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Youth Employment and Education The Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region 2007: A Youth Len

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Title: Youth Employment and Education The Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region 2007: A Youth Len


1
Youth Employment and EducationThe Millennium
Development Goals in the Arab Region 2007 A
Youth Lens?
  • Heba Nassar
  • February 2007

2
Introduction
  • The background paper seeks to analyze the
    employment and education situation of the Arab
    youth using MDG indicators.
  • The paper seeks to highlight specific guidelines
    that could help in empowering the Arab youth- men
    and women- maximizing their opportunities to lead
    a good and decent life as well as contribute to
    their countries' and region development process.
  • This is done through a policy framework focusing
    to ensure that youth are not only beneficiaries,
    but also the active agents of the success and the
    progress toward the attainment of the MDGs. The
    right to development, gender issues, challenges
    of conflict and good governance should be
    incorporated in the overall formulation of
    policies.

3
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • I-1- Pathway to education of youth

A-Low concern for pre-primary education. On
average, the Arab child gets 0.4 pre primary
schooling year compared to 1.6 in Latin America
and 1.8 in Central Eastern Europe, 2.2 in North
America and Western Europe.
  • B-Improvement in Primary Education
  • - Many Arab countries are close to achieving the
    goal of universal primary education, with NER
    above 90 (Bahrain, Qatar, Jordan, Lebanon,
    Tunisia, Algeria, Syria, Egypt). Sudan is worst
    performer.
  • Most Arab countries achieved evident progress
    regarding the MDG for closing gender gap in
    primary education by 2015.
  • In many Arab countries, female to male ratio
    exceeds 100 (Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, and Jordan).
  • Lowest performers are Sudan and Yemen.
  • - In general dropouts is declining

4
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • I-1- Pathway to education of youth
  • However, despite the progress, about some 20 per
    cent of children of primary school age were not
    enrolled in 2002. Urban children have better
    access to primary education and rural boys are
    better off than girls.
  • Several challenges are facing primary education
    in the Arab World imbalanced pattern of
    education expenditures, inefficient allocation of
    education spending, and the financial pressures
    of the need of expanding the physical education
    infra structure mainly in the populous countries
    (Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia)

5
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • 2- Youth Illiteracy in the third millennium a
    conflict in the new economy
  • Youth illiteracy was declining significantly in
    most Arab countries.
  • Improving youth literacy rates could be
    attributed to the success of illiteracy
    elimination campaigns, enhanced school
    enrollment, and increased female enrollment.
  • Yemen, Egypt and Iraq need to exert more
    extensive efforts to achieve MDG of eradicating
    youth illiteracy by 2015.
  • In few countries, gender bias stands in favor to
    young females, where literacy rates among females
    is higher than males (U.A.E., Qatar, Kuwait, and
    Bahrain)

6
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • I-3-High enrollment rates in basic education
    usually followed by low secondary enrollment
    rates
  • The highest net enrollment rate in secondary
    education is in Bahrain (90) followed by
    Palestine (89) and Qatar (87). The lowest
    rates are in Morocco and Yemen (35 and 34).
    Sudan is the worst performer in both primary and
    secondary education as well.
  • For secondary education female net enrollment
    rates are less than net enrollment rates in
    primary education in nearly all the region except
    for Palestine. Only two countries have female NER
    in secondary education that is higher than 90
    (Bahrain and Palestine)
  • Reasons for the relatively lower enrollment in
    secondary education may be classified under
    economic, institutional and cultural factors
  • -Poverty when poor parents make a choice
    about which of their children should receive an
    education, girls tend to be excluded first.
  • -Lack of near by schools is a main factor
    responsible for low female enrollment.
  • -Early marriage.

7
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • I-4- Gender friendly tertiary education in the
    Arab Region
  • Gender gap in tertiary enrollment is actually in
    favor to women in most Arab countries, especially
    the Gulf Countries.
  • This may be explained in part by cultural
    practices, which favor sending men abroad. In
    addition, women are engaged in tertiary education
    as second choice, due to lack of job
    opportunities.
  • It could be noticed as well the low share of Arab
    students in science, math engineering
    departments, promising areas for the future. Over
    the period 1999-2004, the highest percentage of
    students enrolled in these departments was in
    Libya (31).
  • Women tend to concentrate in the fields of
    education, arts, humanities, home economics,
    nursing while their representation in the fields
    of natural sciences, engineering, computer
    science and medicine was relatively low.

8
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • I-5- Increasing Enrollment Rates and Decreasing
    Educational Outcomes Dilemma of Educational
    Quality
  • Average years of schooling of four years and
    above was an important achievement at the
    national level, regarded as a take off point by
    the World Bank.
  • In terms of growth of human capital stock, the
    best performing country was Tunisia with an
    annual growth rate of 5.2, the lowest growth
    rate was for Kuwait (2.3).
  • The relevance of education to market demand is
    one of the most debated issues and major concerns
    for the Arab countries.
  • Arab youth tend to perform less than their
    counterparts in international assessments in
    educational performance.

9
Section I Status of Youth Education in the Arab
Region
  • I-5- Increasing Enrolment Rates and Decreasing
    Educational Outcomes Dilemma of Educational
    Quality
  • Many factors contribute to the low outcome of the
    education process
  • Curricula content and methods of teaching. Two
    most striking characteristics of higher education
    graduates in Arab countries are limited knowledge
    attainment, and weak analytical and innovative
    capabilities.
  • Less care devoted to invest in enhancing the
    educational facilities in the universities
    (libraries, laboratories...)
  • Lack of a clear evaluation method for
    education, methods of teaching curricula.
  • Limited resources lead to a decline in the
    sustainability of an affordable high quality of
    basic education.
  • The challenge confronting higher education system
    in the Arab countries is a complex one
    achievement of wide coverage while steadily
    upgrading quality, contributing to societal
    progress, and adjusting to technological and
    globalization challenges.
  • Change of policies and programs for the
    educational sector from emphasizing the provision
    of inputs to monitoring results.

10
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • II-1-The problematique
  • Youth unemployment is about double adult
    unemployment.
  • Gender disparities percentage of girls
    economically active population is increasing at
    higher rates compared to boys.
  • Chances of finding work for young people are
    lower adults.
  • Youth are concentrated in informal sector,
    generally engaged in casual occupation
  • In general youth employment is confronting
    several gaps
  • population- labor-GDP growth rate gap
  • gender gap
  • demand- supply gap
  • digital divide
  • growing gap between good-paying and productive
    jobs in new growth sectors of the economy, and
    low wage jobs in the rapidly expanding informal
    economy and the public sector
  • gap between labour-intensive and
    capital-intensive jobs.

11
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • II-2-Barriers to labor market entry for young
    people
  • Illiteracy and limited skills are the main
    barriers to labor market for young people in
    addition to poverty and poor health.
  • Modern technology and inter-industry shifts have
    changed the nature of work. Most jobs created
    will be for skilled workers.
  • To compete globally young entrants to the labor
    market have to obtain high standard in the fields
    of learning ability, skills and technological
    development.
  • The stagnation of Arab labor market is due to
    inadequate educational containment,
    inflexibility, inelasticity of wages, and the
    difficulty for a worker to move from the public
    sector to private sector since the latter
    requires different skills and is controlled by
    profitability and competitiveness

12
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • II-3-Underlying Factors

Supply side
Demand side
i- A young population (The demographic
aspect) ii- Economic Activity Rates
i - Decline in labor absorption rates in the
production sectors. ii- Labor absorption capacity
in the government and public sector shrinked,
while limited in the growing private sector iii-
Tremendous increase in employment in the informal
sector.
13
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • A-The supply side
  • i- A young population (The demographic aspect)
  • The predominantly young population is expected to
    guarantee that birth rates remain high in spite
    of decreasing fertility rates. This phenomenon is
    called Population Momentum
  • The Arab region will enjoy a demographic gift in
    the coming two decades where the workforce will
    increase by 2.5.
  • There is an estimated increase in the population
    in the age category 15-65 years to total
    population for the period 2000-2050, based on
    three estimates for UN fertility low, average,
    and high.

14
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • A-The supply side
  • ii Economic Activity Rates
  • The economic activity rate of youth decreased in
    most Arab countries in (1995 -2004) mainly as a
    result of more young people staying in the
    education system, as well as an increased number
    of youth who are discouraged from entering the
    labour force.
  • Youth activity rates were highest in Syria
    (52.1) and Bahrain (41.5) and lowest in Saudi
    Arabia and Palestine with respectively 17.5 and
    26.2
  • A considerable gender difference in economic
    activity rates is noticed in all the Arab
    sub-regions, In the GCC, gender difference varies
    from 45 points in Qatar to 20 points in Kuwait.
    In Mashreq, gender differences are high as well
    varying from 22 points in Egypt to 42 points in
    Syria.

15
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • B-The Demand side
  • i - Decline in labor absorption rates in the
    production sectors.
  • Services come in the first place for both male
    and female employment in most Arab countries.
  • Male employment in services range from 43 in
    Egypt, 45 in Algeria to about two thirds in
    Qatar, U.A.E. and Kuwait.
  • For women, services represent the dominant
    employing sector for female labor force in four
    Arab countries (Jordan 87, Kuwait 98, Saudi
    Arabia 82 and U.A.E 98)
  • Despite its declining share in employment,
    agriculture is still an important sector for
    women. (Algeria (57), Syria (54) and the
    dominant employing sector in Yemen and Sudan (88
    and 84).

16
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • B-The Demand side
  • i - Decline in labor absorption rates in the
    production sectors.
  • Labor absorptive capacity in the industrial
    sector in the Arab Region in general is limited
    at 12-13 due to its high capital intensity
  • Male employment is higher than female employment
    in the industrial sector in most of the Region.
    Girls and women in the Arab industrial sector
    tend to be concentrated in low skilled and low
    waged occupations.
  • Limited share of industrial sector in employment
    could be attributed to lack of export
    diversification in favor to the dominance of
    petroleum and fuel industries, the relatively low
    and limited depth of industrialization process
    which depended on import substitution strategies
    as well as the relatively low FDI in
    manufacturing in the region.

17
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • B-The Demand side
  • ii-Labor absorption capacity in government
    public sector shrinked, while limited in the
    growing private sector
  • Many Arab countries adopted privatization and
    economic reform programs.
  • Structural reforms and privatization programs led
    to shrinking of the public sector.
  • The impact on the diminishing role of the
    government as employer was negative on women
    since the government used to act as the main
    employer of Arab women.
  • A restrictive limited private sector faced a
    discouraged environment to flourish in the
    nineties, thus was unable to produce the needed
    job opportunities.

18
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • B-The Demand side
  • iii- Tremendous increase in employment in
    informal sector.
  • Informal sector became a leading source of
    employment in MENA in the 1990s. ILO estimated
    that about 70 of the working youth in Egypt work
    without the protection of employment contracts
  • High levels of persistence in informal employment
    show that informality is not just a transient
    state for new entrants on their way to a formal
    job.
  • Women are often involved in non-wage work
    (self-employment such as work on a family farm)
    and the probability that those women work without
    a contract supplying benefits for a typical
    worker is high compared to that of men. Informal
    employment, which comprises of both self- and
    wage-employed work, is generally a larger source
    of employment for women than for men in the Arab
    countries, except for Syria.

19
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4- Unemployment Levels, challenges and
    prospects
  • A -Levels and trends
  • Unemployment is highly concentrated among youth
    in the Arab region. The highest portion of youth
    unemployment was in Palestine (38.4) followed by
    Jordan (31)
  • MENA had the lowest youth employment-to-
    population ratio, with only every third young
    person working in 2003 all over the world which
    indicates the enormous challenge the region
    faces.
  • The GCC sub region has the highest ratio of youth
    to adult unemployment rates. In contrast, Mashrek
    has lower ratios
  • Share of youth to total unemployment ranged from
    78.2 in Syria to 28.9 in Kuwait in 2000.
  • Gender differences in youth unemployment exist in
    most developing regions. MENA region and Latin
    America Caribbean have the highest difference
    between unemployment rates for young women and
    men.

20
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4- Unemployment Levels, challenges and
    prospects
  • 4-b- Youth Unemployment Challenges
  • The World Bank estimates that youth spend an
    average of 1.4 years in temporary or intermittent
    work or joblessness before permanently entering
    stable employment.
  • This estimated duration could reach above four
    years.
  • Being either unemployed or out of the workforce
    for a long time can limit the accumulation of
    human capital young people need to get better
    integrated into the workplace and find productive
    employment.
  • Factors underlying the increase in youth
    unemployment can be classified into economic and
    educational reasons

21
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4- Unemployment Levels, challenges and
    prospects
  • Economic growth
  • Nearly all Arab countries were able to achieve
    positive average growth of G.D.P. per capita over
    the period (1995-2005). In most Arab countries,
    economic growth could not catch up with the
    increasing unemployment rate.
  • Savings and investment rates in the Arab
    countries are generally lower than in other
    areas, especially East Asia, excluding, the
    oil-exporting countries.
  • Moreover, accumulation and productivity have
    proven to be in opposite directions. Egypt,
    almost doubled its rate of physical capital
    accumulation and more than doubled its rate of
    human capital accumulation, but faced a decline
    in TFP growth by about one quarter
  • TFP growth in Morocco and Algeria turned from
    positive to negative rates.

22
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4- Unemployment Levels, challenges and
    prospects
  • Education
  • Unemployment rates are highest for groups in the
    middle and upper end of the education
    distribution. The majority of unemployed workers
    are relatively well-educated and first-time job
    seekers.
  • Many factors contribute to the decline of the
    education quality in the Arab Region
  • - Great emphasis on university-type higher
    education (where social sciences and humanities
    predominate), with very low and poor training of
    intermediate technical workers which are much in
    demand.
  • The accelerated expansion and emphasis on higher
    education enrolment was not associated with the
    same level of increase in resources.
  • The content of curricula and teaching methods.

23
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4- Unemployment Levels, challenges and
    prospects
  • 4-c Migration, a prospect for youth
    unemployed?
  • Past research has classified Arab migration
    according to its two distinct migratory patterns
    intra-regional migration migration that takes
    place between Arab countries and countries
    outside the Gulf Area, such as Libya.
  • Extra-regional migration where certain countries
    have become both the destination and the source
    of migrant labour. (Jordan, Iraq and Yemen).
  • The third trend which takes place between the
    non-Gulf labour exporting countries to the labour
    importing countries in the Gulf
  • Intra Arab migration can be classified into four
    phases balanced growth, regressed economic
    growth, return migration and a fourth, still
    emerging phase.

24
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4-c Migration, a prospect for youth
    unemployed?
  • First phase Balance between flows of labour from
    highly populated but scarcely endowed countries
    to countries that were highly endowed with oil
    but scarcely populated
  • Second phase decline in Arab oil revenues which
    had fallen tremendously in 1985, only a limited
    number of highly skilled Arabs to enter the
    labour markets.
  • Phase three, economic recession during the 1980s
    and outbreak of the Gulf war in August 1990
    prompted a large and sudden Arab exodus from the
    Gulf countries to their countries of origin.
    Unemployment rates soared and the problem of
    absorbing the sudden flood of returnees put
    tremendous pressure on the productive capacity of
    the migrant home countries.

25
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4-c Migration, a prospect for youth
    unemployed?
  • Fourth emerging phase it has been suggested that
    as globalization proceeds, the need for a dynamic
    and flexible labour market will also increase,
    and more investment in education will be needed
    to enable the labour force to acquire the
    necessary skills. More investment will have to be
    made also in developing high technologies.
  • Competition from Asian labour a major threat for
    Arab young migrants in MENA region
  • On the other hand, extra-regional migration has
    shown somewhat different patterns, inter alia in
    terms of the time-horizon of the migrants. Such
    migration from the Maghreb (principally from
    Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) to e.g. European
    OECD countries has been a recurrent phenomenon
    since the 1960s.

26
Section II Youth in the Labour Market (Agents in
development)
  • 4-c Migration, a prospect for youth
    unemployed?
  • As a consequence of the presence of highly
    educated unemployed in the Arab region, many
    young educated professionals migrate to the
    developed world.
  • A UNDP report found that more than 450,000 Arab
    university graduates were settled in European
    countries and the United States in 2001,
    resulting in a loss of human and economic
    potential in the countries from which these young
    workers emigrated and an overall negative impact
    on development. Brain drain
  • Concerning internal migration, The Egypt Labor
    Market Panel Survey 2006 showed that a common
    feature of the new pattern of migration is its
    short distance nature i.e. within the same
    governorate.
  • There is still no evidence whether this type of
    migration will be a solution for youth
    unemployment or not.

27
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.1.Objectives of a youth lens participatory
    policy framework in education and employment
  • Sound education, labor market and social policies
    that target young people
  • More attention to gender inequalities in access
    to education and training.
  • Specific initiatives to boost quantity and
    quality of jobs created for youth.
  • Identifying and implementing with partners a
    series of collaborative youth employment
    initiatives

28
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.2. Premises for an integrated participatory
    framework

A- Good governance in education and training for
youth
- B-Strategic vision for youth lens policy
framework to promote active participation in
economic life
C- A participatory approach in implementation
29
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.2. Premises for an integrated participatory
    framework
  • a. Good governance in education and training for
    youth
  • Transparency built on the free flow of
    information. Little progress has been done in
    collecting information and identifying the extent
    and pattern of imperfections in education and
    employment in the Arab Region.
  • Participation.
  • Consensus between all stakeholders on policies,
    procedures and programs.
  • Equity.
  • Effectiveness and efficiency

30
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.2. Premises for an integrated participatory
    framework
  • b - Strategic vision for a youth lens policy
    framework to promote active participation in
    economic life
  • Youth lens educational and employment policies
    should be made in conjunction with policy makers,
    policy advisers and senior representatives of the
    Government, and representatives of the youth
    organizations to decide on priorities and areas
    of emphasis, and co-ordinate action among various
    organizations within an agreed framework for
    reform.

31
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.2. Premises for an integrated participatory
    framework
  • c A participatory approach in implementation
  • i. Youth lens policy engagement of the civil
    society
  • A bottom up approach is an efficient
    policy for a youth lens policy. This requires the
    engagement of NGOs and mobilization of the
    communities in the formulation and the
    implementation of such a policy and in particular
    in rural areas.
  • NGOs can play an effective role in
  • Publishing good practices on youth
    activities/projects.
  • Expanding voluntary work using organizations
    for youth and the media.
  • Capacity building for youth organizations
  • Create greater linkages between youth NGOs and
    employers organizations
  • Support youth in the acquiring participation
    skills

32
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • C A participatory approach in implementation
  • ii. Increase private sector participation in the
    youth lens policy for education and training
  • Engineering and business partnerships with
    educators to provide a bridge between education
    and industry.
  • The role of the private sector can be effective
    in
  • Fund graduation projects (research) related to
    labor market
  • Provide training opportunities for young
    employees/ entrepreneurs
  • Create greater linkages and support NGOs working
    on youth employment
  • Support equal opportunities for young men and
    women on the job market

33
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • C A participatory approach in implementation
  • iii. Public policy measures
  • Creating a stable macroeconomic environment
  • Maintaining competitive markets
  • Helping transfer knowledge and technologies,
    and enforcing the rule of law
  • Enabling environment for advancing female
    education through legislative and policy reforms,
    increasing the presence of female teachers and
    raising the minimum legal age of marriage
  • Increasing the number of educational facilities
    in underserved areas.

34
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.3.Areas of action

A- Demand side and macro level policies
- B- Supply side policies
C- Labor market policies
35
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III.3.Areas of action
  • III-3-a-Incorporating youth education and
    employment challenges into development plans to
    create demand side policies for youth active
    participation in the labor force
  • i Increasing economic growth rate that targets
    productive employment for the youth.
  • Creating employment opportunities in modern
    fast-growing sectors such as the exporting
    industries, and the finance sector.
  • Increasing investment rates similar to the low
    levels of Southeast Asia, which are 30 on
    average will have positive effect on youth
    economic participation
  • Youth employment policy must be integrated with
    other policies regarding youth such as
    educational, training and investment policies.

36
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III-3-a-Incorporating youth education and
    employment challenges into development plans to
    create demand side policies for youth active
    participation in the labor force
  • ii Enhancing small business
  • Reforming the institutional and legislative
    framework which acts as an impediment to business
    start-ups (simplifying the procedures and
    introducing preferential treatment for the
    establishment of small businesses)
  • Access to credit and training in business
    skills, providing a general legislative framework
    in which SMEs may develop and grow.
  • Establishing a national and Arab program to
    support linkage channels between small and
    medium-size business as well as large ones
    through subcontracting and franchising

37
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III-3-a-Incorporating youth education and
    employment challenges into development plans to
    create demand side policies for youth active
    participation in the labor force
  • iii Private sector development.
  • One-stop shops for business start-ups.
  • Incentive fiscal and monetary policies to
    motivate the private sector to increase its labor
    absorption rates.
  • Supporting private sector in adopting modern
    technology, compliance with international
    marketing standards, and reinforcing small
    organizations with their exporting efforts.

38
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • III-3-a-Incorporating youth education
    employment challenges into development plans to
    create demand side policies for youth active
    participation in the labor force
  • iv Developing the informal sector
  • Skills of informal labor must be developed
  • Informal protection and social security schemes
    should be developed.
  • Applying fundamental principles of work and
    rights at work.
  • v- Encouraging employment in newly emerging
    sectors
  • Fundamental prerequisites are the eradication
    of illiteracy, the availability of basic
    infrastructure necessary for the operation of
    computers at low cost and conducive political
    environment.
  • Strategies that encourage young women and girls
    to seek technical education and professional ICT
    careers.

39
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • B- Improving the impact of education and training
    for youth employment
  • Two main aspects are required to be filled
  • Promoting gender equality in education
    Scholarships, lower fees, and subsidies (food and
    cash transfers conditional on school attendance)
    can contribute to gender gap closure in school
    attainment.
  • Enhancing the efficiency of resource
    allocation Directing more educational
    expenditures towards rural areas and females as
    well as focusing more on primary education
  • Examples of effective educational policies are
    the following
  • i - Dual System Linking School with the Labour
    Market
  • Dual System provides a link between education and
    work as it divides vocational preparation between
    school-based general training and firm-based
    specific training.
  • The German system of dual education provides an
    excellent example. However, there are many
    questions as to the transferability of the German
    type system to other countries with differing
    institutional bases.

40
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • B- Improving the impact of education and training
    for youth employment
  • ii-Training
  • Problem related programs.
  • Linking Employment with training, education,
    universities and productivity
  • Training linked to productivity.
  • Flexible training programs that allow mobility
    and facilitate career changes.
  • Training for the Unemployed
  • Self Employment training
  • Pre employment training
  • Incentives and Post employment training
  • .

41
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • C. Matching Demand to Supply
  • i. Guidance and Counseling
  • ii. Public Employment Services Public
    Employment Services can organize job fairs
    bringing together employers and young potential
    employees. (Job-Matching Function)
  • iii Labor Market Information Periodical
    publication containing information detailing
    different sector needs of skill,
  • Studies providing future projections of local or
    Arab labor market trends, Transparency of
    information
  • iv. Legislation Gradual liberation of the labor
    market is a major condition for increasing market
    flexibility. Unemployment compensation is a
    basic component of security networks.
  • v. Monitoring and Evaluation
  • .

42
Section III- Youth lens policy framework in
education employment
  • Finally, the gender aspect
  • Gender-sensitive laws, strategies, and
    programs in support of young womens economic
    security in the informal economy.
  • Provision of supportive infrastructure to
    facilitate young women participation in education
    as well as economic life.
  • Better access of young women to quality
    vocational training
  • Access to loans and micro-loans for Young
    women
  • Last word
  • Changing attitudes and norms towards certain
    types of education and employment and the
    inclusion of gender concerns is a prerequisite on
    the MOVE to CHANGE.
  • .

43
Education
44
Educationinterantional
  • World Development Indicators, 2005
  • Youth Literacy rate ( age 15-24) (1990 and 2002)
    (Male Female)
  • Gross Primary Enrollment ratio ( of relevant age
    group) (1990/91 and 2002/03)
  • Net Primary Enrollment ratio ( of relevant age
    group (1990/91 and 2002/03)
  • Gross Secondary Enrollment ratio ( of relevant
    age group) (1990/91 and 2002/03)
  • Net Secondary Enrollment ratio ( of relevant age
    group (1990/91 and 2002/03)
  • Gross Tertiary Enrollment ratio ( of relevant
    age group (1990/91 and 2002/03)
  • Gross Pre-Primary Enrollment ratio ( of relevant
    age group) (2002/03) Expected Years of Schooling
    (2002/03) (Male Female)

45
Regional
  • ESCWA, 2005 Compendium of Social Statistics of
    Indicators Special Issue on Youth
  • Youth Illiteracy rate and Illiterate population
    (aged 15-24) (1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005) (Male
    Female)
  • Distribution of Population aged 15-24 by
    educational attainment and gender (Latest
    available year)

46
Employment
  • InternationalHDR 2006
  • Female Economic Activity rate (15)
  • Ratio () (2003)
  • Female Economic Activity rate (15) (as of male
    rate (2003)Employment by economic Activity
    (Male/Female) (1995-2002)
  • Contributing Family workers () (Male/Female)

47
EmploymentInterantional
  • World Development Indicators 2005
  • Labour force participation rate ( ages 15-64)
    (Male/Female) (1990 2003)
  • Labour force average annual growth rate (15-64)
    (1990-2003)
  • Employment by economic Activity (Male Female)
    (1990/92 and 2000/02)
  • Unemployment Rate (Male Female) (1990/92 and
    2000/02)
  • Long term Unemployment Rate (Male Female)
    (2000/02)
  • Unemployment by level of educational attainment
    (1999-01)
  • Youth Unemployment (Male Female) (1995/2003)

48
EmploymentInterantional
  • State of Youth Employment, 2003
  • Overall Unemployment rate () (Male Female)
    (Various years)
  • Economically Active Population () Age brackets
    (15-19, 20-24) (1980-1990-1995-2000-2010) (Male
    Female)

49
EmploymentInterantional
  • ILO, LABORSTA http//laborsta.ilo.org/
  • Hours of work,
  • paid for wage earners by economic activity (Per
    week) (Various Years)
  • Wages, by economic activity (Various Years)

50
EmploymentRegional
  • ESCWA, Compendium of Social Statistics of
    Indicators Special Issue on Youth
  • Youth Economic activity rates by gender (1995
    2001)
  • Adult Youth Unemployment rates by gender, latest
    available year.
  • Share of Youth Unemployment to total unemployment
    by gender, latest available year

51
National StatiticsEmploymentPalestine
52
Employment Palestine
  • Number of workers in Israel and in Israeli
    Settlements
  • Average daily wage for workers in the West Bank
  • Average daily wage for male workers in the West
    Bank
  • Average daily wage for female workers in the West
    Bank
  • Average daily wage for workers in Gaza Strip
  • Average daily wage for male workers in Gaza Strip
  • Average daily wage for female workers in Gaza
    Strip
  • Average daily wage s for workers in Israel and in
    Israeli Settlements
  • Average daily wage for male workers in Israel and
    in Israeli Settlements
  • Average daily wage for female workers in Israel
    and in Israeli Settlements
  • Education Indicators (2003)
  • Adult literacy ratio () (Male
    Female)Distribution of those who have BA and
    Above (1997) ()(Male Female)Distribution of
    those who have BA and Above (2003) ()(Male
    Female)Enrollment rates in the stages of
    education ()(Male Female)Secondary education
    (Male Female)Drop out rates of the secondary
    level 2002 (Male Female)

53
  • Syria,Iraq,Jordan,Bahrain,Tunisia,Egypt
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