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Title:

GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1

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Geospatial database of hydrologic features. Curved earth and a flat map ... Kissimmee watershed, Florida. Themes. Attributes of a Selected Feature. Raster and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1


1
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Land and water interaction
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Curved earth and a flat map

2
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map

3
Six Basic Course Elements
  • Lectures
  • Powerpoint slides
  • Video streaming
  • Readings
  • Modeling our World
  • Narratives written around slides
  • Homework
  • Term Project
  • Oral presentation
  • HTML report
  • Class Interaction
  • Email
  • Chat room
  • Examinations
  • Midterm, final

4
Learning Styles
  • Instructor-Centered Presentation
  • Community-Centered Presentation

Instructor
Student
5
University Without Walls
6
Distance Learning
Dr David Tarboton 21 students at Utah State
University
Dr David Maidment 34 students at UT Austin
Dr Tarboton will present lectures on Sept
18-30 on spatial and terrain analysis with grids
7
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map

8
Geographic Data Model
  • Conceptual Model a set of concepts that
    describe a subject and allow reasoning about it
  • Mathematical Model a conceptual model expressed
    in symbols and equations
  • Data Model a conceptual model expressed in a
    data structure (e.g. ascii files, Excel tables,
    …..)
  • Geographic Data Model a conceptual model for
    describing and reasoning about the world
    expressed in a GIS database

9
Data Model based on Inventory of data layers
10
Spatial Data Vector format
Vector data are defined spatially
(x1,y1)
Point - a pair of x and y coordinates
vertex
Line - a sequence of points
Node
Polygon - a closed set of lines
11
Themes or Data Layers
Vector data point, line or polygon features
12
Kissimmee watershed, Florida
Themes
13
Attributes of a Selected Feature
14
Raster and Vector Data
Raster data are described by a cell grid, one
value per cell
Vector
Raster
Point
Line
Zone of cells
Polygon
15
Santa Barbara, California
http//srtm.usgs.gov/srtmimagegallery/index.html
16
How do we combine these data?
Digital Elevation Models
Streams
Watersheds
Waterbodies
17
An integrated raster-vector database
18
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map

19
GIS in Water Resources Consortium
Water Resources
  • Bringing together these two communities by using
    a common geospatial data model

20
Data Model Based on Behavior
Follow a drop of water from where it falls on
the land, to the stream, and all the way to the
ocean. R.M. Hirsch, USGS
21
Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral
Model
Relationships between objects linked by tracing
path of water movement
22
Arc Hydro GIS for Water Resources
Published by ESRI Press
The Arc Hydro data model and application tools
are in the public domain
23
Arc Hydro Hydrography
24
Arc Hydro Hydrology
25
Arc Hydro Components
26
Hydrologic Information System
Analysis, Modeling, Decision Making
Arc Hydro Geodatabase
27
Nexrad Radar Rainfall Map
28
Nexrad Map to Flood Map in Model Builder
Flood map as output
Model for flood flow
HMS
Model for flood depth
Nexrad map as input
29
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map

30
Origin of Geographic Coordinates
Equator
(0,0)
Prime Meridian
31
Latitude and Longitude
Longitude line (Meridian)
N
W
E
S
Range 180ºW - 0º - 180ºE
Latitude line (Parallel)
N
W
E
S
(0ºN, 0ºE) Equator, Prime Meridian
Range 90ºS - 0º - 90ºN
32
Latitude and Longitude in North America
Austin (30N, 98W) Logan (42N, 112W)
60 N
30 N
60 W
120 W
90 W
0 N
33
Map Projection
Flat Map Cartesian coordinates x,y (Easting
Northing)
Curved Earth Geographic coordinates f,
l (Latitude Longitude)
34
Earth to Globe to Map
Map Projection
Map Scale
Scale Factor
Map distance Globe distance

(e.g. 0.9996)
(e.g. 124,000)
35
Coordinate Systems
A planar coordinate system is defined by a
pair of orthogonal (x,y) axes drawn through an
origin
Y
X
Origin
(xo,yo)
(fo,lo)
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