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History of fishing and fisheries

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'Then, now you and I have come to an understanding, not only about the name off ... Exceptions were: a cove of the sea bordering on a man's land, or public rivers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of fishing and fisheries


1
History of fishing and fisheries
  • Ancient history, many legends
  • Artistic representations from the Egyptians

2
History of fishing and fisheries
  • Angling defined by Plato
  • Then, now you and I have come to an
    understanding, not only about the name off the
    Anglers art, but about the definition of the
    thing itself. One half of all Art was
    acquisitive one half of this again was hunting ,
    and half of hunting was hunting animals of this
    again the under half was fishing, and half of
    fishing was striking a part of striking was
    fishing with a barb, and one half of this again
    (being the kind which strikes with a hook and
    draws the fish from bellow upwards) is the Art we
    have been seeking, and which from the nature of
    the operation is denoted Angling or drawing up

3
History of fishing and fisheries
  • So it seems that Plato did no think much of
    fishing or fishers. If that not enough proof
    listen to this
  • And now, let us address young men in the form of
    a prayer for their welfare O Friends, may no
    desire of hunting in the sea, or of catching the
    creatures in the waters, ever take possession of
    you, either when you are awake, or when you are
    asleep, by hooks, with wheels, which latter is a
    very lazy contrivance, and let no desire of
    catching men, or piracy by sea, enter into your
    souls.

4
History of fishing and fisheries
  • Plato then adds
  • Only the best of hunting is allowed at all,
    which is carried on by men with horses, dogs, and
    mens own persons. Fishing is not an occupation
    worthy of a man well born or well brought up,
    because it demands more of address and ruse than
    force, and is not for young people, like hunting,
    the occasion of healthy exercise

5
History of fishing and fisheries
  • Another famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle, in
    his book Natural History is the first writer to
    note that fish scales make possible age
    computation
  • what the feather is in a bird, the scale is in a
    fish and that the scales of fish become harder
    and thicker and in those which are wasting or
    aging, become still harder so that the old fish
    are distinguishable by the size and the hardness
    of their scales so that in Murex which lives for
    about six years and its annual increase is seen
    in the divisions on the helix of its shell

6
History of fishing and fisheries
  • It is a Roman, Martial, who reports the first
    fishing regulation
  • Fishing strictly prohibited because the fish
    are sacred to the Emperor Domitian and a previous
    intruder was smitten blind in the very act of
    landing his fish

7
History of fishing and fisheries
  • Romans thought that
  • fish and wild animals were in a state of nature
    and thus belonged to no one
  • fish become property of the person who first
    captures them
  • the sea and public rivers were not capable of
    individual ownership
  • that no citizen could be prevented from fishing
    in the sea and such rivers by any person.
    Exceptions were a cove of the sea bordering on a
    mans land, or public rivers could be protected
    from fishing

8
History of fishing and fisheries
  • Literature on fishing is also, plentiful in the
    East, particularly in China going back to at
    least 1100 BC
  • E.g. In 473 BC, Fan Lee (in China) wrote a book
    on carp aquaculture
  • Aquaculture now constitutes the fastest-growing
    portion of world fisheries output.

9
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • 1200 AD English Common Law
  • fish belonged to the Crown,
  • they regulated fishing and the highest priority
    on royal uses
  • In the New World, regulation was not pressing
  • Curiously, Common in American law meant the
    common people

10
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • 1600-1800 New World
  • 1639 - public allocation in Mass Bay colony after
    declines
  • first tax on cod and striped bass to support
    school system
  • 1670s - restrictions on early season mackerel
    fishing
  • 1684 - seines prohibited in Plymouth

11
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Western US
  • Salmon and halibut fished by natives
  • No regulatory allocations practices were tribal
    customs and beliefs
  • Civil War era
  • Recreational fishers pressure for limits
  • MA had 4000 people in cod/whale fisheries (more
    than in 1980!)

12
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Early 1900s
  • Steam power, otter trawl
  • Improved efficiency
  • Later diesel engines, hydraulic power blocks,
    on-board refrigeration
  • Stocks begin to decline (inshore bass, salmon,
    shad)

13
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Early 1900s
  • Commissions formed
  • ICES International Council for the Exploration
    of the Sea
  • Pacific halibut Commission
  • International Whaling Commission
  • International salmon fisheries Commission

14
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • 1871
  • US Congress establishes the Office of the
    Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries
  • 1903
  • Office of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries
    becomes Bureau of Fisheries (Dept. Commerce)
  • 1939
  • Bureau of Fisheries combined with Bureau of
    Biological Survey to become Fish Wildlife
    Service (Dept. Interior)

15
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Conflict between commercial and recreational
    interests leads to creation of (US FWS)
  • Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
  • Bureau of Sport Fisheries Wildlife
  • 1970marine fisheries management transferred to
  • NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA,
    Dept of Commerce)

16
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Early 1900s
  • Regulation of commercial fishing necessary
    globally
  • Inland, freshwater stocks already regulated by
    States
  • Regulation of coastal stocks not as easy
    interstate and international agreements necessary

17
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • WW2
  • Many stocks rebound, but effect does not last
    long
  • 1949
  • ICNAF
  • 1950
  • IATTC
  • 1953
  • INPC

18
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • 1950s
  • Factory ships very large hauls
  • Expansion of foreign fleets
  • Spaniards 4.5 of total tonnage of foreign
    vessels, but 28 of cod catch
  • Many collapses eventually occur

19
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Perus anchoveta fishery
  • Fish meal in early 1950s
  • Stimulated by collapse of California sardine
  • mid1960s-largest fishery in the world
  • 1972-73 El Niño event
  • Inshore concentration
  • Poor juvenile survival
  • Recruitment failure
  • 1970s
  • Reductions in catch needed, but
  • Govt. unwilling/unable to react
  • Economically unimportant

20
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
21
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Atlantic herring in North Sea
  • 1903-65s 300,000 - 1MMT
  • 1960s Decline

22
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Atlantic herring in North Sea
  • Scientists dont detect overexploitation
  • Huge delays in enforcing regulations
  • 2 major problems of stock assessment
  • Cannot usually detect overfishing until it is
    severe
  • Difficult to effectively reduce fishing pressure
    (social, economic)

23
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • Collapses lead to
  • Declaration of 200 mile fishing rights
  • 1950-70, in US foreign fleets outcompete domestic
    fisheries
  • ICNAF imposes mesh-size regulation, but leads to
    increased effort

24
History of fishing and fisheries modern times
  • 1976
  • Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act
    (MFCMA)
  • Restrict foreign fishing and revitalize domestic
    fishing
  • Stocks improve temporarily, but huge increase in
    domestic effort
  • 1996
  • Re-authorizationof the Magnuson (-Stevens)
    Fishery Conservation and Management Act
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