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The Victorians

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Geology 'gives one the same sort of bewildering view of the ... Strong connection between visual and literary arts. Anti-Victorian reaction, post-Romantic roots ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Victorians


1
The Victorians
2
  • British history is two thousand years old, and
    yet in a good many ways the world has moved
    farther ahead since the Queen was born than it
    moved in all the rest of the two thousand years
    put together.
  • Mark Twain, 1897
  • at Queen Victorias
  • Jubilee

3
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4
Queen Victoriareigned 1837-1901
  • May 24, 1819 born at Kensington Palace only
    child of Edward, Duke of Kent, the fourth son
    of George III
  • 1837 on the death of her uncle, William IV, she
    became queen at the age of 18
  • 1840 married her cousin, Prince Albert of
    Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
  • 1861 Prince Albert died
  • Nine children
  • Presided over an Empire upon which the sun
    never set
  • It was during Victoria's reign that the modern
    idea of the constitutional monarch, whose role
    was to remain above political parties, began to
    evolve.
  • January 22, 1901 died after a reign of 64 years
    longest in British history

5
Prince Albert
  • Son of Duke Ernest of Coburg, Victorias
    maternal uncle he and Victoria were first
    cousins, born the same year
  • Became Victorias closest advisor
  • A serious patron of the arts, a composer and a
    painter, an architect and an educator
  • As chancellor of Cambridge, he modernized the
    traditional classics-and-theology curriculum with
    science and technology
  • Arranged for the design and building of
    experimental houses to better serve working class
    families
  • Organized and oversaw the Great Exhibition of
    1851 -- the first World's Fair.
  • "Machinery, Science, and Tasteare of no country,
    but belong, as a whole, to the civilized world."

6
The Crystal Palace in Hyde Parksite of the 1851
Great Exhibition
7
The Royal Family
8
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9
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11
Political Reform
  • 1832 The Reform Bill extended voting rights to
    all males owning property worth 10 in annual
    rent lower middle classes
  • 1832 redistribution of parliamentary
    representation elimination of rotten boroughs
  • 1838-48 Chartist Movement Peoples Charter
    advocated universal suffrage, secret ballots and
    legislative reforms
  • 1867 Second Reform Bill extended right to vote
    to some of working class
  • 1870-1908 Married Womens Property Acts
    granted women the right to own property women
    were legally recognized as individuals in their
    own right for the first time in history.

12
Social Reform and Education
  • 1846 Repeal of Corn Laws elimination of tax
    on grains free trade
  • 1833-78 Factory Acts restricted child labor,
    limited work hours, required public education
  • 1839 Custody Act
  • 1857 Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act
  • Higher Education for Women
  • 1848 establishment of first Womens College in
    London
  • By the end of Victorias reign, women could get
    degrees at 12 universities and study at Oxford
    and Cambridge

13
Technology
  • 1830 Liverpool and Manchester RR first public
    steam railway in the world
  • steam ships
  • telegraph -- intercontinental cables
  • photography
  • high speed printing
  • cast iron for building
  • anesthetics -- ether
  • Technology on the Victorian Web

14
Gustav Doré, London Underground
15
Science Geology and Astronomy
  • Geology
  • the hottest science going
  • all accredited geologists agreed that the earth
    was millions of years old, that strata were
    layers from different times and that Genesis was
    incompatible with the findings of modern geology
    or irrelevant
  • many discoveries about dinosaurs throughout the
    19th c. http//rainbow.ldeo.columbia.edu/courses/v
    1001/dinodis3.html
  • Astronomy new planetary and cosmic discoveries
  • Geology gives one the same sort of bewildering
    view of the abysmal extent of Time that Astronomy
    does of Space. John Sterling, 1837

16
included first exhibition of dinosaurs
The Great Exhibition 1851
17
Science Biology
  • Charles Darwin (1809-82)
  • 1859 On the Origin of the Species
  • 1871 The Descent of Man, and Selection in
    Relation to Sex
  • 1872 The Expression of the Emotions in Man and
    Animals
  • Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95)
  • Populizer and advocate of Darwins theories
  • On a Piece of Chalk influenced thinking about
    education
  • Huxley advocated broad primary school
    instruction reading, writing, arithmetic, art,
    science, and music.
  • The basic form of nearly every American college
    curriculum is what Huxley advocated more than 100
    years ago two years of more liberal basic
    studies followed by two years of specialization
  • Huxley emphasized doing and observing in science
    classes

18
Religion
  • 1829 Catholic Relief Act granted Catholics
    the same political rights as Protestants
  • 1835 Jews are granted the right to vote
  • 1857 Sir David Salomons elected Lord Mayor of
    London
  • 1868 Benjamin Disraeli, a convert to
    Anglicanism, becomes Prime Minister
  • The Church of England
  • Low Church evangelical, highly individual,
    abolitionists, Puritanical ( Christian right )
  • Broad Church open to modern advances in
    science, emphasized inclusion ( liberals )
  • High Church emphasized tradition, ritual and
    authority the Oxford Movement resistant to
    liberal ideas (conservatives)

19
Biblical Studies
  • Linguistic and Historic Higher Criticism
  • Study of original Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic
    texts history of composition
  • Historical contexts
  • David Friedrich Struasss Das Leben Jesu
    translated by George Eliot as The Life of Jesus
  • Biblical Archaeology vs. Mesopotamian
    Archaeology Sumerian texts

20
Philosophy Utilitarianism
  • Philosophical Radicalism
  • All humans seek to maximize pleasure and
    minimize pain.
  • Morality that which provides the greatest
    pleasure to the greatest number
  • Religion outmoded superstition
  • Fails to provide for spiritual needs
  • Attacked by
  • Carlyle, Sartor, Resartus (1833-34)
  • Dickens, Hard Times (1854)
  • Ruskin, Unto This Last (1860)
  • John Stuart Mill, Autobiography ( 1873)

Jeremy Bentham
James Mill
John Stuart Mill
21
Philosophy Marxism
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in London, 1867
  • Friedrich Engels
  • 1844 The Condition of the Working Class in
    England in 1844
  • 1884 The Origin of the Family Private Property
    and the State
  • Karl Marx
  • 1867-94 Das Kapital
  • 1848 Co-authored The Communist Manifesto

22
The British Empire
23
Imperialism The British Empire
  • 1853-1880 Over 2 million Britons emigrated to
    settle in British colonies especially Canada
    and Australia
  • 1839-42 1856-60 Opium Wars with China
  • 1857 Parliament took over rule of India from
    East India Co. and set up a civil service
    government
  • 1867 Canadian provinces united into Dominion of
    Canada
  • 1876 Victoria declared Empress of India
  • 1880s the Irish question Home Rule
  • 1899-1902 Boer War in South Africa
  • By 1890, the British Empire contained ¼ of the
    earths territory, and ¼ of the earths
    population.

24
Victorian Literature
25
The Novel
  • Dominant Victorian literary form
  • Initially published in serial form in
    periodicals
  • Usually appeared in 3 volumes three deckers
    in book form
  • Focus on social relationships in middle class
    world
  • Ample opportunities for women novelists although
    many choose male pseudonyms to be taken more
    seriously

26
Novelists
Thackeray
Eliot
Trollope
Gaskell
E. Bronte
C. Bronte
Dickens
Disraeli
27
Social Realism
  • Social novels deal with the nature, function and
    effect of the society which the characters
    inhabit often for the purpose of effecting
    reform
  • Condition of England novels in 1840s and
    1850s response to . the condition of laborers in
    the Industrial Revolution Dickens Hard Times,
    Gaskells Mary Barton Disraelis The Two Nations
  • Social and political realism Trollopes The
    Palliser Novels, The Barsetshire Chronicles, etc.
  • Satirical social commentary Thackerays Vanity
    Fair
  • Probing psychological realism Eliots
    Middlemarch

28
Non-fiction Prose
  • Instructional purpose history, biography,
    theology, literary and artistic criticism
  • Centrality of argument and persuasion
  • Professional writers

Matthew Arnold
Walter Pater
29
Victorian Poetry
  • Highly pictorial picturesque combines
    visual impressions to create a picture that
    carries the dominant emotion of the poem
  • Narrative
  • Long narrative stories poetic novels
    Tennysons Idylls of the King, Elizabeth Barrett
    Brownings Aurora Leigh, Robert Brownings The
    Ring and the Book
  • Dramatic monologues esp. Robert Browning
  • Distinctive sound experimentation
  • Poetry of mood and character

30
Poets
Elizabeth BarrettBrowning
Robert Browning
31
Aestheticism
  • Art for arts sake
  • A cult of beauty Life should imitate Art
  • Strong connection between visual and literary
    arts
  • Anti-Victorian reaction, post-Romantic roots
  • The Arts should provide refined sensuous
    pleasure, rather than convey moral or sentimental
    messages
  • Pre-Raphaelites and Arts and Crafts Movement

32
Christina Rossetti
Algernon Swinburne
William Morris
William Holman Hunt
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Aubrey Beardsley
33
Dramatists
Gilbert and Sullivan
George Bernard Shaw
Oscar Wilde
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