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Animal Testing


Todd will be discussing current practices in animal testing, what ... No great apes (that is chimpanzees, gorillas, and orang-utans) have been used in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Testing

Animal Testing
  • Adam Hazenfeld
  • Drew Loper
  • Ryan Burket
  • Todd Handley

  • Todd will be discussing current practices in
    animal testing, what companies do
  • Adam will be discussing deontological
    perspectives in animal testing.
  • Drew will also be discussing deontological
    perspectives on animal testing.
  • Ryan will be discussing the practices that
    companies should be performing.

What companies do
  • Revlon Cosmetics was one of the first large
    companies to fund research for alternatives with
    a 750,000 contribution to the Rockefeller
    University in 1979.( are they doing this because
    they are animal testing and dont want to look
    like they are totally insensitive to this issue?)
  • Proctor and Gamble are estimated to use up to
    50,000 animals per year for testing. In 1991 the
    started testing on several guinea pigs to see
    irritancy for sunscreens, for which there was
    already data available.
  • British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection
    (BUAV) recently uncovered details of an
    experiment carried out for Colgate-Palmolive by
    Columbia University in which guinea pigs were
    locked into small plastic tubes and a strong
    solution of surfactant was applied for four hours
    a day for three days, causing cracked and
    bleeding skin on the animals.

Statistics from 2001 to 2002
  • The total number of procedures on animals in 2002
    rose to 2.7 million, an increase of 4 from the
    previous year. (2001 had seen the lowest number
    of procedures reported since the current
    legislation in 1986).
  • 60 of all procedures on living animals are
    performed without any form of anaesthesia.
  • Procedures on genetically manipulated
    (transgenic) animals now represent a quarter of
    all procedures, and have increased by 12 from
    last year. Procedures on transgenic animals have
    consistently risen every year since 1990 when
    they represented a mere 1.5 of the total.
  • The number of procedures on mice, rats. sheep,
    pigs, birds and fish increased in 2002.
    Procedures on dogs and primates were similar to
    the previous year. Procedures guinea pigs,
    hamsters, rabbits, cats, amphibians, and
    horses/donkeys/crossbreeds decreased.

Stats from 2001 to 2002 (cont)
  • There were no procedures on octopus, greyhounds,
    camelids, baboons or great apes. No great apes
    (that is chimpanzees, gorillas, and orang-utans)
    have been used in Great Britain since before the
    introduction of the current legislation in 1986.
  • Categories of research Procedures on animals for
    fundamental biological research increased by 11,
    and now represent 31 of the total. Use of
    animals for the research, development and testing
    of drugs has been decreasing for several years
    and now account for 24 of the total.
  • Toxicity tests accounted for 18 of all
    procedures. Toxicity testing of foodstuffs,
    household products, and agricultural chemicals
    increased, while tests of industrial substances
    decreased. Testing of cosmetic products or
    ingredients is no longer permitted in the UK.
  • There was a disturbing increase in tests to
    detect cancer-causing substances and short-term
    lethal toxicity tests. Eye irritancy tests and
    pyrogenicity tests continued to decrease in 2002

Stats from 2001 to 2002 (cont)
  • Procedures on animals for the production of
    monoclonal antibodies fell by 28. All these
    procedures were for the initial immunization of
    animals, and none were for raising monoclonal
    antibodies in the abdomens of living animals
    (ascites method), thanks to the development of
    cell culture alternatives.
  • There were 31 infringements recorded during 2002.
    Of these, 26 were categorised as Class Two or
    Three infringements, and as such are defined as
    potentially criminal offences. However, no
    licences were revoked and there were no

3 Principles of Deontology
  • Responsibilities you are obligated to do
  • -Stronger the relationship more responsibility
    to that relationship
  • Determine if you are using someone solely as a
    means to an end
  • Some Actions are Unethical
  • -Uses Kants Categorical Imperative I ought
    not act

Responsibilities you are obligated to do?
  • Humans Humans
  • -Greater relationship to each other
  • Duty to find cures for diseases and ailments that
    affect humans
  • Rational Beings- Animals are not capable of
    formulating and acting out of respect of the
    moral law

Responsibilities you are obligated to do? (cont)
  • We have duty not to abuse animals for the point
    of personal pleasure
  • We have a duty to minimize the amount of
    unnecessary suffering in animals
  • Have a duty to find alternative methods of animal

Using someone solely as a means to an end
  • Animals are not rational beings
  • Ethical to use animals in testing
  • Caution against wastefulness and excessive
  • Kant-animals have value in serving human purposes

Deciding if actions are ethical
  • Outcomes do not decide if actions are ethical
  • Actions are done out of duty
  • Some actions are clearly wrong and some are right
  • Kants Categorical Imperative

Rosss Prima Facie Duties
  • Some duties more important than others
  • Duty which has to be performed unless its
    outweighed by another duty
  • Finding a cure for Cancer, AIDS, etc

Minimizing Pain
  • The Minimum Pain Principle
  • Pain Studies without Consciousness

Training of Scientists
  • Attitudes of Scientists
  • Consider animals as subjects
  • Maximal Theoretical Expertise and Technical Skill

Trends of Animals Used in Experiments in the US
Great BritainAnimal Experimentation
  • 1980 total was 4.6 million animals
  • 1990 total was 3.2 million animals
  • Reduction of over 30 percent

CanadaAnimal Experimentation
  • 1977 total was 2.1 million
  • 1989 total was 1.3 million
  • 38 percent decrease
  • Primate use has decreased by 55 percent

NetherlandsAnimal Experimentation
  • 1988 total was 1.1 million
  • 1990 total was 951,000
  • A reduction of 10.5 percent

The Three Rs
  • Replacement alternatives
  • Refinement alternatives
  • Reduction alternatives

Reduction Alternative
  • Methods for obtaining comparable levels of
  • Experimental design and inappropriate statistical
    analysis problems
  • Goes back to initial training of scientists

Examples for Reduction
  • Computer modeling
  • Advanced analytical techniques
  • In vitro techniques
  • Other alternative testing methods

  • Although animal testing is necessary and ethical,
    as humans we have the duty to minimize the harm
    involved and reduce the number of animals used in