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ITER: A Fusion Experiment Based on a Worldwide Collaboration

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Title: ITER: A Fusion Experiment Based on a Worldwide Collaboration


1
ITER A Fusion Experiment Based on a Worldwide
Collaboration
  • FERMI Seminar
  • Batavia, IL
  • December 1st, 2009
  • Norbert Holtkamp
  • Principal Deputy Director General of the ITER
    Organization

2
Fusion powers the sun and the stars …Prometheus
steals fire from the heaven
  • Essentially limitless fuel, available all over
    the world
  • No greenhouse gases
  • Intrinsic safety
  • No long-lived radioactive waste
  • Large-scale energy production

On Earth, fusion could provide
3
Fusion Fuel
  • Raw fuel of a fusion reactor is water and lithium

Lithium in one laptop battery half a bath-full
of ordinary water (-gt one egg cup full of heavy
water) 200,000 kW-hours (current UK
electricity production)/(population of the UK)
for 30 years Deuterium/hydrogen 1/6700
tritium from neutron (from fusion) lithium ?
tritium helium
4
Global Warming and How much Oil is left?
Oil reserves
60 000 year CO2 level
5
Global Energy Production
6
Theorists view of the History of Fossil Fuel
Use….
C. Llewellyn-Smith
7
The Energy Dilemma
7
8
The Fusion Reaction on Earth ... is not the same
as in the Sun
Dict. Fusion the state of being combined into
one body
  • CH4 2O2 --gt CO2 2H2O 5.5 eV
    (chemical)
  • 4H 2e --gt 4He 2 ? 6 ? 26.7 MeV
    (solar process)

1D2 1T3 ? 2He4 0n1
3.5MeV 14.1 MeV
9
Why D-T Cross section
10
Fusion in the Universe
3x109atm
11
A Fusion power plant would be like…
Not to scale !
12
Basic Principle of Stable Motion of Ions in
Magnetically confined Plasma
13
Tokamak and Stellarator
"???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????"
(toroidal'naya kamera v magnitnykh katushkakh)
toroidal chamber in magnetic coils (Tochamac)).
14
  • The Tokamak chamber has a radius of 2 meter
  • A core temperature of 100 Million deg
  • The wall surface has a temperature of 1000 deg

1026 watts, 0.01 W/m3
  • The Sun has a radius of 0.7 Million kilometer
  • A core temperature of 10 Million deg
  • A surface temperature of 4000 deg

5.108 watts, 5 105 W/m3
14
JJ OCS Cannes 17 March 08
14
J Jacquinot, Geneva FEC 2008
15
Lawson The Fusion Lingo
  • Confinement Time
  • Density
  • Temperature

16
Performance Risk of ITER
  • Existing experiments have achieved QDT 1
  • JET and TFTR have produced DT fusion powers of
    gt16MW for 1s
  • ITER is designed to a scale which will yield QDT
    gt 10 at a fusion power of gt 500MW for 400s (and
    up to 3000 sec)

ITER?
17
Example 2 ITER Burning Plasma Scenarios
18
ITER Plasma Scenario - ELMy H-mode
  • Conventionally, plasma confinement regimes
    denoted L-mode and H-mode
  • The difference between these modes is caused by
    the formation of an edge pedestal in which
    transport is significantly reduced - edge
    transport barrier
  • edge localized modes maintain plasma in
    quasi-stationary state

JET
19
Poloidal Field Control in ITER
  • Slow feedback loop through PF coil system
  • control of plasma current, shape,
  • coil currents, separatrix separation, etc. (5-10
    s)
  • Fast feedback loop through in vessel coil
  • stabilization of plasma vertical position (lt1 s)
  • General Improvements in the PF systems,
    especially PF6 through increase in current and
    size

VS
VS
20
What did the Fusion Community Promise?
  • A short history of Fusion
  • E M C2
  • 1900 the Mass deficit on the sun
  • 1920 Hydrogen to Helium burning process was
    speculated
  • 1928 Gamow uses tunnel effect to explain
    fusion
  • 1934 Rutherford DTgtHe
  • C.F. Weizsäcker/H.Bethe Proton-Proton chain
  • 1939 H. Bethe,Energy Production in Stars
    Nobel P 1968
  • 1945 FermiTeller Magnetic confinement of hot
    plasmas
  • 1946 first patent in Britain
  • 1951 Péron and the Stellarator R. Richter
    Austrian/German
  • 1951 L. Spitzer Stellarator experiment in
    Princeton.
  • 1950 SacharowTamm first linear device
  • 1955 first TokamakTMP
  • 1955 J.D. Lawson Lawson Criterion
  • 1957 ZETA
  • 1958 Kurchatov announced effort of Nuclear
    Fusion
  • 1968 L.Artsimowitsch Confinement and the way
    to break even.
  • Europe 1958 foundation of Euratom and the way to
    JET which was planned in England, thought to be
    build in Garching and finally began operation in
    1983 in Culham.

The dangling Carrot ….
21
Fusion was Prepared during 1973 Oil Embargo but
afterwards
  • Amid calls for increased energy RD, Fusion
    budgets rise sharply
  • - US Fusion budget increased a factor of 15
    in 10 yrs.
  • Four Large Tokamaks approved for construction
    less than a decade after T-3
  • TFTR conservative physics/strong aux heating
    const began 1976
  • JET shaped plasma - const began 1977
  • JT-60 poloidal divertor- const began 1978
  • T-15 Superconducting TF (NbSn) const began 1979

22
The Way to Fusion Power The ITER (Hi-)story
For the benefit of mankind
The idea for ITER originated from the Geneva
Superpower Summit in 1985 where Gorbachev and
Reagan proposed international effort to develop
fusion energy… …as an inexhaustible source of
energy for the benefit of mankind.
November 21, 2006 China, Europe, India, Japan,
Korea, Russian Federation and the United States
of America sign the ITER Agreement
23
Where is ITER?
24
(No Transcript)
25
  • ITER is the Next Step
  • Toward a Solution based on Tokamaks

… and it is a clear answer!
26
History of Tokamaks
TRIAM, J
EAST, China
27
Four New Superconducting Tokamaks will Address
Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Issues in
Non-Burning Plasmas
EAST R 1.7m, 2MA, 2006
JT-60SA R 3m, 5.5 MA, 2014
KSTAR R 1.8m, 2MA, 2008
28
ITER Key Facts
  • Mega-Science Project among 7 Members
  • China, EU, India, Japan, Korea, Russia US
  • Designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power for an
    extended period of time
  • 10 years construction, 20 years operation
  • Cost 5.4 billion Euros approved for
    construction, and 5.5 billion for operation and
    decommissioning
  • EU 5/11, other six parties 1/11 each. Overall
    reserve of 10 of total.

29
Latest ITER Organization Structure
CH, EU, IN, JA, KO, US, RU
30
Example 3 ITER as a start up -gt Staffing
  • As of 31 May 2009, the ITER Organization has a
    total of 364 staff, including 254 professional
    and 110 technical support staff.
  • In addition approximately 150 contract staff

Professional staff by Members at the end of May,
2009 Total 254 All staff recruited via video
conf with more than 1500 interviews conducted in
2.5 years
PROFESSIONAL Staff
31
The ITER Project Team is Growing
  • The ITER Organization and the ITER Domestic
    Agencies are building their capabilities

32
ITER is the most challenging technical program
operated under an international collaboration
Deutsch Turmbau zu Babel Português Torre de
Babel English Tower of Babel Français La Tour
de Babel Español Torre de Babel ??
??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????
???? ?? ?????? ??? ??? Communication is not
the issue! Works just fine…
33
Integration between IO and DAs Roles and
Responsibilities for Construction
34
Procurement Sharing
  • - A unique feature of ITER is that almost all of
    the machine will be constructed through in kind
    procurement from the Parties with essentially
    every party involved in every component.

35
9 PAs Signed since IC-4 (June, 2009)
97.10 kIUA in 2007 470.25061 kIUA in
2008 403.17887 kIUA in 2009
36
ITER Tokamak Mass Comparison
Charles de Gaulle mass 38000 t (empty) 856 ft
(261 m) long (Commissioned 2001)
ITER Machine mass 23000 t 28 m diameter x 29 m
tall
37
Vacuum Vessel Mass Comparison
VV In-vessel components mass 8000 t 19.4 m
outside diameter x 11.3 m tall
Eiffel Tower mass 7300 t 324 m tall (Completed
1889)
38
VS Coil Construction and Assembly Concept (
The real difficulty In Vessel coils for Vertical
Stability and ELM mitigation
39
Overall In-Vessel Coil Arrangement
VS ELM Coils
Coils, Manifolds, Blanket
Coils Manifolds
40
Overview of the Magnet System
  • 48 superconducting coils
  • 18 TF coils
  • 6 CS modules
  • 6 PF coils
  • 9 pairs of CC

41
TF Coil Mass Comparison
Mass of (1) TF Coil 360 t 16 m Tall x 9 m Wide
D8 Caterpillar Bulldozer 35 t
42
1st Stage
3rd Stage
Conductor
Strand
Cu Wire
Sub-Wrap
2nd Stage
Cable
4 th Stage
Cu Core Cable
Cu Sub-Cable
Wrap
Jacket Assy
Central Spiral
Jacket
43
TF and CS Jacketing in JA
TF CS Jacketing Lines (Jun. 09)
950 m
44
TF Jacketing in RF
TF Jacketing Line at ÌHEP (Nov. 08-May 09)
45
TF and PF Jacketing in CN
TF PF Jacketing Lines at ASIPP (March-June 09)
46
US Compaction Machine
Tube Forming Mill at PPL (07)
47
ITER Construction Site
ITER Tokamak
1
48
Itinerary of ITER Components
Itinerary of ITER Components
ITER Site
49
ITER Site Construction- 6M/day
Power Supply
Present HQ Building
39 Buildings, 180 hectares 10 years of
construction 20 years of operation
Tokamak Hall
PermanentOffice Buildings
To Aix
Parkings
50
Section view
Tokamak Building
Hot Cell Building
Tokamak lift
cask
cask
Cask
RHTS
cask
Cask
Cask
cask
Above ground
Cask
Cask
Rock level
lt- Full basement -gt
51
Tritium Plant Building Systems Layout
52
Lay Out Of The Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua
ITER NB Heating System 1 MV DC 40 A of H-
current 20 MW delivered to Plasma Up to 3 systems
on ITER
Neutral Beam Test Facility
53
The Integrated Project Schedule (Construction)
First Plasma
ITER Construction
2021
2022
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Tokamak Basic Machine
Issue TF Coils PAs
1st TF Coil at Site
Last TF Coil
at Site
Issue PF Coil PAs
1st PF Coil at Site

Last PF Coil at Site
Issue VV PAs
1st VV Sector at Site
Last VV Sector at Site
Buildings Site
Site Leveling Pre Excavation
Issue Construction PA
Construction Contract
AE Contract Design
Tokamak Complex Excavations
Seismic Isolation Basemat
Tokamak Bldg 11 RFE
Tokamak Building Construction
Remaining Construction
Tokamak Assembly
Start Sub Assemble VV
Tokamak Basic Machine Assembly
Start Install CS Start Cryostat Closure
Ex Vessel Assembly
In Vessel Assembly
Assembly Phase 2
Assembly Phase 3
ITER Operations
Pump Down Integrated Commissioning
Plasma Operations
54
IPS (Operations)
First Plasma
Q10 Long Pulse
Nominal Plasma Hydrogen-Helium Complete
Deuterium Complete
ITER CONSTRUCTION
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
Assembly Phases 2 and 3
Assembly Phase 2
Assembly Phase 3
Final Installation and Commissioning of Tritium
Plant
ITER OPERATIONS
Integrated Commissioning
Start Torus Pump Down
Pump Down Integrated Commissioning
Magnet Commissioning
Hydrogen-Helium Operations Campaign
Assembly Phase 1
Commission, Cool Vacuum
Plasma Development and HCD Commissioning
Assembly Phase 2
Full HCD, TBM Diagnostics Commissioning
Planned Shutdown
Deuterium Operations Campaign
Assembly Phase 3
Deuterium Operations
Planned Shutdown
Nuclear License
Deuterium-Tritium Operations Campaign
Deuterium-Tritium Operations
55
Gegenwärtige und zukünftige Projekte zur Fusion
der DEMO Reaktor
Structural Material Dev.
Blanket Technology
Heavy Irradiation
IFMIF
Structure Development
Fusion Engineering Research
Test Blanket Module
Component Technology
DEMO Reactor
Fusion Plasma Research
ITERDEMO Physics Support Activities
JT-60
JT-60 Superconducting Coils
56
The Roadmap Beyond ITER
00
05
10
15
20
25
30
40
45
2050
Operation
upgrade, construction
Todays expts.
Construction
H
2nd DT Op. Phase
DT
D
Des.
ITER
Test/Optimise Blanket
Construction
Qualify DEMO Materials
Optimise Materials
Design
IFMIF
Design
Construction
Initial Operation
Reliability demo
DEMO
Concept
Design
Construction
Op.
Alternative Confinement Schemes
Commercial Power Plants
57
What if ITER can not?
  • Qgt10 sustained operation is not possible
  • Material development will not produce sustainable
    maintenance strategy
  • Substantial heating system will be required with
    low efficiency (overall efficiency is too low!!!)
  • Nuclear fusion based on Tokamaks is not to be
    further developed as a direct energy source
  • Stellarator technology will need to be pushed
    much harder
  • There is another possibility….. The hybrid
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_nuclear_fusi
    on

58
ITER a Global Challenge
  • The stakes are considerable, not to say vital
    for our planet.
  • Manuel Barroso, President of the European
    Commission
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