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Title: Space Resource Utilization and the U.S. National Vision for Space Exploration


1
Space Resource Utilization and the U.S. National
Vision for Space Exploration
  • 01 November 2004
  • Robert S Wegeng
  • Acting Manager, Technology Maturation Program,
  • Exploration Systems Research Technology
  • NASA HQ / Exploration Systems Mission Directorate
  • Washington, D.C.

2
(No Transcript)
3
The U.S. National Vision for Space Exploration
4
The Vision for Space Exploration Goal and
Objectives
  • The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance
    U.S. scientific, security and economic interests
    through a robust space exploration program.
  • In support of this goal, the United States will
  • Implement a sustained and affordable human and
    robotic program to explore the solar system and
    beyond
  • Extend human presence across the solar system,
    starting with a human return to the Moon by the
    year 2020, in preparation for human exploration
    of Mars and other destinations
  • Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge,
    and infrastructures both to explore and to
    support decisions about the destinations for
    human exploration and,
  • Promote international and commercial
    participation in exploration to further U.S.
    scientific, security, and economic interests

5
2004 Presidents Vision for Space
Exploration Strategic / Progress-Enabled Road Map
6
Bringing the Vision to Reality Lunar Testbeds,
Missions and Campaigns
From The Vision for Space Exploration (page
7) NASA will begin its lunar testbed program
with a series of robotic missions. The first, an
orbiter to confirm and map lunar resources in
detail, will launch in 2008. A robotic landing
will follow in 2009 to begin demonstrating
capabilities for sustainable exploration of the
solar system. Additional missions, potentially
up to one a year, are planned to demonstrate new
capabilities such as robotic networks, reusable
planetary landing and launch systems,
pre-positioned propellants, and resource
extraction. A human mission to the Moon will
follow these robotic missions as early as 2015.
The Moon will provide an operational environment
where we can demonstrate human exploration
capabilities within relatively safe reach of
Earth. Human missions to the Moon will serve as
precursors for human missions to Mars and other
destinations, testing new sustainable exploration
approaches, such as space resource utilization,
and human-scale exploration systems, such as
surface power, habitation and life support, and
planetary mobility…
7
Strategy Based on Long-Term Affordability
in millions
Pres. FY05 Five-Year Budget Plan
Exploration missions Robotic and eventual human
missions to Moon, Mars, and beyond Human/Robotic
Technology Technologies to enable development
of exploration space systems Crew Exploration
Vehicle Transportation vehicle for human
explorers ISS Transport US and foreign launch
systems to support Space Station needs especially
after Shuttle retirement
NOTE
8
The Role of Innovation
9
The Vision for Space Exploration - National
Benefits Key Role of Innovation and Technology…
  • Background
  • …U.S. achievements in space…have led to the
    development of technologies that have widespread
    applications to address problems on Earth…
  • In preparation for future human exploration, we
    must advance our ability to live and work safely
    in space and, at the same time develop the
    technologies to extend humanitys reach to the
    Moon, Mars and beyond. The new technologies
    required for further space exploration also will
    improve the Nations other space activities and
    may provide applications that could be used to
    address problems on Earth.
  • Policy Objective (Technology)
  • Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge,
    and infrastructures both to explore and to
    support decisions about the destinations for
    human exploration…
  • National Benefits (Technology)
  • Preparing for exploration and research
    accelerates the development of technologies that
    are important to the economy and national
    security. The space missions in this plan
    require advanced systems and capabilities that
    will accelerate the development of many critical
    technologies, including power, computing,
    nanotechnology, biotechnology, communications,
    networking, robotics, and materials.
  • These technologies underpin and advance the U.S.
    economy and help ensure national security. NASA
    plans to work with other government agencies and
    the private sector to develop space systems that
    can address national and commercial needs.

10
A Sustainable Exploration Vision?
A sustainable Vision depends on…
11
System-of-Systems Challenges Mapping
Margins/Redundancy
How may we improve reliability and safety at all
levels through increased redundancy and common,
readily integrated spares?
Modularity
How may we improve reliability and safety at all
levels through the application of modularity and
common, readily integrated spares?
Reliability/Safety
In-Space Assembly
How may we increase reliability and safety
through flexibility by enabling the capability
to reconfigure and repair systems?
Pre-positioning of Logistics
How may we increase reliability and safety
through flexibility by enabling the capability
to pre-position systems, consumables and spares?
Affordability
Power-/Energy-rich Operations
How may we increase reliability by assuring the
power and energy are abundant (rather than
scarce) for all key applications?
Reusability
How may we minimize the risks associated with
first use of systems, and the burden of
extensive testing of new subsystems and systems?
Autonomy
How may we increase reliability and safety
through more locally self-reliant systems and
operations?
Effectiveness
Precision Access
How may we improve safety and reliability of
planetary operations in hazardous venues when
logistics/systems may be delivered over time?
Virtual Presence
How may we increase safety through tele-medicine,
and reliability through remote, high-quality
engineering?
Space Resources
How may future missions be made safer and more
reliable at the mission level through the
availability of space resources?
12
System-of-Systems Challenges Mapping
Margins/Redundancy
How may we lower life cycle costs through
increased subsystem- and system- level margins
and redundancy?
Modularity
Reliability/Safety
How may we dramatically lower the cost of
hardware, software and reduce the no. of unique
elements?
In-Space Assembly
Is it possible to effectively and reliability
pursue space exploration using a national
launcher(s) approach (rather than a unique
system)?
Is it possible to use high-efficiency propulsion
to pre-position mission logistics cheaply?
Pre-positioning of Logistics
Affordability
How may we be energy and power rich in our
space exploration operations/systems?
Power-/Energy-rich Operations
Is it possible to significantly reduce the need
for diverse systems through hardware and software
reuse?
Reusability
How may we realize the goal of a smaller/ lower
operations team/costs?
Autonomy
Effectiveness
How may we improve the chances of operational
mission success (lower risk-related costs) in
planetary excursions?
Precision Access
How may we establish a virtual presence for
critical medical and engineering personnel
(rather than a physical presence)
Virtual Presence
Space Resources
How may we improve the affordability of mission
operations through the use of local resources?
13
System-of-Systems Challenges Mapping
Margins/Redundancy
How may increased margins and redundancy (at
various levels) allow future operations that are
more robust and flexible--and which accomplish
more than otherwise?
Modularity
How may we increase effectiveness by making it
easier to reconfigure systems an software to
adapt to changing needs?
Reliability/Safety
How may we deploy and operate future
systems-of-systems that are larger than those
possible with a single launch?
In-Space Assembly
How may we increase mission effectiveness through
local refueling and re-supply using
pre-positioned systems and vehicles?
Pre-positioning of Logistics
Affordability
How may we enable more ambitious mission
operations and objectives through increased local
power/energy in diverse venues?
Power-/Energy-rich Operations
How may we most cost-effectively employ each
deployed system across multiple mission phases
and missions?
Reusability
How may we increase effectiveness by local
decision-making by people and machines to
minimize round-trip-light-time (RTLT) delays?
Autonomy
Effectiveness
How may we realize more effective surface
missions across multiple landings at diverse
sites?
Precision Access
How may we increase the effectiveness of mission
operations by enabling remotely located
scientists to be virtually present?
Virtual Presence
Space Resources
How may we employ local resources to allow future
exploration mission to accomplish much more than
would otherwise be possible?
14
System-of-Systems Challenges Relationships
Reliability/ Safety
Affordability
Margins Redundancy
Reusability
Modularity
Pre-positioning of Logistics
Power-/Energy-rich Operations
In-Space Assembly
Precision Access
Autonomy Intelligence
Local Resources Utilization
Virtual Presence
Effectiveness
15
Exploration Systems Research Technology
16
Exploration Systems Research Technology
Strategic Technology/Systems Model
System Test, Launch Mission Operations
Flight Mission Projects (e.g., Lunar Orbiter
Mission)
System Development Projects Programs (e.g.,
CEV, Lunar Orbiter)
System/ Subsystem Development
Technology Demonstration
Technology Maturation Capability-Focused
Technology and Demo Programs Applications Pull
Technology Development
Advanced Space Technology Research Technology
Push
Research to Prove Feasibility
Basic Research
Basic Technology Research
e.g., S, U, NSF, NIH
e.g., T, U, Other Agencies
e.g., T and S, Y, U (Enterprise-Unique)
Specific Flight Missions…
e.g., T, S Specific Flight System Ø-C/D Projects
17
Exploration Systems Research Technology
Strategic Technology/Systems Model
Number of Competing Technologies Being Funded
Technology Flight Experiments Where Necessary
Many, Diverse Competing Technologies at a Low
Level of Funding -- All Addressing Approximately
the same functional capabilities... Starting
Point TRL 2/3
Total Resources Being Invested in a specific
technology
Several Competing Technologies at a Moderate
Level of Funding Goal TRL 5
TIME
Technology Ready to Support Decisions to Proceed
with Development of a Desired Capability...
In Most Cases 1 or 2 Best Candidate
Technologies at a Substantial Level of
Funding Goal TRL 6
Option 1 or 2 Best Candidate Systems-Level
Flight Demos at Significant Funding Goal TRL 7
Discipline Research and Technology
Functionally-Focused Technology RD
Systems-Oriented Technology Demos
e..g, Advanced Space Technology
e..g, Technology Maturation
e..g, Tech. Mat. (By Exception)
Various Technologies Dropped or Deferred to
Future Application Opportunities
18
Exploration Systems Research Technology
Investment Balance - 2 Views (1)

HRT Strategic Focus TIMEFRAME (By which
Technology Must be Proven)
Next 6 Years
Next 9 Years
Next 3 Years
Next 12 Years
15 Years
Timeframe (When Maturity Must be Proven)

System-of-Systems Level (Architecture)
HRT Strategic Focus IMPACT (of the Technology
Expected to be Seen in Missions/Systems)
Sub-system Level
Definition of Goals Level
Scale of Impact (What Influence Will the
Technology Have, if Proven)
19
Exploration Systems Research Technology Investme
nt Balance - 2 Views (2)

Timing Balance of Subsystem-Level Impact
Depends on Capability Gap Analysis for Next
Spiral
HRT Strategic Focus TIMEFRAME (By which
Technology Must be Proven)
HRT Strategic Focus IMPACT (of the Technology
Expected to be Seen in Missions/Systems)
20
A Few Comments
21
(No Transcript)
22
Lunar Propellant Production
23
Lunar Power (550 kWe)
24
(No Transcript)
25
Space Resources and the U.S. National Vision for
Space Exploration Concluding Thoughts
  • The U.S. National Vision for Space Resources
    calls for the investigation of space resources
  • A possible route to sustainable space exploration
  • The most important applications of Space
    Resources are not fully understood
  • Propellant production from lunar resources is a
    strong candidate because of its potential to
    support improved architectures
  • The technologies for cost-effective, productive
    space resource extraction and processing are not
    yet well known
  • Will probably require investment in power
    generation as well as extraction and processing
    technologies
  • The lunar testbeds (robotic and human) provide
    opportunities for investigating the methods,
    technologies and products associated with space
    resources

26
(No Transcript)
27
Past Approaches to Human Exploration NASA During
Apollo 1960s Budgets (and Planning)
1969 Von Braun Plan
NASA During Apollo
28
Constellation Systems (including the Crew
Exploration Vehicle)
29
Cross-Agency, System of Systems
Integration (Lunar Architecture Illustrative
Example Only)
30
Exploration Systems Research Technology
Technology Research, Development Maturation
Exploration Systems Research Technology
Systems Development Programs
Advanced Space Technology Program
Technology Maturation Program
Innovative Technology Transfer Partnerships
Program
Advanced Studies, Concepts and Tools Program
High Energy Space Systems Tech Pgm
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program
Advanced Materials Structural Concepts Program
Advanced Space Systems Platform Technology Pgm
Small Business Tech. Transfer (STTR) Program
Communications, Computing, Electronics
Imaging RT Pgm
Advanced Space Operations Tech Pgm
Technology Transfer Network
Lunar Planetary Surface Operations Technology
Pgm
Software, Intelligent Systems Modeling RT
Program
In-Space Technology Experiments Program (IN-STEP)
Power, Propulsion Chemical Systems RT Program
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