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Promoting Urban Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation: Making Asian Cities Safer

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Title: Promoting Urban Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation: Making Asian Cities Safer


1
Promoting Urban Disaster Preparedness and
Mitigation Making Asian Cities Safer
  • By A.J. Rego Arambepola (ADPC)
  • 7th IIASA-DPRI Forum
  • Coping with Disaster Challenges for the 21st
    Century and Beyond
  • 20th September 2007 - Stresa, Italy

2
Growing Cities at Risk from Natural and
Technological Hazards
  • By 2004 half worlds population living in urban
    areas
  • At least 80 of population growth in the 1990s
    occurred in urban areas
  • 17 of the 20 largest cities in the world are in
    developing countries - many exposed to EQ,
    landslide, flooding hazard
  • 25 largest cities have over 8 mill. inhabitants
  • Average number of victims in disaster is 150
    times greater in developing world mega city than
    in a developed country mega city
  • Road accidents, industrial, chemical and
    transport accidents are a growing threat

3
Cities are vulnerable to disaster risk because of
-
  • Rapid urbanization
  • Rural - urban migration
  • Growing population - already stretched resources
  • Poor living standards - build without
    consideration of safety (time pressures) in
    hazard prone areas
  • Lack of public awareness to hazards/risks
  • Building codes are poorly enforced or
    non-existent
  • Environmental degradation - resource depletion -
    lowers resilience

4
Cities are vulnerable to disaster risk because of
- (2)
  • Increased risk of industrial/technological
    hazards - (secondary impacts eg. fire/radiation)
  • Densely packed housing - health risk
  • Disruption to draining channels due to
    uncontrolled urban growth - flooding
  • Inadequate management or provision of services -
    waste sewage disposal, clean water access
  • The poor building informal settlements on low
    quality land which are important . banks

5
Vulnerability of the Asian Region
Asia is famous for its great diversities and also
for disparities . Half of the total world
population live in Eight disaster prone countries
China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Japan,
Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand
6
Top Two Worst Disasters in Asia 2004
  • Typhoon Nanmadol, Philippines (November) winds of
    220 km/hr - at least 412 deaths
  • Indian Ocean Tsunami and EQ (December) -
    Affecting Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India,
    Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Maldives - death
    toll at least 212,000

7
Top Two Worst Disasters in Asia in 2006
  • The 2 deadliest disasters of 2006 were both in
    Asia
  • -Indonesian EQ (May) killing 5,778
  • -Typhoon Durian (Philippines, Dec.) killing 1,399

8
Earthquake Vulnerability in Asia
9
Earthquakes in Asia
  • The Pacific rim experiences 90 of all the
    worlds earthquakes.
  • In 1976, China had the most deadly earthquake
    ever known. It killed 800,000 people.
  • More than 50 cities in Asia with a population
    greater than 1,000,000 are at significant risk
    for an earthquake.
  • Recent major events are Iran in 2003, Indonesia
    in 2004,2005,2006, Pakistan in 2005,

10
Flood Vulnerability in Asia
11
Flooding in Asia
  • The year 2000 saw the worst flooding in 60 years
    for Vietnams Mekong Delta region, 40 years for
    Cambodia, 35 years for Laos, and in a century for
    western Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.
  • Year 2007 August Floods in India, Nepal and
    Bangladesh caused significant economic losses
  • Recent events in 2007 show major threat is from
    flash floods which is evident from Nepal, Bhutan,
    Thailand, Philippines

12
Cyclones/Typhoon Exposure in Asia
13
Cyclones/Typhoons in Asia
  • There were 95 major storms in SE Asia and the
    Pacific regions between 1980-2000.
  • Since 1970, cyclones have killed an estimated 1.5
    million in Bangladesh.
  • The October 1999 storm surge in Orissa, India,
    affected 15 million people, killed 9,500 people,
    destroyed 3 million homes, and left seven million
    people homeless.
  • Recent major events were in Karachci Pakistan in
    2007, Vietnam and Philippines in 2006

14
Volcano Occurrence
15
Volcanoes in Asia
  • Of the 16 largest eruptions in the last two
    centuries, five occurred in Asia. Three of these,
    all in Indonesia, killed 130,000 people.
  • The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 was the
    second largest eruption of the 20th century.
  • The Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea
    are all at significant risk for volcanic
    eruptions.

Mt. Pinatubo 1991
16
Asian Cities at Risk
  • 37 of Asias population lived in cities by
    2000 this will rise to 60 by 2025
  • More than 50 cities in Asia with a population
    greater than 1,000,000 are at significant risk
    from an EQ
  • Rural to urban migration accounts for 64 of
    city growth in Asia
  • Of the 10 largest Asian cities 7 are prone to
    multi hazard risks and are awaiting a
    catastrophic event

17
Making Cities Safer
  • Promote household vulnerability reduction
    measures
  • Build capacity of local government emergency
    services
  • Decentralization of resources decision making
  • Democratic means of DRR planning
  • Build capacity of community/social groups
  • Create institutional framework for action
  • Enforce appropriate building codes urban
    planning guidelines
  • Hazard assessments - physical/social/economic
  • Environmental management

18
UN-HABITAT Agenda 1996
  • Agenda actions for disaster prevention
  • Appropriate laws standards for land use,
    building planning
  • Encourage multi stakeholder participation in DM
    planning especially vulnerable eg.
    elderly/disabled
  • Continued mobilization of domestic
    international resources for DRR activities
  • Distribute information on disaster resistant
    construction methods for public works etc.
  • Facilitate voluntary move of people to less
    disaster prone areas -ensuring access for all

19
UN-HABITAT Agenda 1996 (2)
  • Training on disaster resistant construction for
    builders/designers/contractors
  • Upgrade resistance of current infrastructure/criti
    cal facilities
  • Risk mapping and vulnerability assessments
  • Community focused vulnerability reduction
    programs
  • Improve information dissemination on potential
    hazards
  • Strengthen technological, scientific
    engineering capacity for monitoring -EWS
  • Decentralization of authority resources to
    enable capacity building for greater resilience

20
Asian Urban Disaster Mitigation Program (AUDMP)
1995-2004
  • Implemented by ADPC in 20 secondary cities of 8
    countries-
  • Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Nepal,
  • Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand
  • Aim reduce disaster vulnerability of urban
    populations, infrastructure lifeline facilities
    shelter in Asia
  • facilitate development of sustainable mechanisms
    for disaster mitigation
  • build capacity of all stakeholders to mitigate
    disaster risks
  • promote replication and adaptation of successful
    mitigation measures elsewhere

21
AUDMP Project Locations
Safer Cities 12 Demonstration Housing
Construction for Landslide and Flood Prone Areas
(Sri Lanka)
22
Why Secondary Cities are a Priority for DRR
Programs
  • Secondary versus Mega Cities -
  • Greater vulnerability - from rapid uncontrolled
    urbanization
  • High migration rates -greater need for housing
    services
  • Economic growth attracts investment
  • In mega cities problems difficult to identify
    solutions complex to implement
  • Greater chance of success measurable change
  • More manageable communities simpler
    institutionally

23
AUDMP Measurable Results
  • 5 of 8 targeted city emergency preparedness
    response plans written or revised
  • 95 of the 75 targeted public private sector
    professionals working with AUDMP initiated
    disaster mitigation training
  • 43,000 households benefited from AUDMP sponsored
    disaster vulnerability reduction activities
  • 5 regional networks, 209 organizations 1,760
    disaster mitigation professionals participating
    in AUDMP regional information network -started
    with 33 organizations only
  • In 2002 ADPCs Urban Strategy Asia 2020 expanded
    ADPCs outreach from 30 to 100 cities

24
Program for Hydro-Meteorological Disaster
Mitigation in Secondary Cities in Asia (PROMISE)
2005-2008 Phase I
  • 5 highly vulnerable urbanizing cities Chittagong
    (Bangladesh),
  • Hyderabad (Pakistan), Dagupan (Philippines),
    Kalutara (Sri Lanka) Da
  • Nang (Vietnam) - linked to watersheds, river
    basins or at risk coastal belts
  • Aim to reduce vulnerability of urban communities
    to hydro-
  • meteorological disasters in S SE Asia to
    measurably alleviate human
  • suffering, prevent loss of life, and reduce the
    potential for physical and
  • economic damage through
  • City demonstration projects
  • Regional national capacity building
  • Advocacy for mainstreaming of risk management in
    urban governance
  • Regional network information dissemination

25
(No Transcript)
26
PROMISE - PhilippinesDagupan City
  • Problem reduced capacity of rivers due to heavy
    rains, upstream bank erosion clogging channel
    transport of lahar material - causing floods (eg.
    1990)
  • Solutions
  • Technical Working Group -plan, monitor, document,
    train and maintain
  • Capacity building of community authorities
  • Work with stakeholders
  • Risk Communication Plan
  • Institutional change - Disaster Preparedness Day
    (July 16th)

27
ADPC Urban Strategy Asia 2020
  • ADPC and partners working with 100 cities to
    reduce urban vulnerability and build disaster
    resilient communities through 4 strategies
  • Planning and Building Safer Cities
  • Emergency Management Response Planning for
    Cities
  • Public Awareness Campaigns
  • Knowledge Development Capacity Building

28
Specific Action
  • How- to resource toolkits that translate
    awareness into action
  • Specific UDRM focussed courses targeted at city
    national officials private sector developers
  • Partnerships with urban authorities regional
    city networks (Citynet, ICMA, IULA, ICLEZ)
  • Safer sister city partnerships network

29
Linking Climate Change to Urban Risk Reduction
  • Study areas where improvement to governance
    structure is needed to enhance resilience of the
    poor communities in the urban coastal low-lying
    areas
  • Analyse trends in primary (meteorological) events
    and secondary impacts (health hazards, slope
    destabilization etc) in built up areas to assess
    consequences of sea level rise impact in urban
    coastal areas
  • The scientific community in Asia has not yet
    undertaken adequate interest in conducting multi-
    sectoral studies to understand prepare
    inventories of the climate change impacts on
    coastal ecosystems

30
Long Term Strategies for DRR
  • There is an urgent need to make risk mitigation
    one of the essential components of urban
    governance and creating policy, legal and
    institutional arrangements to ensure safer urban
    communities
  • The city level risk maps, using GPS and RS
    techniques transforming the community knowledge
    into formal products, can be integrated in other
    maps to see the changing risk scenario
  • Ensure access to information by public
  • Urban community based approach to convert the
    victimized communities to a resource

31
Long Term Strategies for DRR (2)
  • Participatory approach for scenario building,
    risk assessment action planning can also
    generate much needed awareness
  • Ensuring safer housing shelter, capable of
    withstanding hazard events, require quality
    assurance of housing construction and
    infrastructure as an essential part of urban risk
    reduction
  • Making the private sector partner in development
    means it should also shoulder some responsibility
    in urban DRR

32
Long Term Strategies for DRR (3)
  • Activating poor and motivating them to become
    resilient against natural calamities is an answer
    to the key issue of poverty reduction
  • Vulnerability reduction should be integrated into
    the development process so that it can contribute
    to sustainability, empowerment community
    resilience
  • Support the implementation aspects of Hyogo
    Framework of Action create more awareness about
    HFA
  • Advocate strongly for decentralization of
    disaster risk management functions to local
    government sector integrating in other sector
    based programs as a routine practice to
    facilitate building safer communities
  • Mainstream DRR into local governance
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