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Planning Principles: OC 2 Marsha L' Vanderford PhD Director, Emergency Communication System Centers

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Title: Planning Principles: OC 2 Marsha L' Vanderford PhD Director, Emergency Communication System Centers


1
Planning Principles OC 2 Marsha L. Vanderford
PhD Director, Emergency Communication
System Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention mvanderford_at_cdc.gov
2
The Importance of Planning
  • If I had all day to cut a large tree,
  • I would spend most of the day sharpening my axe.
  • Abraham Lincoln

Source The Chicago Historical Society
3
Case Study Anthrax Outbreak 2001
  • Caused by Bacillus anthracis
  • Skin infection
  • Inhalation infection
  • Digestive infection
  • Autumn 2001
  • U.S. experienced
  • multiple cases of
  • intentional
  • Inhalational anthrax

4
Anthrax Cases 2001
  • 5 letters
  • 22 cases
  • 5 deaths

New York City
Washington DC
Florida
5
This is an official CDC HEALTH UPDATE
  • Distributed via Health Alert Network Saturday,
    October 27, 2001, 2130  EDT (930
     PM EDT) CDCHAN-00048-2001-10-27-UPD-N
  • CDC Statement Regarding Postal and Other Mailroom
    Facilities in the Metropolitan Washington DC Area
  • Who should receive medications?
  • When?
  • Where?
  • How much?
  • How long?
  • What medications?

6
Prophylactic Antibiotics
  • Ciproflaxin
  • Congressional Staff
  • Media Celebrities
  • Brand name antibiotic
  • Doxycyline
  • Postal Workers
  • Generic Drug

7
Discussion Questions
  • What happened?
  • What should have happened?
  • What OC 1 Principle(s) were violated?
  • Trust?
  • Transparency?
  • Early Announcement?
  • Understanding Audience?
  • Planning ahead?

8
OC 1 Best Practices Which Were Violated in
Anthrax Case?
  • Trust
  • Between health authorities and the public
  • Compassion/empathy/concern
  • Expertise (includes consistency)
  • Honesty (Transparency)
  • Power
  • Identification

9
  • What can be done before an outbreak occurs to
    develop and maintain the publics trust during an
    emergency?

10
Department of Health and Human Services Assistant
Secretary for Public Affairs
CDC Communications Leadership Team
Directors Emergency Operations Center
(DEOC) Emergency Communication Coordination
Center (EC3)
EMERGENCY COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Information Management Team (IMT)
Communication Monitoring and Research Team (CMRT)
Clinicians Communications Team (CCT)
Web Team (WT)
Health Education Team (HET)
Hotline Team (HT)
Public Health Communications Team (PHCT)
Federal Governmental Communications Team (FGCT)
Media Team (MT)
Sept. 2003
11
OC 1 Best Practices Which Were Violated in
Anthrax Case?
  • Transparency
  • Easily understood
  • Includes communicating
  • What is known
  • What is not known
  • What is being done to answer questions
  • Disclosing bases of decision-making
  • Explaining limits of disclosure

12
  • What can be done before an emergency to increase
    your ability to communicate transparency?

13
OC 1 Best Practices Which Were Violated in
Anthrax Case?
  • Understanding the Public
  • Two-way communication
  • Find out public knowledge, opinions, beliefs
  • Respect public concerns (even when they conflict
    with experts assessments)
  • Increase public perceptions of control
  • Include personal protection actions

14
  • What can be done ahead of time to learn what the
    public knows and believes about potential
    outbreaks?

15
  • What can be done ahead of time to increase your
    ability to determine what the public is thinking
    about health threats and protection during an
    outbreak?

16
Case Study Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Readiness Recovery Drowning
Prevention Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Prevention Food Water Safety Electric
Hazards Vector Borne Diseases Wound Care
17
Hurricane Katrina
80 of New Orleans evacuated
1200 deaths
1,700,000 homes without electricity
18
Coast Guard Request
Request for workers safety guidance
No electronic channels
No overnight delivery
No transportation into the site
19
Delayed Message Dissemination
Delayed Communication
Increased Health problems
20
Discussion Questions
  • What happened?
  • What should have happened?
  • What OC 1 Principle(s) were violated?
  • Trust?
  • Transparency?
  • Early Announcement?
  • Understanding Audience?
  • Planning ahead?

21
Announcing Early
  • Reduces rumors and misinformation
  • Delay causes distrust
  • Delay causes over estimation of risk
  • First messages provide the frame or context that
    subsequent messages must fit
  • The earlier the risk is known the earlier
    prevention steps can mitigate harm
  • Set expectations that information may change

22
  • What can be done ahead of an outbreak to increase
    your ability to announce information about health
    risks early?

23
A Template for Communicating Early
24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
26
  • What can be done ahead of time to increase the
    speed of message dissemination?

27
Develop the Trust Triangle
Policy Staff
28
Context
Feedback
Source Message Encoding/Language
Channel(s) Audience Meaning
29
3 Elements of Messages
  • Content Element
  • Explicit information
  • Relational Element
  • Caring
  • Respect
  • Power
  • Contextual Elements
  • Beliefs and information held by the audience that
    will shape understanding of health messages

30
  • What can be done ahead of time to build trust and
    closer working relationships between scientists,
    policy staff, and communication staff (public
    affairs, health educators/communicators, social
    mobilization)?

31
  • What can be done ahead of time to get
    communication staff involved early in discussions
    with policy staff and scientists so communication
    mistakes are less likely?

32
Cross Cutting and Overarching Planning Principles
  • Establish and strengthen relationships
  • Develop and implement protocols
  • Begin with the end in mind
  • Plan for just-in-time public attention
  • Plan for most-likely scenarios
  • Use existing mechanisms and channels
  • Others?

33
What Formats From Examples Work Best for Tools?
  • Checklists
  • Charts
  • Flowcharts
  • Templates
  • Examples
  • Others?
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