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European Colonization of Africa


Stories of Africa's great wealth are spread throughout western ... Map. Egypt. Nigeria. Ghana. Sierra Leone. The Gambia. Zambia. Malawi. Zimbabwe. South Africa ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European Colonization of Africa

European Colonization of Africa
Why Africa?
  • Stories of Africas great wealth are spread
    throughout western Europe (trade)
  • Missionaries and explorers are sent to Africa by
    various European countries
  • Natural resources - cash crops, minerals, land
  • Human resources slaves for colonies

Cecil Rhodes
  • British explorer/capitalist
  • Responsible for the failed Cape-Cairo railway
  • Founder of the De Beers Mining Company
  • Owner of the British South Africa Company, which
    carved out Rhodesia for itself

Early Colonization
  • Brits establish Capetown as a rest stop between
    Europe India (East India Co.)
  • Portuguese, British, Spanish, French set up forts
    along Africas west coast for trading purposes
  • Boers, Dutch farmers, come to southern Africa to

Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 1500s Spanish want more laborers for their
    colonies in the Americas
  • Slavery was not new to Africa (early kingdoms and
    Arabs enslaved Africans)
  • Created civil unrest on the continent tribes
    would capture members of rival tribes and sell
    them to the slave traders
  • Triangle Trade (see map) peaks in 18th century
  • Europe sold cheap manufactured goods to Africans
    (cloth guns)
  • Africa traded humans (slaves)
  • Middle Passage (journey b/w Africa Americas
    many slaves do not survive)
  • Slaves were sold to the colonists in exchange for
    cash crops
  • Cash crops would then be sold in Europe
  • Abolishing slavery
  • 1794 France is first
  • Brits other European countries follow suit
  • Demand for slaves in the US still high so slave
    trade cont. (approx 1860s)

Triangle Trade
  • Who colonized where?

The Scramble for Africa
Click the name of the colonizing country to see a
list of African colonial holdings
French Colonies
  • Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Gabon
  • Republic of the Congo
  • Madagascar
  • Comoros
  • Mauritius
  • Benin
  • Burkina Faso
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Guinea
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Senegal
  • Togo
  • Cameroon
  • Morocco
  • Algeria
  • Tunisia
  • Central African Republic

Colony Map
British Colonies
Egypt Nigeria Ghana Sierra Leone The
Gambia Zambia Malawi Zimbabwe
South Africa Swaziland Lesotho Sudan Northern
Somalia Kenya Uganda Tanzania
Colony Map
Portuguese Colonies
  • Angola
  • Mozambique
  • Guinea Bissau
  • Cape Verde
  • São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony Map
German Colonies
German Colonies
  • Tanzania
  • Burundi
  • Rwanda
  • Cameroon
  • Togo
  • Namibia
  • German colonies were divided among the European
    victors of WWI
  • became a British colony
  • became a Belgian colony
  • became a French colony
  • was occupied by South African government

Colony Map
Belgian Colonies
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Rwanda (after WWI)
  • Burundi (after WWI)

Italian Colonies
  • Libya
  • Eritrea
  • Somalia

Spanish Colonies
  • Western Sahara
  • Morocco
  • Equatorial Guinea

Colony Map
Independent Countries
  • Liberia (often viewed as a US colony)
  • Ethiopia

Colony Map
Decolonization/ African Independence
  • Mid 1900s Africans are rebelling against
    colonial rule (nationalism) Europe is losing
    control over colonies
  • 1960-1965 27 countries see independence
  • Africans are just going to adopt colonial borders
    despite the fact these borders ignore ethnic
  • Many rival tribes will be left to fight for
    control of the country civil wars erupt all
    over Africa

South Africa
  • Most recent independence
  • 1994 - gained independence
  • from the white Afrikaner
  • government known for its
  • apartheid practices
  • Nelson Mandela
  • First president of an independent South Africa
  • Had been jailed by the Afrikaner govt for 27 yrs
  • President from 1994 1999
  • Won Nobel Peace Prize for his struggle to end the
    injustices of apartheid in 1993

Post Independence Problems facing Africa today
  • Overpopulation/ Population Density
  • Lack of technology infrastructure development
  • Low GDP GDP per capita
  • Disease malaria AIDS
  • Corrupt governments
  • Civil War
  • Famine
  • Poor use of natural resources
  • Still western imperialism economic imperialism