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Basics of Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity

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WHY DO WE STUDY GROWTH? MAKE COMPARISONS. compare a child or group to a set of comparative data ... only ONCE. gives status at a GIVEN TIME. DISADVANTAGES: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basics of Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity


1
Basics of Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity
2
BASICS
Why study growth? How do we study
growth? Introduction and history.
  • What is Growth?
  • What is Maturation?
  • What is Development?
  • How do these all interact?

GROWTH
SELF-CONCEPT
DEVELOPMENT
MATURATION
3
GROWTH
  • DEFINITION an increase in size of the body as
    whole or in specific body parts
  • focus SIZE
  • systematic ongoing process
  • INVOLVED size, proportion, physique, and
    composition

4
  • Then what is SIZE?
  • Then what is PROPORTION?
  • Then what is PHYSIQUE?
  • Then what is COMPOSITION?

5
MATURATION
  • DEFINITION the tempo and timing of progress
    towards the mature biological state.
  • Focus RATE
  • process depends on the system
  • SYSTEMS skeletal, sexual, dental and
    neuromuscular
  • EXAMPLES
  • SEXUAL MATURATION means fully functional
    reproductive capability REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • SKELETAL MATURATION means a fully ossified
    skeleton determine age of the skeleton
    SKELETAL SYSTEM

6
DEVELOPMENT
  • DEFINITION competence in the following areas
  • cognitive, emotional, social, moral, and motor
    factors
  • FOCUS competence
  • 2 CONTEXTS behavioral biological

7
CONTEXTS OF DEVELOPMENT
  • BIOLOGICAL differentiation of cells along
    specialized lines of function (prenatal).
  • BEHAVIORAL competence in a variety of domains
    as the child adjusts to the environment.

8
HOW THESE TERMS INTERACT?
  • Biological and behavioral development will
    interact to shape the individual
  • Self-concept or self esteem how do you perceive
    yourself in what you do?

9
HOW THESE TERMS INTERACT
GROWTH
MATURATION
DEVELOPMENT
size physique body composition
motor social emotional cognitive
somatic sexual skeletal neuromuscular
SELF CONCEPT
10
WHY DO WE STUDY GROWTH?
  • MAKE COMPARISONS
  • compare a child or group to a set of comparative
    data
  • OBSERVE HUMAN VARIABILITY
  • understand human biological variation
  • the only way an adult can become an adult is
    through the process of growth and maturation.
  • However processes are PLASTIC!!
  • nutrition, disease, genetics etc.

11
QUESTIONS WE CAN ASK
  • Will the level of maturation affect physical
    performance?
  • How do you deal with variation in your classroom,
    on your sports team or even as a parent?

12
What is the impact of changes in size on
performance?
13
SAME AGE???
14
Chronological age/age groups
  • Infancy birth to 1
  • Childhood
  • Early 1 5
  • Middle 6 12
  • Adolescence
  • About 10-18
  • Boys 10-22
  • Girls 8-19

15
How can/do we study growth?
  • Status and progress.

HOW
WHERE
16
STATUS
  • the attained size
  • level of maturation at a given point in time
    (distance traveled)
  • HOW WE USE STATUS
  • comparisons how one child compares to another
    of the same age and sex
  • EXAMPLE CDC Growth Charts (2000)
  • Comparisons to reference values of healthy
    children of same age and sex.

17
PROGRESS
  • implies change
  • progress over time VELOCITY
  • an indication RATE
  • involves maturation (biological process) relative
    to chronological age
  • CLASSIFIED AS
  • early, on time or late
  • HOW WE USE PROGRESS
  • how one child grows (fast or slow) over a period
    of time

18
WHY WOULD THIS BE IMPORTANT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
AND SPORT?
  • Growth in terms of implications to physical
    activity, fitness, etc
  • Trainability
  • sensitivity to training
  • optimal time to begin regular training
  • Readiness
  • match between a childs level of growth,
    maturity, and development and the task demands
    presented in competitive sports.

19
  • QUESTION Is a child ready in terms of all 3
    aspects (growth, maturation, development) at the
    same time?

20
SCAMMONS CURVES
  • Proposed that growth of different tissues and
    systems could be summed into 4 parts
  • Size was expressed as a percent of 100

21
THE 4 PARTS OF THE CURVE
  • 1. GENERAL BODY CURVE describes most systems
    of the body including height and weight
  • 2. NEURAL CURVE describes the brain and
    related parts.
  • 3. GENITAL CURVE primary sexual
    characteristics and secondary sexual
    characteristics.
  • 4. LYMPHOID CURVE describes the tissues
    related to immunological tissues (resistance to
    disease).

22
SCAMMONS CURVES
  • GENERAL BODY CURVE
  • Rapid in Birth - 2yrs
  • Steady but constant in 6 - 12 yrs
  • Rapid growth in adolescent growth spurt (12 yrs)
  • Slow increase and eventual stop after adolescence

23
SCAMMONS CURVES
  • NEURAL CURVE
  • Describes the brain and related parts
  • Rapid growth in early life
  • By 6 yrs of age, brain is 95 of its adult size
  • Includes the CNS

24
SCAMMONS CURVES
  • GENITAL CURVE
  • Primary and secondary sexual characteristics
  • Little growth in childhood
  • Rapid growth in adolescence

25
SCAMMONS CURVES
  • LYMPHOID CURVE
  • Describes the tissues related to the
    immunological system
  • 1. See a down slope after age 12 due to thymus
    gland beginning to atrophy
  • Early in life develop resistance to disease

26
IMPORTANT PARTS OF SCAMMONS CURVES
  • The body grows
  • In different AREAS (systems)
  • At different TIMES
  • At different RATES
  • So post natal growth is variable.

27
HOW (process) we grow versus how we MEASURE
(outcome) growth.
28
HOW WE GROW (Processes)
  • HYPERPLASIA increase in cell NUMBER
  • HYPERTROPHY (auxetic growth) increase in cell
    SIZE
  • ACCRETION an increase in the SUBSTANCES that
    hold the cells together found between cells (ex.
    bone mineral, collagen)

29
SO WHAT IS GROWTH VERSUS HOW DO WE STUDY IT?
  • COMMON MEASUREMENTS
  • We cannot measure growth or maturation, instead
    we measure the OUTCOMES of growth and maturation.

30
TYPES OF DESIGNS USED IN THE STUDY OF GROWTH AND
MATURATION
  • cross sectional
  • longitudinal
  • mixed

31
CROSS SECTIONAL DESIGN
  • at a given age measured each individual only ONCE
  • gives status at a GIVEN TIME
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • child is represented only once
  • can only provide information on status (where)
  • status provides how big they are versus that
    POPULATION

32
EXAMPLE population is gymnasts
Age 8
Age 12
Age 10
Age 14
33
LONGITUDINAL DESIGN
  • repeated observations on the same individuals at
    specific intervals over a period of time
  • provides information for STATUS and PROGRESS
    (rate)
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • takes long time
  • sample size gets smaller every year

34
EXAMPLE population 1 soccer player over a 6
year time frame
Age 8
Age 10
Age 14
Age 12
35
MIXED LONGITUDINAL DESIGN
  • combination of cross section and longitudinal
  • can be measured on all occasions while some
    measured on only several occasions
  • gives status
  • uses statistics to derive progress or rate
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • more complicated
  • set specific ages to study 4, 8, 12, 16 and each
    child followed at regular intervals over the next
    4 years

36
EXAMPLE population of field hockey players
Then measure again at age 22.
Group C Age 18
Group A Age 10
Then measure again at age 14.
Group B Age 14
Then measure again at age 18.
37
MEASUREMENT ERROR
Who checks the checker?????
38
DEFINITIONS OF AGE
  • HOW you are grouped by age?
  • Chronological age age assigned by calendar year
  • Example 9.0 9.99 and average 9.5
  • Example 8.5 9.49 and average 9.0
  • IMPLICATIONS
  • Skeletal age age determined by the ossification
    of the bones, reflects more of the physiological
    age
  • IMPLICATIONS

39
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STATUS AND RATE
  • Measure of GROWTH STATUS if a child is measured
    at ONE point in time
  • examples would be (cm)
  • status is also called distance
  • Measure of GROWTH RATE if a child is measured
    at regular INTERVALS
  • examples would be (cm/year)
  • rate is also called velocity
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