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Mars

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... the Mars craze, spent the rest of his life searching for ' ... Lander, Compete map of surface (Face on mars) Biological experiments (no life!) PTYS/ASTR 206 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mars


1
Introduction to Mars
2
Announcements
  • Reading Assignment
  • Finish Chapter 13
  • Quiz today
  • Will cover all material since the last exam.
    This is Chapters 9-12 and the part of 13 covered
    today.
  • Exam 2 next Thursday
  • Brief review after Tuesdays lecture
  • Next study-group session is next Wednesday (3/28)
    from 1030AM-1200Noon in room 330.
  • Public lecture next Tuesday (3/27) 730PM in
    308 of Kuiper (this room). Prof. Bob Brown,
    Saturn seen through infrared eyes
  • Look for PTYS/ASTR206 sign-up sheet (our class!)
  • Note Prof. Brown will conduct a limited number
    of special 10-minute tours of the VIMS Operations
    Center these tours will originate in the Atrium
    at 6PM early arrival is recommended!

3
  • Today
  • Basic facts of Mars
  • Marss apparitions / orbit / appearance from
    Earth
  • Exploration
  • Surface (start)
  • Tuesday
  • Surface (finish)
  • Interior
  • Atmosphere
  • Water on Mars
  • Moons
  • Life (time permitting otherwise, this will be
    discussed later in the course)

4
Introduction to Mars
  • 4th planet from the Sun
  • Avg. distance 1.524 AU
  • Eccentricity 0.093
  • Year 686.98 days
  • Day 24.62 hours
  • Almost the same (differs only by about ½ hour)
  • Diameter 6,794 km
  • About ½ the size of Earth
  • Mass 6.418 x 1023 kg
  • About 10 times less than Earth
  • Surface temp
  • Max 70 oF
  • Min -220 oF
  • Mean -63 oF

5
Mars Apparitions
  • Mars is best seen from Earth every synodic
    period. That is every 780 days. During this
    time, Mars is at opposition and rises to its
    highest point in the night sky at midnight.
  • During the month or so on either side of this,
    Mars is bright in the sky and is very obvious
  • also known as an apparition
  • Because of Marss elliptical orbit, some
    oppositions are more favorable than others
  • An especially good apparition occurred in 2003
    when Mars was at its closest to Earth in over
    50,000 years.

6
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7
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8
Synodic vs. Sidereal Orbital Period
  • Sidereal Period The time it takes a planet to
    complete a single orbit about the Sun (as seen
    from the stars)
  • Synodic Period Time interval for a planet to
    return to the same position relative to the Sun
    and Earth (i.e. the time between successive
    oppositions)
  • Mars has the longest synodic period of ALL the
    planets

9
Synodic vs. Sidereal Periods
MARS
EARTH
SUN
10
Synodic vs. Sidereal Periods
6 months later
SUN
EARTH
MARS
11
Synodic vs. Sidereal Periods
MARS
1 year later
EARTH
SUN
12
Synodic vs. Sidereal Periods
1.5 years later
MARS
EARTH
SUN
13
Synodic vs. Sidereal Periods
2 years later
EARTH
SUN
MARS
14
Synodic vs. Sidereal Periods
1 Synodic Period Later
SUN
EARTH
MARS
15
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16
Earth-Based Views of Mars
Ground-based telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
17
A Gallery of my attempts summer of 2003


18
Early Observations
  • Astronomers in the 1600s made the first
    telescopic observations of Mars
  • They determined
  • Rotation period (24 h 37m)
  • Presence of ice caps
  • 25o tilt
  • Linear features
  • Canali (italian for channels)
  • Mistranslated as canals

19
Percival Lowell
  • Background
  • Wealthy Bostonian
  • Brother was president of Harvard
  • Sister won a Pulitzer prize in poetry
  • Math degree from Harvard
  • Decided to build an observatory in Flagstaff
  • Realized importance of seeing conditions
  • After the Mars craze, spent the rest of his life
    searching for planet X
  • Saw LOTS of canals

20
Lowells interpretation
  • Canals carry water from Ice caps to civilizations
    in the agricultural regions
  • The civilizations were dying of thirst
  • Evidence for intelligent life on Mars

21
Canals Reality
  • They are not there !
  • Lowell almost certainly was playing connect the
    dots
  • An easy trap to get into
  • Observing fine details on small objects through a
    telescope is a tough business!
  • Note that they could magnify the images
    considerably, but that atmospheric turbulence
    limits what can be seen at such high magnification

22
Optical effects againThe Face on Mars
  • This was seen in Viking mission images
  • Suggestive of something built by a civilization
  • Not proposed by a scientist
  • Scientists never accepted this interpretation

23
The Face at higher resolution as seen with Mars
Global Surveyor MOC camera
24
More familiar features
25
A History of Mars Exploration
  • Mariner 4 (1965)
  • Found that Mars has many craters

26
A History of Mars Exploration
  • Mariner 4 (1965)
  • Found that Mars has many craters
  • Mariner 9 (1971)
  • Found several enormous Volcanoes
  • Not so dead !

27
A History of Mars Exploration
  • Mariner 4 (1965)
  • Found that Mars has many craters
  • Mariner 9 (1971)
  • Found several enormous volcanoes
  • Not so dead !
  • Viking (1976)
  • Lander, Compete map of surface (Face on mars)
  • Biological experiments (no life!)

28
More Recent (and Future) Mars Missions
  • Mars Pathfinder (1997)
  • Mars Global Surveyor (1997)
  • Both missions in 1999 failed
  • Stupid mistakes
  • Mars Odyssey (2001)
  • Water on Mars! (UA instrument)
  • Mars Express (rover Beagle failed) (2003)
  • Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity
    (2003)
  • These are still going strong (would make for an
    excellent mission update)
  • 05 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
  • Successful orbit insertion
  • HIRISE (UA instrument) you have GOT to check
    out their website!!!
  • 07 Phoenix lander (UA mission!)

29
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30
HiRISE view of a rover next to Victoria crater
31
Another HiRISE image

32
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33
Marss surface
  • The heavily cratered southern highlands are older
    and about 5 km higher in elevation than the
    smooth northern lowlands
  • Fewer craters in the Northern lowlands
  • The origin of Marss crustal dichotomy is not
    completely understood
  • One giant impact basin ?
  • Multiple large impact basins ?
  • Plate tectonics ?

34
Valles Marineris
  • A rift valley that separates the Northern and
    southern regions
  • 3000-miles long
  • As much as 6 miles deep in places
  • formed by upwelling plumes of magma in the mantle

35
Marss Volcanoes
  • Olympus Mons is an enormous shield volcano
  • 27 km high
  • 20 times wider than it is high
  • It is not active, and neither is any other
    volcano on Mars
  • Mars has the largest shield volcanoes in the
    solar system

36
Marss Craters
  • Mars is much more heavily cratered than the Earth
    and Venus
  • Has regions with similar crater density to that
    found at Mercury and the Moon
  • The largest (more than 50km wide) and smallest
    (less than 5 km) craters are similar to those
    found on the Moon and Mercury

37
Splosh Craters
  • Medium sized craters ( 10-20 km) have large
    ejecta blankets which come in a variety of
    shapes
  • Pancakes
  • Flowers (as shown)
  • May be due to subsurface water
  • Like a pebble in mud
  • NOT CLEAR !

38
Marss Interior
  • Density is 3950 kg/m3.
  • This is somewhat less than Earth's density.
  • Also, Mars is smaller than the Earth, so it could
    have cooled off more inside.
  • Sulfur rich?
  • Magnetic field
  • Mars has no global magnetic field.
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