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First wave of colonialism Americas

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First wave of colonialism (Americas) Second wave (Africa, East Asia, etc. ... France more neo-colonial; fought and lost in Vietnam and Algeria ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: First wave of colonialism Americas


1
Class 9b Colonialism
  • First wave of colonialism (Americas)
  • Second wave (Africa, East Asia, etc.)
  • Dismantling colonial empires
  • Impacts of colonialism

2
Colonialism definitions
  • Colony territory tied to a sovereign state
  • No foreign policy, military
  • Sometimes internal affairs, too
  • Colonialism
  • A state imposes political, economic, cultural
    systems on another territory
  • May encourage settlement

3
Motives for colonialism
  • Nationalism, economic, or cultural
  • God, gold, and glory
  • Missionaries spreading Christianity
  • Resources for European economies
  • More colonies more powerful state

4
First wave 1492 to 1825
  • Why were Europeans the colonizers in the 1400s?

5
First wave 1492 to 1825
  • Why were Europeans the colonizers in the 1400s?

6
First wave 1492 to 1825
  • Location, location, location
  • European trading cities oriented to the sea
  • West African trading cities oriented inland
  • East Africa, China and India farther away from
    Americas
  • Trade winds favored Europe

7
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8
Portuguese colonialism
  • Earliest explorers in Africa
  • Policy of trade, not settlement
  • Gold as part of mercantilism
  • Diseases harmful to Europeans
  • Developed slavery system in late 1400s
  • Laborers as commodities to be used up
  • Linking status and humanity with color

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10
Spanish colonialism
  • Different historical and political context
  • Coming out of Reconquista
  • More interested in settlement
  • Different physical context
  • Europeans brought diseases
  • Settlers brought plants, animals
  • Slaves imported for plantations

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12
Spanish colonialism
  • Distinctive urban landscapes
  • More mixing of cultures
  • Treaty of Tordesillas with Portugal (1494)
  • Portugal got Africa and East Indies
  • Spain got the Americas (minus Brazil)

13
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14
French colonialism
  • More gradual approach to Americas
  • Settlement/trade major motivations
  • Catholic/Protestant conflicts at home
  • Traded beaver no gold or silver
  • More equal interactions with Natives
  • Fewer settlers
  • Less penetration inland

15
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16
English colonialism
  • Still different political situation
  • Slower rise as maritime power
  • Colonial experience gained in Ireland
  • Focus on settlement
  • More hostile towards natives

17
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18
First wave Impacts at home
  • Portugal and Spain
  • Colonies as resource-based economies
  • France
  • Battles with England shifted to colonies
  • Less settlement, less impact
  • Great Britain
  • Learned from others, rose to greatest prominence

19
First wave independence
  • Number of colonies began to decrease in 1776
  • Led to French Revolution and European unrest
  • Led to wars of revolution in Latin America (from
    1801 in Haiti to 1825 in Bolivia)
  • Abolition of slave trade, then slavery (from
    1807/1833 in Britain to 1819/1863 in U.S.)

20
Second wave 1885-1900
  • Europe needed new markets
  • Surplus population from demographic transition
  • Increased nationalism
  • Geographical expeditions to Africa promised
    resources, markets

21
Second wave Africa
  • 1885 Europe began carving up Africa
  • Establishing trade, obtaining resources
  • "Humanitarian" mission
  • Increased political prestige
  • Everyone else is doing it

22
Second wave Africa
  • Arbitrary straight lines on the map
  • Cultural groups divided
  • Minorities preferred as collaborators
  • British adjusted their governance by place
  • French tried to import French culture

23
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24
Second wave Middle East
  • World War I Ottoman Empire joined Germany
  • Britain captured Iraq received local support
    with promise for self-rule
  • Ottoman territory carved into mandates
  • Nationalist uprisings against British, French
  • Independence in 1930s military remained

25
Second wave 1885-1900
  • Impact of WWII
  • Germany, Italy, Japan lost colonial blocs
  • U.S. exchanged aid for trade access
  • Start of Cold War
  • From 134 colonies in 1950 to 58 in 1961

26
Second wave independence
  • Generally peaceful transitions
  • Britain worked with nationalist leaders
  • France more neo-colonial fought and lost in
    Vietnam and Algeria
  • Belgium simply left Zaire fierce fighting
  • From 1943-1990, 98 new states

27
Second wave independence
  • Two paths to development
  • State ownership or protection (India)
  • Not favored by US, Europe
  • Free market
  • Prone to corruption
  • Economic colonialism

28
Second wave impacts
  • Impact on former home countries
  • Economic benefits without administrative costs
  • Cold War fought through proxies
  • Increasing numbers of immigrants

29
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31
Impacts of colonialism first wave
  • Decimation of native population (90)
  • Forced migration of slave populations
  • Diffusion of language, religion
  • Distinctive city plans, architecture
  • Wealth to home countries

32
Guadalajara
New Orleans
33
Quebec
Louisiana
34
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35
Second wave impacts nation-building
  • Creating new national identity
  • Resentment of favored minorities
  • Importance of leadership
  • New (or restored) iconography

36
Second wave impacts state-building
  • High military spending
  • Est. 1/3 of African spending
  • Better since Cold War
  • Tendency toward military rule
  • African commitment to state borders

37
Second wave impacts economics
  • Strong ties to former colonial powers
  • Main trade partner
  • Migration field
  • Source for tourism
  • Dependence on a single commodity
  • Resource-based national economy

38
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39
Second wave impacts economics
  • Patterns of land ownership
  • Plantations concentrated ownership
  • White settlers had best land
  • Nationalization vs. privatization
  • Two internal economic systems

40
Second wave impacts infrastructure
  • Fragmented infrastructure
  • Roads and rail oriented towards ports
  • Lack of connection between countries
  • Communications, too

41
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42
Second wave impacts psychological
  • Belief in Western superiority
  • Experts trusted over locals
  • From distrust to trust of government
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