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Livestock Nutrition


Describe the functions of energy nutrients. Describe symptoms of deficiencies ... A decrease in milk yield in lactating females. A shortened lactation period. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Livestock Nutrition

Livestock Nutrition
  • Chapter 3
  • Energy Nutrients

  • Define terms of associated with energy.
  • Describe the energy nutrients.
  • List sources of energy nutrients.
  • Describe the functions of energy nutrients.
  • Describe symptoms of deficiencies of energy in
    the ration.

  • Calorie, (cal)- the amount of heat energy
    required to raise the temperature of one gram of
    water form one degree C3.
  • Kilocalorie, 1,000 calories.
  • Mega calorie, 1,000,000 calories.

  • Gross Energy (GE)- the total amount of heat
    released when a substance is completely oxidized
    in a bomb calorimeter.
  • Digestible Energy (DE)- The gross energy of feed
    consumed minus the gross energy excreted in the
  • Metabolizable Energy (ME)- The gross energy of
    the feed minus the energy in the feces, urine,
    and gaseous product of digestion.

  • Heat Increment (HI)- that portion of the ME which
    is used for digestion or metabolism of absorbed
    nutrients into body tissue.
  • Net Energy, (NE)- the metabolizable energy minus
    the heat increment. Used for growth,
    maintenance, production, work, fetal development
    and heat production.

Energy Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates and lipids ( fats and oils) are the
    major sources of energy in livestock rations.
  • Carbohydrates are the most important because they
    are readily available, easily digested lower in
  • Proteins are seldom fed for their energy content
    because of the higher cost of this source.

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  • Organic compounds made of carbon,( C ), Hydrogen
    (H), Oxygen (O).
  • Each C2H2O molecule is made up of 40 C, 7 H and
    53 O2.
  • Carbohydrates found in plants include starch,
    sugars, hemicellulose, cellulose, pectin's, gums,
    lignin.Sugars are the most easily digested
    while cellulose and lignin are more difficult.
  • Carbohydrates in the feed are changed to simpler

  • 75 of all the dry matter in plants is
  • More easily digested forms of carbohydrates are
    generally found stored in the seeds, roots and
    tubers of the plant.
  • Hemicellulose and cellulose are converted to
  • Because hemicellulose and cellulose require more
    energy, they are less efficient sources of energy
    for the animal.

  • Carbohydrates are divided into two groups, FIBER
  • Fiber because of the lignin, cellulose and
    hemicellulose it is less of an efficient feed
    than NFE.
  • The NFE group includes sugar, starch and some

  • Starch is made up of many molecules of glucose.
  • Grains have a high feeding value because the
    starch is easily digested.
  • Ruminant animals because of bacterial action in
    the Rumen can utilize large portions of coarse
  • Non-ruminants have less ability to utilize energy
    from fiber.
  • The young of all species require more easily
    digested feeds.

Lipids (fats oils)
  • Lipids are 77 C, 12 H 11 O.
  • Because there is more carbon and hydrogen and
    less oxygen in the molecule, lipids supply
    approximately 2.25 times as much energy as an
    equal weight of carbohydrates.
  • Lipids are classified as simple, compound and
  • Simple lipids are true fat and waxes.

  • Compound lipids are esters, which contain groups
    in addition to an alcohol and fatty acid.
  • Derived lipids are from simple or compound
    lipids, separated by hydrolysis.
  • Fatty acids are either saturated or unsaturated.
  • Fats are used to raise the energy level of the
    diet and/or improve the flavor, texture and
    palatability of the feed.
  • Rations for adult ruminant animals should contain
    no more than 3-5 fat and 15-20 fat for

Sources of Energy Concentrates
  • A major source of energy nutrients is the grains
    and grain byproduct.
  • These feeds are called energy concentrates or
    basal feeds when their crude protein is less than
    18 in the air-dry state.

Shelled Corn
  • One of the highest energy feeds available.
  • The most widely grown and used feed grain crop.
  • Corn produces more s of TDN/acre than any
  • It is an economical and superior source of
  • Consideration must be given to amount to feed,
    frequency and combinations with other feeds, in
    order to get the most efficient use of this high
    energy feed source without causing digestive

Corn Cob Meal
  • Contains about 10 less energy than shelled corn
    because of the fiber content in the cob.
  • All species can utilize it, however, when feed to
    growing-fattening hogs because they do not have
    the ability to digest and use much of the cob

Ground Snapped Corn
  • Made up of the grain, cob and shucks and is
    considerably higher in fiber and lower in TDN
    than shelled corn.
  • Comparable to oats.
  • Very seldom used because of the high labor
    requirement in harvesting it.

Corn Starch and Corn Oil
  • Fairly pure forms of starch and oil.
  • Generally not used in commercial enterprises
    however, they are sometimes used in the purified
    diets of experimental animals.

  • About 85 of the energy of shelled corn.
  • Higher in crude protein than shelled corn and add
    fiber and bulk to the ration.
  • Help the rumen maintain bacterial and protozoa
  • Not a good fattening feed but are used
    extensively in rations for horses, young growing
    stock, show stock and breeding animals.
  • Usually fed rolled, crimped or ground.

  • Almost equal to corn in energy value, but lies
    between corn and oats in fiber content.
  • Used in a ration in a manner similar to oats.
  • Barley may replace up to 50 of the corn in
    rations for fattening animals.
  • The grain content of the ration may be decreased
    by 10 if barley replaces all of the corn.
  • To improve palatability it is usually steam
    rolled, crimped or coarsely ground.

  • High in both energy and protein it is generally
    not used in livestock rations because of the high
    value as a small grain crop on the cash market.
  • Wheat is similar to corn in composition and
    feeding value.
  • If and when it is used in a ration it is included
    at low levels in a mix with other grains because
    it is rapidly digested and may cause digestive

Grain Sorghum
  • There are many varieties, milo, kafir and various
  • Smaller than shelled corn and may replace up to
    100 of the corn in a feedlot ration.
  • Generally rolled or ground when included in a

  • Rye is usually used for bread for human
    consumption and has limited use as a livestock
  • It is not as valuable as corn, whet or grain
  • Ergot contaminated rye can be toxic to livestock.
  • The use of rye in livestock rations should be
    limited to no more than one-third of the ration.
  • It should be coarsely ground or rolled to
    increase palatability.

Sources of Energy
  • Forages (roughages) can supply some of the energy
    needs in the livestock ration, although they are
    not as concentrated a source of energy as the
  • Value of forages for livestock feed is highly
    dependent on time of harvesting.
  • As forage plants mature, the crude fiber content
    (cellulose and lignin) increases, which lowers
    the digestibility of the feed.
  • When forages are harvested as silage, more of the
    nutritional value of the plant is preserved.

Corn Silage
  • Corn silage, which contains almost 50 grain on a
    dry matter basis, is an excellent energy source
    for certain classes of livestock.
  • Sorghum and small grain silages are lower in
    energy content than corn silage.

  • Oat, barley and wheat are low in energy value and
    are not used as a major source of energy.
  • It may be used if additional fiber is needed in
    the ration.

  • Properly managed pastures can be a good source of
  • Rotating and fertilizing pastures to get the best
    yield and nutritional value.
  • Quality of pasture must be closely watched and
    supplemented with good quality stored forages
    when necessary.

Sources of Energy Byproducts
  • These include the following
  • Dried citrus pulp.
  • Dried beet pulp.
  • Potato meal.
  • Dried sweet potatoes.
  • Cotton seed hulls.
  • Beet tops.

Dried Citrus Pulp
  • The remaining pulp, after the fruit is removed,
    can also come from cull fruit.
  • Can be fed dried or wet.
  • High in fiber content but it is considered an
    energy feed.
  • It usually limited to not more than 20-25 of the

Dried Beet Pulp
  • Primarily used in dairy cattle rations but is
    occasionally used in rations for horse, beef and
  • Adds bulk to rations.
  • Makes rations more palatable, mild laxative.
  • Should not replace more than 20 of the grain in
    a ration.

Sources of Energy---Fats
  • A byproduct of packing plants, and poultry
    processing plants.
  • Commercial feed mixes will contain 1-7 animal
  • Animal fat in the feed reduces the dustiness of
    the feed.
  • Often treated with antioxidants to prevent the
    feed from becoming rancid in storage.
  • Beef and dairy rations can contain up to 5 while
    swine rations may have up to 20.

Sources of Energy---Molasses
  • Common types of molasses are cane or blackstrap,
    beet, citrus and wood.
  • Molasses is used in rations for cattle, sheep and
    horses but is seldom used in swine rations,
    because it causes scouring.
  • Improves palatability, aids rumen microbial
    activity, reduces dust and serves as a binder
    when feeds are pelleted.
  • Molasses is usually limited to not more than
    10-15 of the ration.

Functions of Energy
  • Energy nutrients are needed for the maintenance
    of life in the animal.
  • Maintains basal metabolism.
  • Basal metabolism is defined as the heat
    production of the animal while it is at rest and
    not digesting food.
  • Beating of the heart, maintenance of blood
    pressure, transmission of nerve impulses,
    breathing and work of other internal organs.

Functions of Energy
  • When animals are on full feed they seldom reach
    lower critical temperature unless the weather is
    extremely cold.
  • It is only after all the maintenance needs of the
    animals are met that energy nutrients can be used
    for growth or production.
  • Fattening livestock requires a large amount of
    energy nutrients.
  • Energy not used for other needs is deposited as
    fats within the body tissues.
  • The deposition of fats makes the meat
    tender,juicy and gives it a better flavor.

Functions of Energy
  • When feeding horses, the amount of energy needed
    for no body weight change and the normal
    activities of the nonworking horse is called the
    maintenance requirement.
  • A number of factors affect the amount of energy
    needed, intensity and duration of work, condition
    and training of the horse, the ability and weight
    of the rider, degree of fatigue of the horse and
    environmental conditions in which he is

Effects of Energy Deficiency
  • Slow growth of young.
  • A delay in the onset of puberty.
  • A decrease in milk yield in lactating females.
  • A shortened lactation period.
  • A Los in body weight.
  • Several kinds of reproductive problems including
    reduced fertility and delayed estrus.

Effects of Energy Deficiency
  • In sheep, a reduction in wool quantity and
  • A higher mortality rate.
  • A lowered resistance to disease.
  • Weakness, generally poor condition, and unthrifty
  • Hypoglycemia.
  • A loss of subcutaneous fat.
  • A reduction in levels of blood glucose, calcium,
    and sodium.

Do the Following Review Questions
  • Numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18,
    19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30.