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ANCIENT GREECE

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Encompassed all the land between Greece and the middle of India. ALEXANDER THE ... Antigonus Gonatus (Macedonia and Greece) Known as the 'successor kingdoms' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANCIENT GREECE


1
ANCIENT GREECE
First people to move into Greece came from Turkey
around 3000 BC Remained a primitive Neolithic
people without any signs of civilization Ultimatel
y came into contact with civilization that had
developed on nearby island of Crete
2
MINOAN CIVILIZATION
  • Located on Crete
  • Developed civilization in response to contact
    with Egypt
  • Merchants
  • Established trade contacts with Mycenaeans
  • Destroyed in 1500 BC (combination of manmade and
    natural disasters)

3
MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION
  • Mainland Greece
  • Small city-states in southern and central Greece
  • Ruled by chieftains
  • Stone fortifications
  • Main economic activity was piracy
  • Warriors
  • Incessant fighting among themselves
  • Destroyed by invasions of Dorians, Ionians, and
    others
  • Plunge Greece into Dark Age
  • 1100-800 BC

4
END OF THE DARK AGE I
  • Population Pressure
  • Many Greeks left the mainland and settled
    elsewhere
  • Islands in Aegean Sea
  • Coast of Turkey and Black Sea
  • Southern Italy and France
  • Eastern and southern coasts of Spain
  • Coast of North Africa
  • Greek colonists always retained ties to the Greek
    mainland and kept their Greek identity
  • Remained Greek in a cultural sense no matter
    where they lived

5
END OF DARK AGE II
  • With the establishment of worldwide network of
    colonies, Dark Age came to an end
  • Greeks rediscovered trade
  • Also rediscovered writing
  • Adopted Phoenician alphabet and modified it to
    fit their spoken language
  • Also evolved new form of political organization
  • The Polis

6
THE POLIS
  • Product of a long and complicated process of
    evolution that had occurred during the Dark Age
  • Based on the city-state
  • No kings
  • Governed by assemblies made up of men who were
    eligible for military service
  • Greek soldiers had to arm and equip themselves so
    assemblies were made up of men wealthy enough to
    do this
  • Also governed by spokesmen selected from and by
    these assemblies

7
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY
  • Athens only 30,000 out of a total population of
    approx. 200,000 were free citizens
  • WHO WAS EXCLUDED FROM CITIZENSHIP?
  • Women
  • Slaves
  • Residents not born in Athens
  • Lower classes who could not afford military
    service

8
GREAT PERSIAN WAR
  • Response to Athenian aid to rebellion in Ionia in
    499 BC
  • Started by Darius I in 490 BC and continued by
    his son, Xerxes (until 479 BC)
  • Three invasion attempts of mainland Greece
  • Greece won
  • More familiar with terrain
  • Fighting for their homes
  • City-states united together to face Persian threat

9
ANCIENT ATHENS
  • Delian League (former military alliance
    transformed into an empire)
  • Pericles
  • Drew on resources of empire to transform city
    into the most beautiful city of the ancient world
  • Golden Age
  • Trade boomed
  • Work was plentiful
  • City was an exciting place to live

10
SPARTAN SOCIETY
  • All Life Devoted to the Military
  • Babies inspected for defects
  • Boys taken from mothers at age 7 for 14 years
    military training
  • Spend entire adult life in army
  • All civilian worked performed by helots
  • Created Peloponnesian League

11
PELOPONNESIAN WAR
  • Between Athens and Sparta
  • Lasted 25 years (431-404 BC)
  • Caused massive destruction and loss of life
    throughout Greek world
  • Sparta technically won but it was an empty
    victoryboth Athens and Sparta exhausted
  • Did the Greeks learn anything from this horrible
    experience?
  • No !!!!

12
MACEDONIAN CONQUEST
  • Philip II, King and Warrior Lord of Macedonia,
    invades Greece in 338 BC and conquers entire
    peninsula
  • Murdered two years later
  • In the middle of planning war of revenge
    against the Persian Empire
  • Succeeded by his 21-year old son, Alexander (the
    Great)
  • Not only continued his fathers plan but also
    went beyond Philips wildest dreams to create the
    largest empire the world had ever seen
  • Encompassed all the land between Greece and the
    middle of India

13
ALEXANDER THE GREATS EMPIRE
14
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
  • Enormous intellectual and military talents
  • Enormous ego and powerful vindictive streak
  • Intelligence and talent plus insatiable desire
    for glory and cutthroat ruthlessness conquest
    of known world

15
ALEXANDERS CONQUESTS
  • 334 BCinvaded and conquered Persian Empire
  • Then invaded and conquered Central Asia
  • Then invaded India
  • Met fierce resistance
  • Retaliated with slaughter of civilians and
    destruction of property
  • Established new cities along route of conquest to
    protect supply and communications lines

16
THE END
  • Troops mutiny in central India
  • Alexander punishes them by marching them back
    home through a desert
  • Stops temporarily at Babylon in 324 BC
  • Dies suddenly in 323 BC at age 32

17
THE SUCCESSOR KINGDOMS
  • Civil war erupts after Alexanders death
  • Empire is ultimately split into three parts among
    his former generals
  • Ptolemy (Egypt)
  • Selecus (most of old Persian Empire)
  • Antigonus Gonatus (Macedonia and Greece)
  • Known as the successor kingdoms
  • Period known as the Hellenistic Age

18
GREEK LITERATURE
  • ILLIAD AND ODYSSEY
  • Composed by Homer
  • Deal with the wars of the Mycenaneans and their
    attack on Troy
  • Include many famous characters Achilles,
    Odysseus, Agamenon and many gods
  • Characters not portrayed in black and white
    termseven heroes have personality flaws.
    Sophisticated portrayal of characters

19
GREEK POETS
  • SAPPHO (female poet from Lesbos)
  • Only fragments of her poetry survive
  • Great descriptive beauty and insight into human
    relationships
  • PINDAR
  • Developed the eulogylong poems praising the
    lives and exploits of famous individuals

20
GREEK THEATER
  • Invented tragedy and comedy
  • Wore masks and used chorus
  • Plots derived from mythology
  • Sophocles---Oedipus the King
  • Euripides The Trojan Women
  • Aristophanes The Clouds

21
SOCRATES AND PLATO
  • Philosopher lover of wisdom
  • Interested in fundamental questions about the
    human condition what is justice what is good
    what is beauty
  • Used rigorous logic and demanding
    question-and-answer form of inquiry
  • Attempted to find absolute answers (universally
    valid answers that apply to all people, at all
    times, and in all places

22
ARISTOTLE
  • Interested in same questions as Socrates and
    Plato
  • Differed in method
  • Argued that a person should gather evidence on a
    topic, analyze that evidence, and then base
    conclusions on that analysis
  • Example Politics

23
GREEK SCIENCE
  • PYTHAGORAS
  • Mathematician
  • Formula for the square of a right angle triangle
  • HIPPOCRATES
  • Father of modern medicine
  • Rejected supernatural explanations for illness
  • Theory of bodily humours (blood, water, black
    bile, yellow bile)
  • Hippocratic Oath

24
PARTHENON
Acropolis
25
HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION
  • Realistic Sculpture
  • Individualistic philosophies (Skepticism,
    Stoicism, Cynicism, Epicureanism)
  • Advances in science

26
AN IMPORTANT SHIFT
  • Center of intellectual/cultural achievement moved
    to cities of successor kingdoms (Alexandria)
  • Fusion of Greek and Middle Eastern civilization
    Hellenism
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