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Europe in 1650

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Europe in 1650. Overview of Politics and Society. Political Map of Europe in 1650 ... General Devastation in central Europe. Treaty of Westphalia: 1648 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Europe in 1650


1
Europe in 1650
  • Overview of Politics and Society

2
Political Map of Europe in 1650
3
Holy Roman Empire in 1650
4
Crises of the 17th Century
  • War
  • Plague
  • Famine

5
Thirty Years War 1618-1648
  • Defenestration of Prague
  • Causes
  • Religious
  • Political
  • Confused
  • General Devastation in central Europe

6
Treaty of Westphalia 1648
  • Rulers in each of the states within the Holy
    Roman Empire independent of Emperor
  • HRE a loose confederation of 352 states
  • Recognition that different religions can co-exist
    within the Empire

7
Effects of Thirty Years War
  • German states of central Europe fragmented for
    more than 200 years
  • Population of central Europe decimated
  • In 1600, approximately 20 million people
  • By 1648, only 13 million
  • By 1700, still only 14 million

8
English Civil War 1641-1648
  • Struggle between Royal forces (Cavaliers) and
    Parliamentary forces (Roundheads)
  • Issues
  • Religion
  • Royal authority
  • Taxation
  • War ended with trial and execution of King
    Charles I in 1649

9
Fronde in France 1650s
  • Rebellious groups of nobles attacked royal
    strongholds, trying to capture child King Louis
    XIV
  • Issues
  • Religion
  • Royal Authority
  • Taxation
  • Revolt fizzled, largely because nobles were not
    united

10
Plague
  • Epidemics of plague ravaged Europe
  • 1649-1654 Mediterranean region
  • 1657 Southern Italy
  • 1665 London and southern Englan
  • 1675-1685 Spain
  • 1720 France

11
Bubonic Plague or Black Death
  • Bubonic plague from bite of an infected flea
  • enlarged and inflamed lymph nodes (around arm
    pits, neck and groin).
  • headaches, nausea, aching joints, fever of
    101-105 degrees, vomiting, and a general feeling
    of illness
  • 1-7 days to appear
  • mortality rate was 30-75

12
Pneumonic Plague
  • Second most common form of early modern plague
  • Spread through droplets from coughs
  • Infected the lungs
  • Slimy sputum tinted with blood, becoming
    progressively worse bright red
  • Mortality rate 90-95

13
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16
Causes of Plague
  • Poor sanitation
  • Overcrowding, especially in cities
  • No understanding of disease and its causes
  • Bubonic Plague spread by fleas carried by brown
    rat
  • Often half population died
  • Famine often preceded or followed plague

17
Famine Why?
  • 85 of population lived directly dependent on the
    land for survival
  • Low yield 41 ratio needed for prosperity
  • Little or no fertilizer2/5 of land left fallow
    each year
  • Climate colder and wetter during 17th century
    seeds sometimes rotted in ground

18
Results of Famine
  • In rural areas, lack of food to survive winter
    and plant next year
  • In towns and cities, rising prices created
    hardship for poor and even middling folk
  • Poor transportation networks made movement of
    food difficult
  • Example Weavers of Beauvais
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