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GAMESTOTEACH PROJECT Fall 2002

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30% of respondents students play online games 1 hour / week. MIT Student Survey ... PC XBox Online. Hephaestus. Genre. Platform. Game. Social Contexts. If ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GAMESTOTEACH PROJECT Fall 2002


1
GAMES-TO-TEACH PROJECTFall 2002
Kurt Squire Research Manager, MIT Comparative
Media Studies Indiana University Henry Jenkins
Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies
2
Games-to-Teach
  • Background / historical context
  • Design Research Activities
  • Design commitments
  • 10 Conceptual frameworks
  • Themes
  • Next steps / invitation for participation

3
Games-to-Teach
  • Background / historical context
  • Research
  • Design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Next steps / invitation for participation

4
Educational games in context
5
Bell Labs Science Films
6
Edutainment
7
Edutainment?
8
Games-to-Teach Vision
  • Contemporary Pedagogy
  • State-of-the-Art Gaming
  • Next Generation Educational Media

9
Games-to-Teach
10
Games-to-Teach
GameDesigners
MITFaculty
ComparativeMedia Studies
Educational Technologists
Students
11
Games-to-Teach
  • Background / historical context
  • Research
  • Design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Next steps / invitation for participation

12
Research on Gaming
  • Educational games dont work (Clegg, 1991 Downey
    Levstick, 1973 Ehman Glenn, 1991 Gredler,
    1996)
  • Lacking a coherent theoretical framework
    (Gredler, 1996)
  • Instructional context more important than media
    (Clark, 1983 White Frederickson, 1998)

13
Research on Gaming
  • Produce increased motivation (Cordova Lepper,
    1997 Malone, 1985)
  • Effective within inquiry framework (Clark, 1983
    White Frederickson, 1998)
  • Social interactions produce learning (Johnson
    Johnson, 1985)
  • Large disconnect between state-of-the-art and
    educational games (Squire, 2002)
  • Emerging pedagogies (Squire Reigeluth, 1999)
  • Problem Based Learning (Barrows et al, 1999)
  • Anchored Instruction (Bransford et al, 1992)
  • Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, 1996)
  • Case-Based Reasoning

14
Modeling, Visualization, Microworlds
15
Participants
  • Educational Researchers
  • Howard Gardner, Mitchell Resnick, Chris Dede,
    Steven Pinker
  • Media theorists
  • Henry Jenkins, Justine Cassell, Nick Montfort
  • Teachers MIT Faculty
  • Bonnie Bracey (K-12), Woodie Flowers (MIT), John
    Belcher (MIT), Tom Keating (San Francisco
    Exploratorium)
  • Students
  • MIT, Boston Gibbs, UMass, Central Florida
  • Survey 653 MIT students

16
MIT Student Survey
  • Survey of MIT undergraduate student body
  • 653/4000 Respondents
  • MIT students grew up with games
  • All respondents played a computer or video game
    88 before age 10
  • Most MIT students are frequent game players
  • 60 spend more than an hour / week playing games
  • (compared to 33 for television, 57 reading)
  • 30 of respondents students play online games gt 1
    hour / week

17
MIT Student Survey
  • 555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.
  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55
  • Starcraft 46
  • Civiliation I/ II 29
  • Zelda 24
  • Tetris 22
  • Quake 21
  • 33 Mario Franchises Super Mario Brothers Mario
    Kart
  • Unreal Tournmanet 12
  • Snood 12
  • Madden Sports 8
  • The Sims 6

18
Participants
  • Game Designers
  • Bryan Sullivan (Ironlore / Age of Empires),
  • Doug Church (ION Storm / Thief, Deus Ex),
  • Eric Zimmerman (gamelab / Sissyfight 2000 / Lego
    Junkbot),
  • Brenda Laurel (Purple Moon / Rockets
    adventures),
  • Chris Weaver (Bethesda / Morrowind),
  • Alex Rigopulous (Harmonix / Frequency)
  • Kent Quirk (Cognitoy / Mind Rover),
  • Matt Ford (Microsoft / Asherons Call),
  • Steve Meretzky (Infocom / Hitchhikers Guide),
  • Ben Sawyer (Digimill / Virtual U)
  • Brian Moriarty (Infocom / Loom)

19
Design Commitments
  • Appeal to broad audiences
  • Women in lead design roles
  • Gender inclusive game designs
  • Leverage existing genres
  • Grounded in existing learning sciences research
  • Provide transgressive play
  • Address misconceptions
  • Induce contextuality
  • Designing for sociability (Preece, 1999)
  • Recognizing Instructional Context
  • Assessments

20
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21
Replicate
22
Replicate
  • Transgressive Play
  • Choice ? Engagement Critical Thinking with
    content
  • Specialization and differentiation (role playing)
  • Visualization
  • Elucidate misconceptions
  • Viruses Temperature

23
DreamHaus Architectural Engineering
24
DreamHaus Playful Characters
25
DreamHaus Environmental Puzzles
26
DreamHaus Construction Kits
27
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28
DreamHausHybrid Game Genres
  • Romantic allure of architecture
  • Intrinsically interesting aspects of engineering
  • Rich Characterization
  • Learning through Construction
  • Multiple Play Styles
  • Community Connections
  • Humor Playfulness

29
Cuckoo Time!
30
Cuckoo Time!
  • MisconceptionsPower-ups Scientific
    VariablesMultiplayer

31
Cuckoo Time!
  • Lectures
  • Problem Sets
  • Written Assignments
  • Assessments
  • Construction Kits

32
Cuckoo Time!
  • Microworlds
  • Failure
  • Power-ups
  • Multiple Use contacts
  • Collaborative games

33
BiohazardBiology through Pathology
  • Action Role Playing - ER! Outbreak Deus Ex
    - Doctor / Disease control- Simulated
    Diseases- Biology through pathology -
    Observation, experimentation- Content

- Inheritance Patterns- Viral Structure and
Replication- Reproduction, - Growth and
Development- Structural, Physiological, and
Behavioral Adaptations
34
BiohazardGoal-Based Scenarios
Melodramatic tension Access to tools
resourcesSeductive Failure statesAssessment
Replaying Events
35
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36
BiohazardSimulated RPGs
Choices Consequences Time, Resources,
Character Development Developing skills,
making contacts, earning reputationSimulated
Worlds Viruses, synthetic charactersAuthentic
tools Skills, Read-outs, displaysAssessment Sta
tistics, records, reflectionMultiplayer
potential
37
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer
Earth is dying... our only refuge, 4 light years
away a lone volcanic planet... HEPHAESTUS
...and everyone wants a piece of the pie.
38
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer
- Build Robots down to the gear- Make
engineering trade-offs - Carrying load vs.
mass - Mass vs. friction- Explore a volcanic
planet - Divert lava flows - Gain energy-
Spend Resources to upgrade - Personalization -
Differentiation
39
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer
- Collaborative competitive play-
Differentiated Roles- Open-ended play-
40
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer
- Differentiated Roles- Multiple Player
types - achiever, socializer, competitor,
explorers- Virtual identities- Elfs Orcs-
Modes of expression- Collaboration
41
Environmental Detectives
  • Handhelds are cheap, powerful, easy to use, and
    easy to store
  • What to do with them?
  • Lend themselves to gaming and interactive
    narrative
  • Lack of demonstrated gaming models (US)

42
Environmental Detectives
  • Environmental Disaster
  • Interact with chemical simulation
  • Meet virtual characters
  • Share information with peers
  • Write report
  • Devise treatment plan

43
Environmental Detectives
  • Augmented realities

44
Supercharged!Learning Through Microworlds
45
(No Transcript)
46
Social Contexts
  • If learning is participation
  • What is legitimate participation in social
    practices
  • Simulations vs. reality
  • Social interactions
  • Explaining strategies
  • Teachers just-in-time lectures
  • Collaborative communities of practice
  • Online communities
  • Sharing strategies (ala The Sims)
  • Using Games to induce complex problem solving
  • Role Playing
  • Microworlds
  • Strategy / Resource Management

47
Using Game Conventions
  • Contested spaces
  • Leveraging contests in content
  • Power ups
  • Ways of making students choose
  • Ways of manipulating variables
  • Character development choosing skills / items
  • Creating emotional investment
  • Inducing creative thinking
  • Differentiated Roles

48
Future Steps
  • Internal Development
  • Supercharged! (Electromagnetism)
  • Environmental Detectives (Environmental Studies)
  • Replicate! (Biology Virology)
  • Developing with partners
  • - Biohazard (Emergency Response workers)
  • New content partners
  • Royal Shakespeare Company
  • Colonial Williamsburg

49
Future Steps
  • Building a network of teachers, researchers and
    developers
  • http//cms.mit.edu/games/education/
  • ksquire_at_mit.edu

50
(No Transcript)
51
Communities
Learning from Successful Games
52
Communities
Learning from Successful Games
53
Join Us!
  • Prototypes 1-10 on the web
  • Designs, pedagogy, technical notes, art
  • Documentation and media
  • http//cms.mit.edu/games/education/
  • Kurt Squire
  • ksquire_at_mit.edu

54
ElectromagnetismSupercharged
Faradays Law Image Courtesy of John Belcher
55
ElectromagnetismSupercharged
  • Demo Game

56
Grokking Electromagnetism
  • Cognitive Challenges
  • Principles counter-intuitive
  • No first-hand experience of phenomena
  • Routinized knowledge of procedures
  • Ability to think with tools, resources
  • Ability to participate in scientific practices
    (inquiry, modeling, explanation)

57
Grokking Electromagnetism
  • Robust qualitative understandings
  • Experts use laws to identify problem types
  • Deep understanding of core relationships
  • Ability to visualize abstract concepts
  • Can use knowledge to solve everyday problems

58
Grokking Electromagnetism
  • Broader Challenges
  • Functional use value Why learn this?
  • Developing interest in science
  • Identity of Self as scientist
  • Science as memorization of immutable facts.

59
ElectromagnetismSupercharged
  • Why Supercharged?
  • Robust, real time, interactivity
  • Depict abstract relationships in 3D
  • EM laws as basis for flying / driving game
  • Familiar gaming genres and science fiction
  • Challenges to Supercharged
  • Qualitative, not quantitative interactions
  • Constrained to computer
  • Getting learners involved in hard thinking
    creating

60
Pocket PC
  • GPS / Wireless / Location based gaming
  • Multiplayer real time role playing game
  • Observing, testing, analyzing, predicting
  • Implementation Contexts
  • Edgerton Center
  • Terrascope Project
  • MIT Classrooms
  • Cambridge Schools

61
Game-Based Pedagogy

Game
Student
EMPhysics
62
Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures
Peers
Web-basedResources
Texts
Game
Student
EMPhysics
Demonstrations
63
Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures
Peers
Web-basedResources
Texts
Game
Student
EMPhysics
Demonstrations
Classroom Context
64
Assessment
  • Game Data
  • Levels completed, time per - problem, solution
    paths
  • Observations
  • Notes Video-taped
  • Pre Post - tests
  • Content Interviews
  • Written tests Surveys
  • Dynamic tasks (zero, near, far transfer)
  • Interviews with Instructors
  • Comparisons with traditional groups

65
Contact Information
  • Information
  • http//cms.mit.edu/games/education/
  • To participate in pilot program
  • Email cms-g2t-pilot
  • Contact
  • Henry Jenkins henry3_at_mit.edu
  • Randy Hinrichs randyh_at_microsoft.com
  • Kurt Squire ksquire_at_mit.edu

66
Questions
67
Game-Based Pedagogy
  • Importance of instructional context
  • set-up, debriefing, and reflection
  • Leveraging collaboration (e.g. Koschmann, 1996)
  • Reflection
  • Power of local culture conditions (Squire et
    al., 2002)
  • Adoption Adaptation
  • Teacher support and professional development
  • Communities of teachers

68
Game-Based Pedagogy
Yuro Engestrom, 1992
69
Endogenous Game Play
  • Immersive Learning Environments
  • Students developing and testing hypotheses
  • Role playing Games
  • Solving authentic problems
  • Access to authentic tools / resources
  • Visualization and Simulation
  • Leveraging potential contests
  • Spatial Conquests
  • Remediating physical laws

70
Engaging Media
  • Control, Challenge (Malone, 1981)
  • Instantaneous feedback
  • Adjusted Difficulty level
  • Choice
  • Fantasy, Exploration
  • Narrative, whimsy, fantasy, discovery
  • Social Contexts
  • Collaboration, Competition

71
GTT Research
  • 555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.
  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55
  • Starcraft 46
  • Civiliation I/ II 29
  • Zelda 24
  • Tetris 22
  • Quake 21
  • Super Mario Brothers 21
  • Tournmanet 12
  • Snood 12
  • Madden Sports 8
  • The Sims 6
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