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Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual Development

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Title: Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual Development


1
Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual
Development
  • Presented by
  • Jason Goldfarb, Eastern Illinois University
  • Dr. Charles Eberly, Eastern Illinois University

2
Objectives
  • To increase participants knowledge of the
    relation of spirituality to fraternity life, and
    their interaction in higher education.
  • To understand the impact of spirituality on men's
    development within fraternity-affiliated and
    non-affiliated college men.
  • To increase awareness of leadership training
    experiences, alcohol use, and hegemonic
    masculinity as mediating issues in fraternity
    character development programs, and related
    college men's beliefs and values.
  • To suggest possible additions to programming for
    mens fraternities on college campuses.

3
College Males Spiritual Development
  • Buchko (2004)
  • Prayer occurred more frequently in womens lives
    than mens.
  • During stressful times, men were found to pray
    more often than women.
  • Women, compared to men, were significantly more
    likely to look to religion for advice or guidance
    in times of trouble.
  • Women felt more comfortable and secure than men
    with the degree to which they incorporated
    religion into their lives.
  • Bryant (2007)
  • Women Reported Higher Levels of Charitable
    involvement, Equanimity, Religious skepticism,
    Religious commitment, Spirituality,
    Aesthetically-based spiritual experience,
    Spiritual quest, Compassionate self-concept,
    Religious/social conservatism, Religious
    engagement, Social activism, Spiritual/religious
    growth, and Spiritual struggle
  • Males Reported Higher Levels of
    Spiritual/Religious Growth

4
Fraternity Membership
  • Most literature shows fraternity membership to
    have a positive or
  • negative effect on members.
  • Positive
  • Academic (Debard, Lake, Binder, 2006 Hébert,
    2006)
  • Brotherhood (Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1995)
  • Ritual (Brooks, 1922 Callais, 2005 Eberly,
    1967 Owen Owen, 1976)
  • Negative
  • Hazing (Nuwer, 2004)
  • Drinking behaviors (Bartholow, Sher, Krull,
    2003
  • Caudill, Crosse, Campbell, Howard, Luckey,
    Blane, 2006 Kuh Arnold,
  • 1993)
  • Ethnocentricity (Sindanius, Levin, Van Laar,
    Sinclair, 2004)

5
HERI College Students Beliefs and Values Survey
2003
  • Aspects of Spirituality
  • Process of seeking personal authenticity,
    genuineness, and wholeness
  • Transcending ones current locus of centricity
    (i.e., recognizing concerns beyond oneself)
  • Developing a greater connectedness to self and
    others through relationships and community
  • Deriving meaning, purpose, and direction in life
  • Openness to exploring a relationship with a
    higher power or powers that transcend human
    existence and human knowing
  • (Bryant, 2006, p. 1-2)

6
College Students Beliefs and Values Survey 2003
  • Factor Themes
  • Spirituality - Spirituality, Aesthtically-Based
    Spiritual Experience, Spiritual Quest,
    Equanimity, Spiritual/Religious Growth
  • Religiousness - Religious Engagement, Religious
    Commitment, Religious/Social Conservatism,
    Religious Skepticism
  • Related Qualities - Social Activism, Growth
    Global/National Understanding, Charitable
    Involvement, Self-Esteem, Spiritual Distress,
    Psychological Distress, Growth in Tolerance,
    Growth in Leadership, Artistic Orientation,
    Compassionate Self-Concept

7
Data Analysis Affiliation, College Students
Beliefs and Values
Cronbach Alpha Scores
8
Data Analysis Affiliation, College Students
Beliefs and Values
Cronbach Alpha Scores
9
Fraternity Membership and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 9.23, P lt .005
10
Fraternity Membership and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 13.03, P lt .001
11
Fraternity Membership and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 16.22, P lt .001
12
Fraternity Membership and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 14.35, P lt .001
13
Fraternity Membership and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 22.89, P lt .001
14
Fraternity Membership and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 7.66, P lt .01
15
Leadership Training Among College Students
  • Leadership Training
  • (Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, Burkhardt,
    2001)
  • Participants that indicated involvement in
    leadership activities, compared to
  • individuals that did not, reported higher levels
    of
  • Conflict resolution skills
  • Ability to set goals
  • Ability to plan and implement programs and
    activities
  • Sense of personal ethics
  • Willingness to take risks
  • Understanding of leadership theories
  • Interest in developing leadership in others
  • Commitment to civic responsibility
  • Elected or appointed leadership positions
  • Co-curricular involvement

16
Fraternity Leadership Training Examples
  • Sigma Alpha Epsilon John O. Moseley Leadership
    School
  • Explore Personal Leadership Abilities
  • Learn New Leadership Skills
  • Network with other Undergraduates and Alumni
  • Sigma Phi Epsilon Ruck Leadership Institute
    (Stage 4 of Leadership Continuum)
  • Leadership development
  • Mentoring
  • Understand the essential concepts and the role of
    senior members of the chapter
  • Balanced Man Ideal of Sound Mind and Sound Body
  • In-depth, hands-on training on methods to live
    your best life
  • Preparing you for lifelong membership through a
    life of volunteering
  • Most Fraternities have a leadership component

17
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 25.52, P lt .001
18
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 18.58, P lt .001
19
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 18.33, P lt .001
20
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 10.12, P .001
21
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 21.05, P lt .001
22
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 30.23, P lt .001
23
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 21.23, P lt .001
24
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 4.86, P lt .005
25
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 10.67, P lt .001
26
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 4.85, P lt .005
27
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 5.31, P .001
28
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 28.75, P lt .001
29
Leadership Training and College Students Beliefs
and Values
MANOVA, F(1, 665) 12.44, P lt .001
30
Alcohol Use Among College Students
  • Alcohol Use
  • The increase of high-risk drinking behaviors
    among college students has caused concern for
    institutions of higher education.
  • Institutional leaders are greatly concerned about
    student high-risk drinking because it can lead to
    other high-risk behaviors such as drug use,
    violence, and academic problems as well as
    affecting other students indirectly (IHEC, 2003).
  • Bartholow, Sher, Krull (2003) discovered in
    there study a high correlation between Greek
    involvement and heavy drinking.

31
Alcohol Use and College Students Beliefs and
Values
Drank Beer
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 9.06, P lt .001
32
Alcohol Use and College Students Beliefs and
Values
Drank Beer
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 23.56, P lt .001
33
Alcohol Use and College Students Beliefs and
Values
Drank Beer
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 21.73, P lt .001
34
Alcohol Use and College Students Beliefs and
Values
Drank Beer
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 22.09, P lt .001
35
Alcohol Use and College Students Beliefs and
Values
Drank Beer
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 36.21, P lt .001
36
Alcohol Use and College Students Beliefs and
Values
Drank Beer
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 20.67, P lt .001
37
College Men and Hegemonic Masculinity
  • Developed Scale based of Frank Harriss
    Dissertation
  • Harris, F. (2006). The meaning college men make
    of masculinities and contextual influences on
    behaviors, outcomes, and gender environment
    norms A grounded theory study. Unpublished
    doctoral dissertation, University of Southern
    California, Los Angeles.
  • Hegemonic Masculinity Masculinity, as it has
    been traditionally defined, hierarchically
    positions men above women and some men above
    other men based on race, sexual orientation,
    class, religion, age, ability, and other social
    group membership (Edwards, 2007).
  • Fraternities are often cited as being
    organizations that foster hyper-masculine
    behaviors (DeSanits, 2007).

38
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 8.82, P lt .001
39
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 6.36, P lt .001
40
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 20.33, P lt .001
41
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 15.91, P lt .001
42
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 39.52, P lt .001
43
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 48.52, P lt .001
44
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 33.30, P lt .001
45
Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students
Beliefs and Values
MANOVA, F(3, 663) 21.22, P lt .001
46
Discussion Questions
  • How does a discussion on Spirituality fit in
    public higher education?
  • How do we make a clear distinction, for our
    students, between spirituality and religion?
  • How can we create a supportive and engaging
    environment for students to share their
    spiritual/religious feelings and beliefs?
  • In what manner is value-based programming based
    on fraternity rituals offered in undergraduate
    chapters?

47
Closing Quote
  • Beyond and above the present situation in which
  • fraternities find themselves they need not be on
    the
  • defensive. They have more to say that is positive
    about
  • their way than do their critics. They can still
    talk sensible
  • about the fraternity way. It is a difficult
    way, but one in
  • which countless persons still believe. It is
    measuring up to
  • the test to be selected by fellow students to be
    pledged. It
  • is an Initiation through a Ritual which is based
    solely on
  • intellectual, moral, and spiritual pursuits. It
    is building lasting
  • friendships. It is fidelity to ones friends. It
    is doing ones share in
  • group or corporate effort. The way leads to
    developing leadership,
  • team play, justifiable pride in victory, and
    stout heart in defeat
  • (Brooks, 1922).

48
Thank you for attending our session
  • Questions…
  • Comments…
  • Concerns…

49
References
  • Bartholow, B. D., Sher, K. J., Krull, J. L.
    (2003). Changes in heavy drinking over the third
    decade of life as a function of collegiate
    fraternity and Sorority involvement A
    prospective, multilevel analysis. Health
    Psychology, 22(6), 616-626.
  • Brooks, S. R. (1922). In betas broad domain A
    collection of the memoirs and written and spoken
    words of Seth R. Brooks, D.D. Oxford, OH Beta
    Theta Pi.
  • Bryant, A. N. (2006). Gender differences in
    spiritual development during the college years
    Electronic version. Journal of Feminist Studies
    in Religion (currently under review).
  • Buchko, K. J. (2004). Religious beliefs and
    practices of college women as compared to college
    men Electronic version. Journal of College
    Student Development, 45(1), 89-98.
  • Callais, M. A. (2005). Helping fraternity and
    sorority members understand ritual. Oracle The
    Research of Journal of the Association of
    Fraternity Advisors, 1(1), 32-37.
  • Caudill, B. D., Crosse, S. B., Campbell, B. C.,
    Howard, J., Luckey, B., Blane, H. T. (2006).
    High-risk drinking among college fraternity
    members A national perspective. Journal of
    American College Health, 55, 141-155.
  • Cress, C. M., Astin, H. S., Zimmerman-Oster, K.,
    Burkhardt, J. C. (2001). Developmental outcomes
    of college students' involvement in leadership
    activities. Journal of College Student
    Development, 42, 15-27.
  • DeSantis, A. (2007). Inside Greek u. Fraternity,
    sorority, and the pursuit of pleasure, power, and
    prestige. Lexington, KY The University Press of
    Kentucky.
  • Eberly, C. G. (1967). The influence of the
    fraternity ritual. College Student Survey, 1(1),
    9-12.

50
References
  • Edwards, K. E. (2007). Putting my man face on
    A grounded theory of college mens gender
    identity development. Unpublished doctoral
    dissertation, University of Maryland, College
    Park.
  • Harris, F. (2006). The meaning college men make
    of masculinities and contextual influences on
    behaviors, outcomes, and gender environment
    norms A grounded theory study. Unpublished
    doctoral dissertation, University of Southern
    California, Los Angeles.
  • Hébert, T. P. (2006). Gifted university males in
    a Greek fraternity Creating a culture of
    achievement. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50(1),
    26-41.
  • Kuh, G. D., Arnold, J. C. (1993). Liquid
    bonding A cultural analysis of the role of
    alcohol in fraternity pledgeship. Journal of
    College Student Development, 34(5), 327-334.
  • Nuwer, H. (2004). The hazing reader. Bloomington,
    IN Indiana University Press.
  • Owen, K. C., Owen, S. M. (1976). Toward the
    year 2000 Perspectives on the American
    fraternity movement. Fraternity for the Year
    2000, 1-24.
  • Sidanius, J., Van Laar, C., Levin, S.,
    Sinclair, S. (2004). Ethnic enclaves and the
    Dynamics of social identity on the college
    campus The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal
    of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1),
    96-110.
  • The quest A journey of brotherhood (4th ed.).
    (1995). Richmond, VA Sigma Phi Epsilon
    Fraternity.

51
Accessing the Presentation
  • To access our presentation, you can visit Dr.
    Eberlys
  • Website at
  • http//www.eiu.edu/csd/faculty_EBERLY.php
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