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CHAPTER 23 Industrialization of the West 1760 1914

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Map Exercise 23.3. Industrialization in Europe, c. 1850 (page 545) 1. ... map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 23 Industrialization of the West 1760 1914


1
CHAPTER 23Industrialization of the West1760 -
1914
2
Map Exercise 23.1Napoleon's Empire (page 543)
  • 1. The Grand Empire of Napoleon
  • a. What areas did Napoleon acquire?
  • b. What states allied with Napoleon?
  • c. What states seemed to be enemies of Napoleon?
  • 2. Upsetting the Balance of Power
  • a. How did Napoleon upset the balance of power?
  • b. Based on Napoleons campaigns, what can you
    predict about his plans?

3
Map Exercise 23.3Industrialization in Europe, c.
1850 (page 545)
  • 1. Reading the map
  • a. Identify the industrial areas of England
  • b. What areas are emerging industrial areas?
  • c. What nation (s) has (have) the densest
    concentration of railroads?
  • 2. Drawing Conclusions
  • a. What nations would likely experience an
    industrial revolution?
  • b. Why do you come to this conclusion?

4
Map Exercise 23.3The Unification of Italy (pg
551)The Unification of Germany (pg 552)
  • What states united Italy Germany respectively?
  • What other states did the 2 core nations acquire?

5
Forces of Change
intellectual Enlightenment thinkers
challenge existing order gap b/t intellectuals
established institutions
merchants encourage economic technological
changes
stimulate expansion on manufacturing
consumerism
population pressure - increase
youthful independence grew
6
Revolutions
call for change or restoration of past patterns
American
taxes trade controls restrict expansion
constitution based on Enlightenment principles
French
call for change mid 1700s - limitations on
aristocracy church - increased voice for
citizens - middle-class want greater political
role - peasants want freedom from landlords
7
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8
market economy
King cannot control
Declaration of Rights of Man the Citizen
assembly abolishes manorialism enact equality
before the law new parliament limits royal
authority church privileges attacked
reforms cause resistance civil wars in some
areas
economic chaos
9
revolution taken over by radical groups -
abolish monarchy - Reign of Terror
universal male suffrage
radical leadership falls in 1795 - moderates
take over
Napoleon Bonaparte - turns revolutionary
republic into authoritarian empire - kept many
of changes
10
focus more on foreign expansion - 1812 control
w. Europe except Britain
1815 empire ends - revolutionary ideals survived
victorious allies restore balance of power
France not peaceful internally
conservative victors repress revolutionary
ideas liberals - limited state interference radica
ls - extended voting rights socialists attack
private property capitalism nationalists
stress national unity
11
political discussion center on constitution
political participation
revolutions (1820s 30s)in Greece Spain
Portugal France Italy Germany Belgium
secure more liberal rights religious freedom
12
Industrial Revolution
begin in Britain
technological change - coal powered engines
to replace animal human power
Enlightenment thinking ideological base for
change
origins 1770-1840
factories interchangeable parts coal coke
fuel transportation communication
improved agriculture
factory system
13
Disruptions of Industrial Life
movement of people
social changes to family
middle class redefines family life
work conditions end leisurely craft production
lower classes turned to governments to compensate
for industrial changes
revolts follow government unresponsive
14
social reform equal rights
revolutions of 1848 spread through western
Europe
want liberal constitutions limits on
industrialization end of manorialism ethnic
demands
generally failed - thus gradual methods needed
to be applied
aristocracy declines - social structure based
on wealth
15
middle class property owners vs. working class
old alliances that produced revolutions
dissolved revolutions in West become obsolete
industrial consolidation 1850-1914
rise of socialism
stable populations children valued material
conditions improve peasants improve lives labor
movements
adjustments to industrial life
16
Political Trends
cautious change
Britain vote to working-class males
1867 Prussia vote to all adult males
conservatives use nationalism to win support
united Italy Germany (1871)
key political issues reduced
most Western nations have parliamentary
systems - basic liberties protected - political
parties peacefully contest for office
17
New Government Functions
expand
civil service exams
school systems
welfare systems set up
government citizen contact with each other
rise of socialism - Karl Marx
revisionists support parliamentary democracy to
achieve goals
18
Cultural Change
feminist movements late 1800s
higher wages
increased leisure time - pleasure part of life
mass leisure culture - rise of team sports -
growing secularism
consumption encouraged (factory capacity)
advances in scientific knowledge - continues
tradition of rationalism - Darwin, Einstein,
Freud
19
Artistic Expression
romanticism vs rationalism
African East Asian influences
Western culture doesnt synthesize
Expansion of Wests power
new markets raw material needed
  • transportation communication
  • Europeans superior weapons help
  • spread empires
  • - immigration

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europeanization-animated.gif
20
U.S. - growing power
Civil War 1st modern war - industrially
produced weapons - accelerates
industrialization - new technology
British settler colonies
Canada, Australia, New Zealand
parliamentary governments, European culture
dependent on Great Britain economically
21
20th century
balance of power altered by Germanys rise
overseas expansion by European countries
imperial rivalries add to tension in Europe
Triple Alliance Germany
Austria-Hungary Italy
Triple Entente Britain France
Russia
1 unstable partner in each
all lead into WWI
22
Contrast compare the causes of the American
French Revolutions.
  • FRENCH
  • limitations on aristocracy church
  • increased voice for citizens
  • middle class want greater political role
  • peasants want freedom from landlords
  • AMERICAN
  • war for independence
  • taxes
  • no taxation without representation
  • trade controls
  • restrictions on movement in frontier areas

23
What were the lasting reforms of the French
Revolution?
  • metric system
  • universal male suffrage
  • religious freedom
  • substantial equality for men
  • new law codes
  • centralized system of secondary schools
    universities
  • new constitution

24
What new political movements emerged in the
aftermath of the French Revolution?
  • conservative repress revolutionary ideas
  • liberals limited state interference
  • radicals extended voting rights
  • socialists attack private property capitalism
  • nationalists stress national unity

25
What changes led to industrialization?
  • automatic machinery in textiles industry
  • steam engine
  • recurrent technological change
  • inventions
  • interchangeable parts
  • use of coal coke
  • improvements in agriculture
  • improvements in transportation communication

26
What changes in social organization did
industrialization cause?
  • movement of people to cities
  • young adults moving from families
  • cities crowded, dirty, crime
  • new social divisions middle class move away
    from cities
  • work separate from family
  • work unpleasant, fast, monotonous
  • factory work stressful
  • popular leisure changes
  • middleclass family wife stay home with
    children, husband goes to work
  • womens sphere separate
  • women children sheltered from work world
  • education now important for children

27
How were industrialization revolution linked?
  • government functions shifted
  • build railroads
  • promote science engineering
  • encourage education
  • sewer systems
  • political protest compensated for industrial
    change (Chartist movement)
  • artisans want industry regulated
  • social demands because of changes brought by
    industrialization

28
How did government functions increase in response
to the social question?
  • civil service exams
  • regulations safety, health, personal travel,
  • schooling expands (compulsory to age 12)
  • expand public secondary schools
  • wider welfare measures
  • measures to aid unemployment

29
How did science the arts diverge in the period
after 1850?
  • SCIENCE
  • rationalist tradition
  • apply science to practical affairs
  • link science technology
  • combine science medicine
  • Darwins theory
  • physics
  • Einstein theory of relativity
  • Freud human subconscious
  • ART
  • Dickens realistic portrayals of human problems
  • some painters build on discoveries of science
  • romanticism emotion impression (not reason
    generalization) were keys to human experience
  • portray passions
  • empathy with nature
  • try to violate traditional Western standards
  • abstract, atonal

30
Discuss the influence of the revolutions
beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in
reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the
reconstruction affected the development of
European diplomacy by 1907.
  • revolutions created new states
  • greatest impact in eastern central Europe
  • emergence of new states accompanied by economic
    growth
  • Germany an economic threat to Britain
  • Germany Italy want colonies, be a part of world
    empires
  • economic colonial competition upset balance of
    power
  • Triple Alliance Triple Entente.

31
Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the
social structure and political alignment of the
West.
  • pre-industrialization, social order based on
    peasantry, aristocracy the church
  • post industrialization, aristocracy church
    lose power
  • social status based on wealth
  • liberals sought political power that went with
    economic power of middle class (limited,
    constitutional government)
  • radicals socialists want power extended to
    working class, extension of voting rights
  • all manipulated by conservative politicians often
    through nationalism.
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