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Promoting Urban Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation: Making Asian Cities Safer


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Title: Promoting Urban Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation: Making Asian Cities Safer

Promoting Urban Disaster Preparedness and
Mitigation Making Asian Cities Safer
  • By A.J. Rego Arambepola (ADPC)
  • 7th IIASA-DPRI Forum
  • Coping with Disaster Challenges for the 21st
    Century and Beyond
  • 20th September 2007 - Stresa, Italy

Growing Cities at Risk from Natural and
Technological Hazards
  • By 2004 half worlds population living in urban
  • At least 80 of population growth in the 1990s
    occurred in urban areas
  • 17 of the 20 largest cities in the world are in
    developing countries - many exposed to EQ,
    landslide, flooding hazard
  • 25 largest cities have over 8 mill. inhabitants
  • Average number of victims in disaster is 150
    times greater in developing world mega city than
    in a developed country mega city
  • Road accidents, industrial, chemical and
    transport accidents are a growing threat

Cities are vulnerable to disaster risk because of
  • Rapid urbanization
  • Rural - urban migration
  • Growing population - already stretched resources
  • Poor living standards - build without
    consideration of safety (time pressures) in
    hazard prone areas
  • Lack of public awareness to hazards/risks
  • Building codes are poorly enforced or
  • Environmental degradation - resource depletion -
    lowers resilience

Cities are vulnerable to disaster risk because of
- (2)
  • Increased risk of industrial/technological
    hazards - (secondary impacts eg. fire/radiation)
  • Densely packed housing - health risk
  • Disruption to draining channels due to
    uncontrolled urban growth - flooding
  • Inadequate management or provision of services -
    waste sewage disposal, clean water access
  • The poor building informal settlements on low
    quality land which are important . banks

Vulnerability of the Asian Region
Asia is famous for its great diversities and also
for disparities . Half of the total world
population live in Eight disaster prone countries
China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Japan,
Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand
Top Two Worst Disasters in Asia 2004
  • Typhoon Nanmadol, Philippines (November) winds of
    220 km/hr - at least 412 deaths
  • Indian Ocean Tsunami and EQ (December) -
    Affecting Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India,
    Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Maldives - death
    toll at least 212,000

Top Two Worst Disasters in Asia in 2006
  • The 2 deadliest disasters of 2006 were both in
  • -Indonesian EQ (May) killing 5,778
  • -Typhoon Durian (Philippines, Dec.) killing 1,399

Earthquake Vulnerability in Asia
Earthquakes in Asia
  • The Pacific rim experiences 90 of all the
    worlds earthquakes.
  • In 1976, China had the most deadly earthquake
    ever known. It killed 800,000 people.
  • More than 50 cities in Asia with a population
    greater than 1,000,000 are at significant risk
    for an earthquake.
  • Recent major events are Iran in 2003, Indonesia
    in 2004,2005,2006, Pakistan in 2005,

Flood Vulnerability in Asia
Flooding in Asia
  • The year 2000 saw the worst flooding in 60 years
    for Vietnams Mekong Delta region, 40 years for
    Cambodia, 35 years for Laos, and in a century for
    western Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.
  • Year 2007 August Floods in India, Nepal and
    Bangladesh caused significant economic losses
  • Recent events in 2007 show major threat is from
    flash floods which is evident from Nepal, Bhutan,
    Thailand, Philippines

Cyclones/Typhoon Exposure in Asia
Cyclones/Typhoons in Asia
  • There were 95 major storms in SE Asia and the
    Pacific regions between 1980-2000.
  • Since 1970, cyclones have killed an estimated 1.5
    million in Bangladesh.
  • The October 1999 storm surge in Orissa, India,
    affected 15 million people, killed 9,500 people,
    destroyed 3 million homes, and left seven million
    people homeless.
  • Recent major events were in Karachci Pakistan in
    2007, Vietnam and Philippines in 2006

Volcano Occurrence
Volcanoes in Asia
  • Of the 16 largest eruptions in the last two
    centuries, five occurred in Asia. Three of these,
    all in Indonesia, killed 130,000 people.
  • The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 was the
    second largest eruption of the 20th century.
  • The Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea
    are all at significant risk for volcanic

Mt. Pinatubo 1991
Asian Cities at Risk
  • 37 of Asias population lived in cities by
    2000 this will rise to 60 by 2025
  • More than 50 cities in Asia with a population
    greater than 1,000,000 are at significant risk
    from an EQ
  • Rural to urban migration accounts for 64 of
    city growth in Asia
  • Of the 10 largest Asian cities 7 are prone to
    multi hazard risks and are awaiting a
    catastrophic event

Making Cities Safer
  • Promote household vulnerability reduction
  • Build capacity of local government emergency
  • Decentralization of resources decision making
  • Democratic means of DRR planning
  • Build capacity of community/social groups
  • Create institutional framework for action
  • Enforce appropriate building codes urban
    planning guidelines
  • Hazard assessments - physical/social/economic
  • Environmental management

UN-HABITAT Agenda 1996
  • Agenda actions for disaster prevention
  • Appropriate laws standards for land use,
    building planning
  • Encourage multi stakeholder participation in DM
    planning especially vulnerable eg.
  • Continued mobilization of domestic
    international resources for DRR activities
  • Distribute information on disaster resistant
    construction methods for public works etc.
  • Facilitate voluntary move of people to less
    disaster prone areas -ensuring access for all

UN-HABITAT Agenda 1996 (2)
  • Training on disaster resistant construction for
  • Upgrade resistance of current infrastructure/criti
    cal facilities
  • Risk mapping and vulnerability assessments
  • Community focused vulnerability reduction
  • Improve information dissemination on potential
  • Strengthen technological, scientific
    engineering capacity for monitoring -EWS
  • Decentralization of authority resources to
    enable capacity building for greater resilience

Asian Urban Disaster Mitigation Program (AUDMP)
  • Implemented by ADPC in 20 secondary cities of 8
  • Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Nepal,
  • Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand
  • Aim reduce disaster vulnerability of urban
    populations, infrastructure lifeline facilities
    shelter in Asia
  • facilitate development of sustainable mechanisms
    for disaster mitigation
  • build capacity of all stakeholders to mitigate
    disaster risks
  • promote replication and adaptation of successful
    mitigation measures elsewhere

AUDMP Project Locations
Safer Cities 12 Demonstration Housing
Construction for Landslide and Flood Prone Areas
(Sri Lanka)
Why Secondary Cities are a Priority for DRR
  • Secondary versus Mega Cities -
  • Greater vulnerability - from rapid uncontrolled
  • High migration rates -greater need for housing
  • Economic growth attracts investment
  • In mega cities problems difficult to identify
    solutions complex to implement
  • Greater chance of success measurable change
  • More manageable communities simpler

AUDMP Measurable Results
  • 5 of 8 targeted city emergency preparedness
    response plans written or revised
  • 95 of the 75 targeted public private sector
    professionals working with AUDMP initiated
    disaster mitigation training
  • 43,000 households benefited from AUDMP sponsored
    disaster vulnerability reduction activities
  • 5 regional networks, 209 organizations 1,760
    disaster mitigation professionals participating
    in AUDMP regional information network -started
    with 33 organizations only
  • In 2002 ADPCs Urban Strategy Asia 2020 expanded
    ADPCs outreach from 30 to 100 cities

Program for Hydro-Meteorological Disaster
Mitigation in Secondary Cities in Asia (PROMISE)
2005-2008 Phase I
  • 5 highly vulnerable urbanizing cities Chittagong
  • Hyderabad (Pakistan), Dagupan (Philippines),
    Kalutara (Sri Lanka) Da
  • Nang (Vietnam) - linked to watersheds, river
    basins or at risk coastal belts
  • Aim to reduce vulnerability of urban communities
    to hydro-
  • meteorological disasters in S SE Asia to
    measurably alleviate human
  • suffering, prevent loss of life, and reduce the
    potential for physical and
  • economic damage through
  • City demonstration projects
  • Regional national capacity building
  • Advocacy for mainstreaming of risk management in
    urban governance
  • Regional network information dissemination

(No Transcript)
PROMISE - PhilippinesDagupan City
  • Problem reduced capacity of rivers due to heavy
    rains, upstream bank erosion clogging channel
    transport of lahar material - causing floods (eg.
  • Solutions
  • Technical Working Group -plan, monitor, document,
    train and maintain
  • Capacity building of community authorities
  • Work with stakeholders
  • Risk Communication Plan
  • Institutional change - Disaster Preparedness Day
    (July 16th)

ADPC Urban Strategy Asia 2020
  • ADPC and partners working with 100 cities to
    reduce urban vulnerability and build disaster
    resilient communities through 4 strategies
  • Planning and Building Safer Cities
  • Emergency Management Response Planning for
  • Public Awareness Campaigns
  • Knowledge Development Capacity Building

Specific Action
  • How- to resource toolkits that translate
    awareness into action
  • Specific UDRM focussed courses targeted at city
    national officials private sector developers
  • Partnerships with urban authorities regional
    city networks (Citynet, ICMA, IULA, ICLEZ)
  • Safer sister city partnerships network

Linking Climate Change to Urban Risk Reduction
  • Study areas where improvement to governance
    structure is needed to enhance resilience of the
    poor communities in the urban coastal low-lying
  • Analyse trends in primary (meteorological) events
    and secondary impacts (health hazards, slope
    destabilization etc) in built up areas to assess
    consequences of sea level rise impact in urban
    coastal areas
  • The scientific community in Asia has not yet
    undertaken adequate interest in conducting multi-
    sectoral studies to understand prepare
    inventories of the climate change impacts on
    coastal ecosystems

Long Term Strategies for DRR
  • There is an urgent need to make risk mitigation
    one of the essential components of urban
    governance and creating policy, legal and
    institutional arrangements to ensure safer urban
  • The city level risk maps, using GPS and RS
    techniques transforming the community knowledge
    into formal products, can be integrated in other
    maps to see the changing risk scenario
  • Ensure access to information by public
  • Urban community based approach to convert the
    victimized communities to a resource

Long Term Strategies for DRR (2)
  • Participatory approach for scenario building,
    risk assessment action planning can also
    generate much needed awareness
  • Ensuring safer housing shelter, capable of
    withstanding hazard events, require quality
    assurance of housing construction and
    infrastructure as an essential part of urban risk
  • Making the private sector partner in development
    means it should also shoulder some responsibility
    in urban DRR

Long Term Strategies for DRR (3)
  • Activating poor and motivating them to become
    resilient against natural calamities is an answer
    to the key issue of poverty reduction
  • Vulnerability reduction should be integrated into
    the development process so that it can contribute
    to sustainability, empowerment community
  • Support the implementation aspects of Hyogo
    Framework of Action create more awareness about
  • Advocate strongly for decentralization of
    disaster risk management functions to local
    government sector integrating in other sector
    based programs as a routine practice to
    facilitate building safer communities
  • Mainstream DRR into local governance