Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing Countries Strategy I: Child Survival Outreach Teams - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing Countries Strategy I: Child Survival Outreach Teams

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Establish child survival outreach teams. ... Administer oral-rehydration fluids to their sick child who has diarrhoea. ... 4: Reduce child mortality. Retrieved ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing Countries Strategy I: Child Survival Outreach Teams


1
Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing
CountriesStrategy I Child Survival Outreach
Teams
Image from http//www.afro.who.int/amd_2003/photo_
gallery/index4.html
  • Prepared by Cindy Jian
  • March 2006

Image from http//www.fda.gov/cdrh/fdaandyou/issue
04.html
2
What change theory/model is used?
  • Lewins Change Theory
  • It includes three change stages
  • Unfreezing
  • Moving to a new level
  • Refreezing
  • Lewins Force-field Analysis Model
  • (Kaminski, 2006)

3
Lewins Force Field Analysis Model
Image from http//www.12manage.com/methods_lewin_f
orce_field_analysis.html
4
What will happen in the first stage of the change
project?
  • The first stage is the unfreezing stage
    (Kaminski, 2006).
  • The unfreezing stage involves having the
    community become aware of the behavioural
    patterns that are contributing to the death of
    their children.

5
What will happen in the unfreezing stage?
  • Establish child survival outreach teams.
  • Have epidemiologists gather and analyze ongoing
    epidemiological data.
  • Have community village meetings.

Image from http//www.saronyxdesign.co.uk/digitali
llustration4.htm
6
What are the roles of the team during the stage
of unfreezing?
  • Working mainly in the village clinics where they
    would be available to offer help and advice to
    people.
  • Going into the homes at times.
  • Building relationships and rapport with the local
    people as well as local health care staff.

Image from http//www.wpec.k12.sc.us/
7
What are the roles of the team during the stage
of unfreezing? (Contd)
  • Working together with the epidemiologists to
    create an easy to understand, simple document
    that is adapted to suit the education level and
    language of the local people.
  • Talking to families in the village about why
    their children are dying and also help distribute
    the document.

Image from http//www.hsri.org/leaders/paypalorder
s.htm
8
What are the roles of the team during the stage
of unfreezing? (Contd)
  • Facilitating community village meetings where
    they discuss with the local people the issue of
    child mortality and child survival.
  • Training volunteers at the local community.

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
9
What will happen in the second stage of the
change project?
  • The second stage of the change project is called
    moving to the new level (Kaminski, 2006).
  • At this point, the people in the villages have
    recognized that child mortality is an issue and
    are in the process of changing their thoughts,
    feelings and behaviours in such a way to initiate
    productive patterns.

Image from http//www.lincare.com/news/2003fall/Pa
ge3.htm
10
What will happen in the moving to a new level
stage?
  • Have the teams work together with the local
    health care staff to combine expertise to bring
    about more effective positive changes.
  • Teach about the important of vaccinations and the
    health care professionals would administer them.
  • Educate families, especially the mothers.

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
11
What types of vaccinations should be included?
  • Pneumonia
  • Diarrhoea
  • Measles
  • Malaria

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
12
What kind of topics should the team teach the
mothers?
  • The importance of breastfeeding to reduce
    neonatal deaths.
  • How to breastfeed correctly.
  • Complications of breastfeeding.
  • The importance of hand-washing to reduce the
    incidence of diarrhoea and other health
    conditions.
  • How to hand-wash properly.

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
13
What kind of topics should the team teach the
mothers? (Contd)
  • The importance of oral-rehydration for treating
    diarrhoea and other common childhood conditions.
  • The use of insecticide-treated nets to reduce
    mortality rates due to malaria.
  • Recognizing the signs of illness, when and where
    to seek medical help.

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
14
What will happen in the last stage of the change
project?
  • The last stage of the change project is the stage
    of refreezing (Kaminski, 2006).
  • The community would adopt the new health
    behaviours which would continue to carry on.

Image from http//www.cartoonstock.com/directory/i
/ice_cube.asp
15
What will happen in the refreezing stage?
  • Continuing the work done by the team is necessary
    to continue the positive change or reducing child
    mortality.
  • More teams need to be formed and more clinics
    need to be dispersed and established in the
    villages.
  • Publish the promising results from these
    strategies.

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
16
What should mothers be doing in the stage of
refreezing?
  • Take their children to clinics to get vaccinated.
  • Breastfeed their newborns.
  • Wash their hands properly as well as teach others
    in their family to do the same.
  • Administer oral-rehydration fluids to their sick
    child who has diarrhoea.
  • Use insecticide-treated net.
  • Get others in their family to also know when to
    seek medical attention and how to seek medical
    help.

Image from http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/def
ault.aspx?lcen-ca
17
References
  • Acadia University. (1999). Working together.
    Retrived March 12, 2006 from http//ace.acadiau.c
    a/YIIP/CPNN/BluePrint/Working20Together20Folder/
    working.htm
  • British Broadcasting Corporation. (2006).
    Malnutrition hits economic growth. Retrieved
    March from http//new.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4787
    864.stm
  • Black, R. E., Morris, S. S. Bryce, J. (2003).
    Where and why are 10 million children dying every
    year? The Lancet, 361(9376), 2226-2234.
  • Bryce, J., el Arifeen, S., Pariyo, G., Lanata, C.
    F., Gwatkin, D., Habicht, J., et al. (2003).
  • Cartoon Stock. (2006). Ice cube cartoons.
    Retrieved March 12, 2006 from http//www.cartoons
    tock.com/directory/i/ice_cube.asp
  • Colorado. (2005). Working together. Retrieved
    March 12, 2006 from http//www.state.com.us/dhr/w
    t/appprocess.htm
  • Inmagine. (2006). Business - people
    photos/teamwork competition images. Retrieved
    March 10, 2006 from http//www.inmagine.com/teamwo
    rk-and-competition-photos/photodisc-pdv065
  • Kaminski, J. (2006). Learning Activity 1. The
    Change Process and Selected Theories.
    Nursing 4111 Course Manual. Surrey, BC Kwantlen
    University College, 9-14.
  • Microsoft corporation. (2006). Clip art and
    media. Retrieved March 20, 2006 from
    http//office.microsoft.com/clipart/default.aspx?l
    cen-ca
  • Reducing child mortality Can public health
    deliver? The Lancet, 362(9378), 159-194

18
References (Contd)
  • 12manage. (2006). Force field analysis. Retrieved
    March 12, 2006 from http//www.12manage.com/method
    s_lewin_force_field_analysis.html
  • United States Food and Drug Administration.
    (2004). Be an active member of your health care
    team. Retrieved March 12, 2006 from
    http//www.fda.gov/cdrh/fdaandyou/issue04.htmlWes
    tern Piedmont Education Consortium. (2006).
    Welcome to WPEC. Retrieved March 12, 2006 from
    http//www.wpec.k12.sc.us
  • World Health Organization. (2006). Goal 4 Reduce
    child mortality. Retrieved March 10, 2006 from
    http//www.who.int/mdg/goals/goal4/en/index.htm
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