Why is one area of the earths land surface a desert, another a grassland, and another a forest - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why is one area of the earths land surface a desert, another a grassland, and another a forest

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Why is one area of the earth's land surface a desert, another a grassland, and another a forest? ... warm water effects anchovy fisheries. Occurs during December ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Why is one area of the earths land surface a desert, another a grassland, and another a forest


1
Why is one area of the earths land surface a
desert, another a grassland, and another a forest?
2
Climate- long term weather patterns
Weather- momentary conditions of the atmosphere
created by the unequal heating cooling of the
earths surface.
Temperature Precipitation- major factors that
determine an areas climate.
Humidity- the amount of water vapor air holds,
which is dependent upon temperature.
3
Vernal equinox March 21 Sun vertical at equator
Northern Hemisphere Names
Winter solstice Dec. 22 Sun vertical at 23.5oS
Winter solstice Dec. 22 Sun vertical at 23.5oS
Summer solstice June 21 Sun vertical at 23.5oN
Autumnal equinox Sep. 23 Sun vertical at equator
4
Earth further from sun
Earth closer to sun
5
Solar irradiance-
We are interested in conditions near the Earths
surface
What are some factors that effect exposure to
irradiance?
6
Non-rotating Earth
Convection cell model
7
Add rotation and add landmasses unequal heating
and cooling of the Earth
8
90o
High pressure, dry climate
Low pressure, wet climate
60o
High pressure, dry climate
30o
ITCZ intertropical convergence zone doldrums Low
pressure, wet climate
0o
30o
60o
90o
9
  • Idealized winds generated by pressure gradient
    and Coriolis Force. 
  • Actual wind patterns owing to land mass
    distribution..

10
ITCZ
11
January
Seasonal changes in the position of the ITCZ
12
July
13
Summer monsoon- Wet
Winter monsoon- Dry
14
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15
Biome
A major type of ecological community, determined
largely by climate.


Grassland
Tundra
Chaparral
Taiga
Grassland
Desert
Mountain Zones
Tropical rainforest
Temperate Evergreen Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Polar Ice
16
Hydrologic Cycle
17
Rain shadow effect
18
Coriolis Effect
Objects moving in the northern hemisphere are
deflected to the right (cw) Objects moving in the
southern hemisphere are deflected to the left
(ccw)
19
North Pole
Buffalo moves 783 mph Quito moves 1036 mph
Buffalo
15o
N
equator
Quito
Buffalo
equator
79oW
Quito
South Pole
20
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21
Surface currents are wind driven currents
22
What do Nike, rubber ducks, and hockey gloves
have to do with oceanography?
23
Surface temperature
24
Boundary Currents in the Northern Hemisphere
Type of Current General Features
Speed Special Features Western boundary
Currents warm swift sharp boundary Gulf
Stream, Kuroshio narrow w/coastal
circulation, deep little coastal
upwelling Eastern Boundary Currents cold slow
diffuse boundaries California,
Canary broad separating from
coastal shallow currents,
coastal upwelling common
25
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26
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27
Dynamics of a Tropical Cyclone
Air moves toward zone of low pressure and veers
off course to right
L
Counter current circulation in Northern Hemisphere
28
Eddy
  • A circular movement of water formed along the
    edge of a permanent current
  • In an average year, 10-15 rings are formed
  • 150-300 km in diameter
  • Speed 1 m/sec
  • Warm core ring
  • Rotates clockwise
  • Found on the landward side of the current
  • Cold core ring (cyclonic eddy)
  • Rotates counterclockwise
  • Forms on the ocean side of the current

29
Sargasso Sea
30
WARM CORE RING
  • Gulf Stream meander develops
  • Amplitude of the meander increases
  • Meander forms a loop and begins ro pinch off
  • Ring separates from Gulf Stream

31
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32
Ekman Transport
Water flow in the Northern hemisphere- 90o to the
right of the wind direction Depth is important
33
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34
upwelling
downwelling
35
Langmuir Circulation
36
Global Warming
37
The E-M Spectrum
38
Fate of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth
reflection clouds snow and ice the earths
surface atmospheric dust
39
Fate of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth
absorption atmosphere oceans land plant
photosynthesis
40
Fate of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth
radiation
41
The Greenhouse Effect
42
Human-Produced Greenhouse Gases
Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide
43
Carbon Dioxide
Temperature
Year
44
Predicted Consequences of Global Warming
  • sea level rise
  • increased plant primary productivity
  • increased storm severity
  • changes to patterns of rainfall
  • changes to ocean circulation patterns

45
Global Warming
46
Global Warming
47
Global Warming
100 m sea level rise
48
Global Warming
100 m sea level rise
49
Coral Bleaching
50
El Nino
  • Oceanic and atmospheric phenomenon in the Pacific
    Ocean
  • Unusually warm conditions appear along the
    western coast of Ecuador and Peru
  • Causes climatic disturbances of varying severity
  • - heavy rains cause mudslides
  • - warm water effects anchovy fisheries
  • Occurs during December
  • Seiche- water in a confined space sloshing back
    and forth

51
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52
El Nino
Non El Nino
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