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Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Barrier Island Restoration, Marsh Creation,

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Title: Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Barrier Island Restoration, Marsh Creation,


1
Louisiana Coastal Area,LouisianaEcosystem
Restoration Barrier Island Restoration, Marsh
Creation, and River Diversion, Barataria Basin
Feasibility Study
2
Importance of Coastal Louisiana to Nation
  • The Mississippi River is the lifeblood of coastal
    Louisianas industries, infrastructure,
    ecosystem, and culture
  • The Louisiana coastal area and the river greatly
    contribute to the Nations economic development
  • Billion dollar/yr coastal fishery industry
  • 30 of nations production
  • More than all of Atlantic seaboard production
  • More than any other Gulf state
  • Infrastructure for 17 of oil and 25 of natural
    gas produced in nation

3
Importance of Coastal Louisiana to Nation
  • Navigation projects for No. 1 Port complex in
    Nation
  • 400 million tons/yr
  • 155 miles of waterways threatened by coastal
    erosion
  • Hurricane protection for 2 million people
  • Coastal habitat for millions of birds and animals
  • 70 of Nations migratory waterfowl of
    Mississippi Flyway overwinter in Louisiana
    coastal area
  • World renowned for recreation fishing, hunting,
    and boating

4
Importance of Coastal Louisiana to Nation
  • The entire Mississippi River drainage basin
    drains through south Louisiana
  • Strategic national location for the regulation of
    basin floodwaters using Old River Control
    Complex, locks, flood gates, and levee systems
  • Supports existence, economic growth, and
    prosperity of businesses located along the
    floodplains of the entire Mississippi River and
    its tributaries
  • With the Nations necessary continued use of
    river controls in south Louisiana, river water
    that is life giving to coastal areas is channeled
    directly to the Gulf of Mexico
  • This represents a continual loss of natural
    wetland sustenance

5
Louisiana Land and Water Changes 1956-1990
6
Will Be Lost Forever...
2050 projection adapted from LSU Natural Systems
Engineering Laboratory, 1998
7
LOUISIANA COASTAL PLAIN
Land Loss 1930's to 1990 and 2050 Projection
6,000
1,000 square miles
1,500 square miles
5,500
5,000
Land Remaining (thousand of acres)
4,500
4,000
3,500
2050
1930
1956-58
1974
1983
1990
after Dunbar et al. 1992
8
Causes of Loss
160 million tons of sediment are delivered to the
continental shelf each year. Most of this
material is unavailable for marsh building
processes because levees prevent overbank
sedimentation.
9
Causes of Loss (continued) Canal and Channel
Dredging
10
Causes of Loss (continued) Herbivory
11
Causes of Loss (continued) Subsidence
(ft/century)
12
Causes of Loss (continued) Relative Sea Level
Rise
after Wigley and Raper, 1992
13
Will Be Lost Forever...
By 2050 nearly 1,000 square miles of Louisianas
wetlands, an area nearly the size of Rhode
Island, will become open water.
14
Will be lost forever...
15
Impending Ecosystem Collapse
  • Funded projects will have addressed 22 of
    projected future marsh loss through 2050.
  • Even with these in place, 408,000 acres of marsh
    and 233,500 acres of swamp will be lost.
  • This will have major social, economic, and
    environmental consequences. At risk are
  • Communities Infrastructure
    Fisheries
  • Migratory Birds A Unique
    Culture
  • The Coast 2050/LCA Feasibility Study would
    address the remaining 641,500 acres of projected
    wetland loss.

16
Available Options
  • Abandon the coast relocate.
  • Put the coast on life support rock, ring, and
    pump.
  • Status quo small-scale solutions.
  • One comprehensive plan that addresses the causes
    of the problem required to sustain our coast.

17
Coast 2050 Toward a Sustainable Coastal
Louisiana
Vision to sustain a coastal ecosystem
that supports the environment, economy and
culture of southern Louisiana, and that
contributes greatly to the economy and well-being
of the nation.
18
Coast 2050 Ecosystem Goals
  • Assure vertical accretion to achieve
    sustainability of greatest wetland acreage
    practicable
  • Maintain estuarine gradient to achieve habitat
    diversity
  • Maintain exchange and interface to achieve system
    linkages

19
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20
Results of Coast 2050 Initiative
  • Consensus-based, grass roots planning initiative
    for ecosystem restoration
  • Comprehensive plan for restoration of Louisianas
    coastal landscape by Federal, state, and parish
    governments
  • Identification of perceived and predicted
    problems facing coastal Louisiana
  • Broad-scale restoration strategies
  • Basis for Louisiana Coastal Area Feasibility Study

21
The Consensus...
22
LCA Feasibility Study
  • USACE Reconnaissance Report
  • Supports the Coast 2050 Plan
  • Approved for feasibility study start in May 99
  • LCA General Investigations study authorization
  • Used existing 1967 authority
  • Broad latitude for study purposes
  • Current purpose ecosystem restoration
  • Project funding vehicle Water Resources
    Development Act (WRDA)

23
Barataria Basin Study Methodologyfor Ecosystem
Restoration
  • No dollar-based benefit-cost ratio criteria
  • Primary Criteria /Habitat Unit
  • Additional Selection Criteria Economic Impact
  • estimation of economic impact as ancillary
    benefits
  • hurricane, flood control, navigation
  • economic analysis qualified for intended use
  • Existing information updated
  • Ranges of costs stated
  • Cost Effectiveness/Incremental Cost Analysis used
    to optimize plans

24
Louisianas Coast 2050 Regions
Coastal Louisiana Hydrologic Basin Area
Louisianas Coastal Basins
LOUISIANA COASTAL AREA, LOUISIANA -- ECOSYSTEM
RESTORATION REGION AND BASIN MAPS FOR LOUISIANA
COASTAL AREA AUTHORITY U.S. ARMY ENGINEER
DISTRICT, NEW ORLEANS, LA CORPS OF
ENGINEERS August 1999
25
COAST 2050 REGION 2 REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM STRATEGIES
26
Approach for Barataria Study
  • 18-mo. interim report
  • Focus -- critical, fragile gulf perimeter
  • Marsh creation
  • Barrier island restoration
  • River diversion
  • Objectives
  • Rebuild and protect unique gulf fringe, bays, and
    shoreline ecosystem
  • Provide support to basin interior for restoration
  • Preparation for envisioned 3-yr study during
    18-mo. interim report
  • Hydrologic and Hydraulic modeling developed for
    basin
  • Objective
  • Prepare to evaluate interior basin strategies
    related to movement and circulation of water,
    sediment, and nutrients

27
R2-17. Dedicated Delivery of Sediment for Marsh
Building in Caminada Bay
R2-16. Dedicated Dredging for Marsh Creation
along Hwy. 1
R2-22. Restore/maintain Barrier Shoreline,
Port Fourchon to Sandy Point
LOUISIANA COASTAL AREA, LOUISIANA -- ECOSYSTEM
RESTORATION Barrier Island Restoration, Marsh
Creation, River Diversion, and Ecosystem
Restoration, Barataria Basin MARSH CREATION,
BARRIER ISLAND, RIVER DIVERSION RESTORATION
AREA MAP U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, NEW
ORLEANS, LA CORPS OF ENGINEERS August 1999
R2-11. Delta Building Diversion at Bastian Bay
28
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29
Considerations for InvestigationMarsh Creation
  • Target areas (Hwy. 1 and Caminada Bay)
  • Alternatives for investigation
  • Dredge and fill
  • Terracing
  • Vegetative Plantings
  • Three scales of analysis each alternative

30
Considerations for Investigation Marsh Creation
  • Cut-to-fill volume of available material
  • Supply of dredging resources
  • Coordination with Gulf Region dredging events
  • Environmental impact to borrow areas
  • Slope stability of borrow areas, relocations
  • Potential dredge material sources
  • Bayou Lafourche
  • Interior Barataria Basin lakes
  • Offshore

31
Strategies to Meet Design ChallengesMarsh
Creation
  • Research historical estuarine features of area.
  • Develop conceptual designs to emulate
    historically open water in areas.
  • Use combination of dredge-and-fill, terracing,
    and vegetative plantings.
  • Conserve available borrow resources.

32
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33
Considerations for Investigation Barrier Island
Restoration
  • Volume and characteristics of available material
  • Ship Shoal
  • Barataria basin ebb-tide shoals
  • Mississippi River
  • Types of dredging systems to efficiently and
    effectively perform work
  • Availability of dredging equipment
  • Coordination with regional dredging events
  • Environmental impact to borrow areas

34
Considerations for Investigation Barrier Island
Restoration
  • Adaptive Management Concept
  • New sand in system thru dredge-and-fill
  • Sand will re-arrange itself over time littoral
    drift
  • Some sand will be lost to gulf
  • Minimal Operation and Maintenance costs over
    project life (30-50 yrs)

35
Strategies to Meet Design ChallengesBarrier
Island Restoration Port Fourchon to Sandy
Point
  • Comprehensive offshore seismic and boring program
  • Wide swath gulfward of islands
  • Ship Shoal
  • Sediment suitability analysis
  • Three alternatives combining measures such as
  • Dredge and place
  • Coastal structures (e.g., breakwaters,
    revetments, geotubes)
  • Three scales for each alternative

36
Coast 2050 Strategy Delta Building Diversion at
Bastian Bay
37
WHAT IS THE COAST 2050 PARTNERSHIP ?
Coast 2050 is about planning a better future for
coastal Louisiana. The public and federal,
state, and parish representatives have developed
a single strategic plan to sustain our estuaries,
using the best science available.
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