckism
  • Modifications acquired within and individuals
    life time can be inherited
  • Modifications may be due to use or environment
  • Pro allowed evolution to proceed more quickly
  • Con- poorly tested experimentally

17
Orthogenesis
  • Spin off of Lamarckism
  • Theodore Eimer, German zoologist
  • Variation acquired is due to some fixed goal
  • Evolution proceeds in a predetermined direction
    and not via selection
  • Evidence for orthogenesis
  • Not all traits are adaptive (Irish elk)
  • Pro - allowed evolution to proceed more quickly
  • Con- cannot be tested experimentally or documented

18
Saltational / Mutation
  • Evolution proceeds in jumps fed by heredity
    mutations
  • Supported by discontinuity of fossil record
  • Pro
  • Evolution can proceed quickly
  • Large variations less likely to be swamped out
  • Documented cases
  • Con mutations are rare
  • Goldschmidts Hopeful Monster 1940

19
Genetics in the distance
  • Darwin
  • Pangenesis
  • Gemmules- molecules generated by each body part
    containing hereditary information for that body
    part
  • Haeckel
  • Evolution directed by matter within the nucleus
  • Weismann- microscopist
  • Viewed chromosomes and theorized that they
    contained germ plasm
  • Each cell contained hereditary information of the
    entire body
  • Tested experimentally with mice
  • Wallace focused on variation of traits within
    populations versus individuals (first ideas of
    population genetics)

20
  • References
  • Articles
  • Barton, R. 1998. Huxley, Lubbock, and Half a
    Dozen Others. Professionals and Gentlemen in the
    Formation of the X Club, 1851-1864. Isis
    89410-444.
  • Bowler, P. 1979.Theodor Eimer and Orthogenesis
    Evolution by Definitely Directed Variation.
    Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied
    Sciences 3440-73
  • Dietrich, M. R. 2003. Richard Goldschmidt
    hopeful monsters and other heresies. Nature
    Reviews Genetics 468-74.
  • MacLeod, R. M. 1970. The X-Club a Social Network
    of Science in Late-Victorian England. Notes and
    Records of the Royal Society of London. 24
    305-322.
  • Richards, R. J. 2005. Ernst Haecekl and the
    Struggles over Evolution and Religion. Annals of
    the History and Philosophy of Biology 1089-115
  • Books
  • The Riddle of the Universe by Ernst Haeckel
  • Websites
  • Haeckel http//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/haeck
    el.html
  • Weismann http//www.nceas.ucsb.edu/alroy/lefa/Wei
    smann.html
  • Theistic Evolution http//www.theisticevolution.o
    rg/
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