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Depth and Complexity Icons and Content Imperatives

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Students describe a topic's place in more than one discipline or subject area. Story Time ... Applying: Can the student use the information in a new way? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Depth and Complexity Icons and Content Imperatives


1
Depth and Complexity Icons and Content Imperatives
  • Enriching Curriculum for Gifted Students

2
Agenda
  • Overview of the Needs of Gifted Students
  • How Educators Use Differentiated Curriculum and
    Instruction to Serve Gifted Students
  • Enriching the Depth of the Core Curriculum
  • Enriching the Complexity of the Core Curriculum
  • Developing Questions and Prompts for Gifted and
    Talented Students

3
Objectives
  • Participants will create a variety of questions
    and prompts to increase depth of curriculum and
    instruction for gifted and talented learners.
  • Participants will create a variety of questions
    and prompts to increase complexity of curriculum
    and instruction for gifted and talented learners.
  • Participants will collaborate with other
    instructors to improve upon their questions and
    prompts.

4
Categories of Identification for Gifted Students
in California
5
Categories of Identification for Talented
Students in California
6
Joseph Renzullis Definition of Successful Gifted
Students (University of Connecticut)
7
The biggest mistake of past centuries in
teaching has been to treat all children as if
they were variants of the same individual and
thus to feel justified in teaching them all the
same subjects in the same way. ---Howard
Gardner
8
Pre Assessment
  • A measurement of what is
  • Known, Understood and
  • Able to be Applied
  • BEFORE
  • any instruction occurs.

This comes from a clear objective.
9
Options for Pre-assessment Before a New
Instructional Unit
  • Pre-test students on unit concepts, skills, and
    facts.
  • Give the chapter test first.
  • Survey students about their experience comfort
    level with the material.
  • Survey students on areas of interest in unit.
  • Complete a KWL chart (know/want to know/learned).
  • Use find my partner cards or match-up game.
  • Students create PSAs on what they know already.
  • Students write ironic statements on unit concepts.

10
Formative Assessment Methods
  • 3-2-1 Cards
  • Red/Yellow/Green Traffic Lights on Each Desk
  • Five Fingers in Front of Chest
  • Simultaneous Facial Expressions
  • White Board Challenges
  • Questions in the Box
  • Summary
  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Defining Academic Vocabulary Terms

11
You have this handout.
12
Differentiations Core Concepts(Dr. Sandra
Kaplan, USC)
  • Novelty Activities to make the curriculum
    personally relevant
  • Depth Extending the unit of study into an
    exploration of details, rules, patterns, trends,
    ethics, and ideas.
  • Complexity Activities that require students to
    make connections between disciplines,
    perspectives, and eras.
  • Acceleration/Deceleration Speeding up/slowing
    down rates of learning and increasing/decreasing
    difficulty of materials used for academic tasks.

13
Curriculum Differentiation An Essential Element
in the California Standards for the Teaching
Profession
  • Content, activities, and products developed in
    response to various learner needs
  • Based on diagnosis of student readiness,
    interest, and learning profile
  • Focused on key concepts, understandings and
    skills found in the academic content standards
  • All students doing engaging and challenging work
  • Continual progression for each learner
  • Flexible use of time and space
  • Use of a variety of strategies and grouping
    methods

14
  • Plan a
  • Meaningful
  • Differentiated Lesson

15
Ensuring Meaning
  • Depth
  • Extending the study
  • Learning from the Concrete to the Abstract
  • Complexity
  • Relationships between and among ideas
  • Connecting Concepts
  • Bridging Disciplines

16
DEPTH Extending Ones Study of Course Content
  • Challenge advanced learners by directing them to
    extend their understanding of the area of study.
  • Challenge struggling learners without
    overwhelming them
  • Provide students with tiered assignments, tiered
    lessons, and independent projects to make certain
    that advanced students are challenged and that
    struggling students catch up to grade level
    standards.

17
The Equalizer Adjusting Assignments to Create
Appropriate Depth for Students
18
Approaches to Greater Depth(Sandra Kaplan, USC)
  • Language of the Discipline (experts
    nomenclature)
  • Details (parts, factors, attributes, variables)
  • Patterns (repetition, predictablility)
  • Trends (influence, forces, direction, course of
    action)
  • Unanswered Questions (discrepancies, missing
    parts)
  • Rules (structure, order, hierarchy, explanation)
  • Ethics (points of view, judgments, opinions)
  • Big Ideas (generalizations, principles, theories)

19
Depth Icons
  • Move students toward greater expertise and strike
    a balance with the pervasive goal of coverage.

20
The Icons May Be Used
  • For differentiation of curriculum and instruction
    for gifted learners.
  • For framing whole class instruction, activities,
    and assessment, which will enrich the learning of
    gifted studentsand everyone else.

21
Icon-Based Questions and Prompts May Be Used
  • After reading assignments
  • In Socratic seminars
  • In lab write-ups
  • In math reviews
  • As summary activities
  • As comparison-contrast activities
  • In practice of a world language
  • In reflection on learning in physical education
  • On tests
  • As essay prompts
  • As formative assessment

22
Guidelines for Creating Student Prompts and
Questions
  • Write in clear, concise, complete sentences.
  • Use the Costas Levels of Questions terms as your
    verbs.
  • Use the icons as your nouns.
  • Make sure that each prompt or question is
    rigorous.
  • Develop questions and prompts that get students
    to investigate the power standards of your
    grade or course.
  • Make certain that the icons are used explicitly
    within each question or prompt.

23
Details
  • Instructors encourage students to elaborate on
    an idea or event. The students ability to
    describe something is integral in the learning
    process.

24
Patterns
  • Students identify the recurring elements or
    repeated factors of an event or idea. It also
    focuses on the order of events.

25
Trends
  • Students identify changes over time, noting
    factors or events (social, political, economic,
    geographic) that cause particular effects.

26
Unanswered Questions
  • What ideas are unclear?
  • What information is unclear?
  • What dont we know?
  • What areas have not been explained or proved yet?
  • Do any conclusions need further evidence or
    support?

27
Ethics
  • Students identify and analyze the possible rights
    and wrongs of a given idea or event, determining
    the elements that reflect bias, prejudice, and
    discrimination.
  • Students develop pro and con arguments in terms
    of ethics.
  • Students consider virtue, justice, rights,
    utilitarianism, and the common good.

28
Big Idea
  • Students draw conclusions in the form of
    generalizations, principles, and theories through
    the collection of facts and ideas and
    observations.

29
COMPLEXITY Making Connections(Sandra Kaplan,
USC)
  • Relationships Over Time (between past, present,
    and future within a time period)
  • Points of View (multiple perspectives on the same
    event, opposing viewpoints, differing roles and
    knowledge)
  • Interdisciplinary Relationships (within the
    discipline, between disciplines, across the
    disciplines aesthetics, economics, history,
    philosophy, psychology, mathematics, science)

30
Complexity Icons
  • Students are challenged to make connections
    across disciplines, over time, and between
    disciplines.

31
Relate Over Time
  • Students identify and describe the effects that
    time has on the curriculum being studied.

32
Multiple Perspectives
  • Students look at ideas and events from different
    perspectives historian, anthropologist,
    economist, archaeologist

33
Across Disciplines
  • Students describe a topics place in more than
    one discipline or subject area.

34
Story Time
35
  • Time for Thinking

36
Blooms Verbs
Remembering Can the student recall or remember
the information? define, duplicate, list,
memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce
state Understanding Can the student explain
ideas or concepts? classify, describe, discuss,
explain, identify, locate, recognize, report,
select, translate, paraphrase Applying Can the
student use the information in a new
way? choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ,
illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule,
sketch, solve, use, write. Analyzing Can the
student distinguish between the different
parts? appraise, compare, contrast, criticize,
differentiate, discriminate, distinguish,
examine, experiment, question, test. Evaluating
Can the student justify a stand or
decision? appraise, argue, defend, judge,
select, support, value, evaluate. Creating Can
the student create new product or point of
view? assemble, construct, create, design,
develop, formulate, write.
37
Levels of Thinking
  • Blooms Updated Taxonomy
  • Costas Three Story Intellect

http//www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxo
nomy.htm
http//edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom'sandtheTh
reeStoreyIntellect
38
The Three Story Intellect was inspired by
Oliver Wendell Holmes.
You have this handout
Evaluate Generalize Idealize Imagine Judge
Predict Forecast Apply a Principle Speculate
Hypothesize If/Then
Gathering Processing Applying
Compare Contrast Classify Sort Distinguish
Explain(Why) Infer Sequence Analyze
Reason Synthesize Make Analogies
Complete Count Define Describe Identify Match
Name Observe Recite Select List
39
Costas Levels of Questions
  • A tool for supporting teachers and students in
    asking higher order questions.

40
Costas Questions Level 1
  • Define What is the definition of lunar eclipse?
  • Identify Identify the words in the an family.
  • Describe Describe the setting of Rosies Walk

41
Costas Questions Level 1 (Continued)
  • List List three ways we can express the equation
    235.
  • Name Name the main characters in Flat Stanley.
  • Observe Make observations about the physical
    characteristics of this indigenous rock.

42
Costas Questions Level 2
  • Analyze Analyze this daily menu. Is it well
    balanced? Why or why not?
  • Compare and contrast Compare and contrast the
    life cycle of a bean plant and a butterfly.
  • Group Group these living things into several
    groups based on how they obtain nutrients, how
    they move, and whether they are reptiles or
    amphibians.

43
Costas Questions Level 2 (Continued)
  • Infer If the moon was full on August 17, July
    18, and June 19, when was it full in April?
  • Sequence Sequence the names of the first ten
    presidents of the United States in the order they
    were elected.
  • Synthesize Synthesize your previous learning to
    explain how term manifest destiny captures the
    essence of western expansion in the United States.

44
Costas Questions Level 3
  • Evaluate Evaluate whether the soldiers in Stone
    Soup do a good job of convincing the town to help
    make the soup.
  • Apply a principle Apply the principle of
    location, explaining how you know whether the
    location of a new settlement would support the
    settlers.
  • Hypothesize Based on the evidence in the
    biography, hypothesize why the subject made the
    choice to ____(study medicine).

45
Costas Questions Level 3 (Continued)
  • Imagine Imagine how you would teach your
    children to cooperate.
  • Judge Judge with criteria the problem resolution
    in Verdi.
  • Predict Using the sunrise and sunset data from
    the last month, determine the time of sunrise and
    sunset tomorrow.
  • Speculate Using details from Charlottes Web,
    speculate how Fern might, years later, describe
    Wilbur to her children.

46
Rules
  • Students define the organizational elements
    affecting the specific curriculum being studied.
    Students identify and describe the
    factors--either human-made or natural--that
    affect the content at the focus of the study.

47
The Icons May Be Used
  • For differentiation of curriculum and instruction
    for gifted learners.
  • For framing whole class instruction, activities,
    and assessment, which will enrich the learning of
    gifted studentsand everyone else.

48
Icon-Based Questions and Prompts May Be Used
  • After reading assignments
  • In Socratic seminars
  • In lab write-ups
  • In math reviews
  • As summary activities
  • As comparison-contrast activities
  • In practice of a world language
  • In reflection on learning in physical education
  • On tests
  • As essay prompts
  • As formative assessment

49
Guidelines for Creating Student Prompts and
Questions
  • Write in clear, concise, complete sentences.
  • Use the Costas Levels of Questions terms as your
    verbs.
  • Use the icons as your nouns.
  • Make sure that each prompt or question is
    rigorous.
  • Develop questions and prompts that get students
    to investigate the power standards of your
    grade or course.
  • Make certain that the icons are used explicitly
    within each question or prompt.

50
4th ELA standard 2.6Distinguish between fact and
opinion, cause and effect
  • Know the meaning of fact, opinion, cause, and
    effect. (Gather)
  • Understand the oppositional relationship between
    fact and opinion as well as cause and effect.
    (Process)
  • Be able to identify with evidence which of the
    fact/opinion and/or cause/effect is used in a
    text. (Apply)

51
You have this handout.
52
You have this handout
53
Questions and prompts
  • Not dichotomous
  • Use icon language and Costas or Blooms verbs
  • May or may not have a product attached

54
Success
  • Every child, in addition to challenge, needs
    success. And one of the problems with a classroom
    that is not differentiated is somebody is
    challenged and has a chance to succeed, but
    somebody is under challenged and succeeds without
    challenge, and someone else is over-challenged
    and does not have the opportunity for success.

Carol Ann Tomlinson
55
Content Imperatives
  • Allow students to put the pieces of their
    educational experiences together through review
    and reexamination.
  • http//www.lbschools.net/Main_Offices/
  • Curriculum/Services/GATE/pdf/gatecontI.pdf

56
Origin
  • Students trace the beginning of the concept or
    skill or movement they are studying.
  • How did this get started?
  • What caused this?
  • Where did this begin?
  • What caused it to begin?

57
Contribution
  • Students identify the contributions of
    particular individuals or other sources to a
    subject of study.
  • What is the value of this?
  • Who made contributions to this?

58
Parallel
  • Students find and explain commonalities between
    two or more entities.
  • What is similar?
  • What is comparable?
  • What seems the same as?

59
Convergence
  • Students cite a convergence of ideas or events
    leading to a particular incident or effect.
  • What things came together to cause this?
  • What were the meeting points?
  • How did everything merge?

60
Paradox
  • Students identify statements or propositions
    that seem self-contradictory or absurd but in
    reality express possible truths.
  • What are the things opposing each other?
  • What are the inconsistencies?
  • What is the dilemma?

61
(No Transcript)
62
Tier 2 and Tier 3 Questions and Prompts
  • Tier 2 questions include two icons.
  • Tier 3 questions include three icons.

63
Sources for Presentation
  • Sequoia Union High School District Website
  • Costas Levels of Questions
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • California Association for the Gifted
  • Javits Curriculum Project T.W.O., Sandra Kaplan,
    USC, 1996
  • Equalizer, Carol Tomlinson, University of Virginia
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