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Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts

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Administration of medications to the skin or mucous membranes can be applied ... Buccal application-drug placed against the mucous membranes of the inner cheek ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts


1
Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts
  • Chapter 33

2
TOPICAL ROUTE
  • Administration of medications to the skin or
    mucous membranes can be applied externally or
    internally
  • Topically applied drugs have a local or systemic
    effect
  • Administered to achieve a direct effect on the
    tissue to which they are applied
  • Cutaneous applications are drugs rubbed or placed
    in contact with the skin (inunctions and
    transdermal patches or pastes)

3
INUNCTION, TRANSDERMAL APPLICATIONS
  • Inunction-Medication incorporated into an agent
    that is administered by rubbing it into the skin
  • TRANSDERMAL-Drug incorporated into patches or
    paste (method of applying a drug on the skin and
    allowing it to become passively absorbed)
  • SKIN PATCHES-Drugs bond to an adhesive bandage
    and applied to the skin.
  • DRUG PASTE-Paste that contains a drug within a
    thick base and is applied but not rubbed into the
    skin.

4
OPTHALAMIC APPLICATION
  • Method of applying drugs onto the mucous membrane
    of one or both eyes.

5
OTIC APPLICATIONS
  • Drug instilled in the outer portion of the ear.
  • Manipulate the ear to straighten the auditory
    canal
  • Child-The nurse pulls the ear down and back
  • Adult-The nurse pulls the ear up and back

6
NASAL APPLICATIONS
  • Topical medications are dropped or sprayed within
    the nose
  • Proper instillation is important to avoid
    displacing the medication into nearby structures
    such as the back of the throat.
  • Nurses should warn the client about the rebound
    effect

7
SUBLINGUAL AND BUCCAL APPLICATIONS
  • Sublingual application-drug placed under the
    tongue and is left to dissolve slowly and become
    absorbed by the rich blood supply in the area
  • Buccal application-drug placed against the mucous
    membranes of the inner cheek

8
VAGINAL APPLICATIONS
  • Topical vaginal applications are used to treat
    local infections
  • Early and appropriate self treatment restores
    normal tissue integrity

9
RECTAL APPLICATIONS
  • Drugs administered rectally usually in form of
    suppositories, creams, or ointments

10
INHALANT ROUTE
  • Administration of drugs in lower airways
  • Distribution of medication to the distal areas of
    the airways, liquid medication is converted to an
    aerosol
  • AEROSOL-MIST RESULTS AFTER A LIQUID DRUG IS
    FORCED
  • THROUGH A NARROW CHANNEL USING PRESSURIZED AIR OR
    AN INERT GAS
  • INHALERS-HAND-HELD DEVICES FOR DELIVERING
    MEDICATION INTO THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGES
  • TURBO-INHALER-PROPELLER-DRIVEN DEVICE THAT SPINS
    AND SUSPENDS A FINELY POWDERED MEDICATION
  • METERED-DOSE INHALER-CANISTER THAT CONTAINS
    MEDICATION UNDER PRESSURE

11
NURSING IMPLICATIONS NURSING DIAGNOSES
  • Deficient Knowledge
  • Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management
  • Impaired Gas Exchange
  • Impaired Skin Integrity
  • Impaired Tissue Integrity

12
GERONTOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • Provide devices for older adults to instill eye
    medications independently
  • Be sure when instilling more than one eye
    medications that the client knows to wait 5
    minutes between administration
  • Lack of subcutaneous tissue causes more rapid
    absorption of topical medications than in younger
    adults
  • Arthritis may interfere with applying medication
    within the vagina or rectum or to the skin of the
    lower extremities
  • Provide spacer devices to assist in
    administration of inhalers
  • Monitor heart rate and blood pressure with
    bronchodilators
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