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CONSERVATION SC 208 Our Energy Future April 21, 2006 John Bush

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DEFINITIONS OF CONSERVATION. Preservation (OED) From waste. Of ... IS CONSERVATION A ... Economics driven conservation always operates but not usually at ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CONSERVATION SC 208 Our Energy Future April 21, 2006 John Bush


1
CONSERVATIONSC 208 Our Energy FutureApril 21,
2006 John Bush
2
DEFINITIONS OF CONSERVATION
  • Preservation (OED)
  • From waste
  • Of existing conditions
  • Of the environment, especially natural resources
  • Deliberate, planned or thoughtful preserving,
    guarding, or protecting (Websters)
  • The planned management of a natural resource to
    prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect
  • The wise utilization of a natural product so as
    to prevent waste and ensure future use of
    resources that have been depleted

3
  • What are we trying to conserve?
  • What reasons are offered to conserve it?

4
WHAT?
  • Petroleum conservationPC
  • Energy conservationEC
  • Resource conservationRC

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WHY?WHAT ARE WE TRYING TO PRESERVE?
  • To preserve the capitalist economic system (the
    global economy as presently defined) by achieving
    economic goals as they are being presently
    defined--CP
  • To preserve the degree of freedom Americans have
    (subject primarily to economic constraints) with
    regard to the places they live and the lifestyles
    they adoptSP
  • To preserve for future generations the resources
    they may need (waste is morally bad)GP
  • To preserve the biosphere by minimizing the
    impacts of human actionEP
  • To transform the capitalist economic system into
    one that more fairly distributes the costs and
    benefits of human activity --CT

8
NATURAL CAPITALISM
  • Paul Hawken, Amory Lovens, Hunter Lovens
  • To harness the talent of business to solve the
    worlds deepest environmental and social
    problems
  • People could live twice as well but use half as
    much material and energy by combining
    innovations in business practice and public
    policy

9
NATURAL CAPITALISMASSUMPTIONS
  • Natural capital (resources, living systems, and
    ecosystem services) is the limiting factor in
    economic development
  • For a sustainable economy must deal with badly
    designed business systems, population growth, and
    wasteful consumption
  • All forms of capital must be fully valued human,
    manufactured, financial, natural
  • Sustainability depends on redressing global
    inequities of income and material well-being
  • Democratic systems of government based on the
    needs of people rather than of business are
    required.

10
RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY
  • Doing more with less (differs from economic
    efficiency)
  • Only 6 of materials end up in products
  • The economy operates at 10 of theoretical
    energy-use efficiency
  • Waste and noise are signs of inefficiency
  • Many government programs encourage inefficiency

11
OPPORTUNITY
  • Americans waste or cause the waste of one million
    pounds of materials/year
  • US Energy consumption in 2003 98,156 Trillion
    Btu
  • Transportation 27
  • Residential 22
  • Commercial 18
  • Industrial 33
  • US Energy intensity Btu/ of goods and services
    produced
  • 1970 9130 Btu
  • 2003 4320 Btu
  • About ½ of reduction is due to efficiency
    improvements
  • Rest is due to service economy and offshore
    manufacturing

12
IS CONSERVATION A RATIONAL GOAL?
  • Jevons Paradox as technological improvements
    increase the efficiency with which a resource is
    used the consumption of that resource may
    increase rather than decrease
  • Huber and Mills the virtue of waste

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  • In what parts of the US are the opportunities
    greatest?

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  • What are the opportunities by sector?

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SECTORS
  • Agricultural/Food system
  • Industrial
  • Power generation/distribution

22
FOOD
  • More than 15 of the energy used in the US goes
    to provide, process, and distribute food
  • Food processing, packaging and distribution 40
  • Refrigeration and cooking 40
  • Farming 20 (about ½ is for chemicals)
  • US Farms use about ten times the energy from
    fossil fuel that they return in food energy
  • There are many small opportunities e.g. crop
    drying, heat recovery, reuse farm wastes that can
    aggregate if widely employed

23
INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
  • Economics driven conservation always operatesbut
    not usually at the systems level
  • There are some commonalities but many programs
    are industry specific
  • All industries react to energy cost
  • Materials processing industries steel, chemicals
    , glass use energy intensive raw materials

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DOE PROGRAMS EMPHASIS
  • Specific industries
  • Combined heat and power systems
  • Motors
  • Steam systems
  • Compressed air systems
  • Continuous fiber composites
  • Combustion
  • Sensors and controls

30
ELECTRIC POWER
  • Generation efficiency
  • Transmission
  • Storage
  • Distribution
  • Control

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DOE PROGRAMS EMPHASES
  • Superconductivity
  • Energy storage
  • Demand management systems
  • Distributed generation
  • Electric industry restructuring
  • Electricity reliability
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