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The First Global Age: Europe, The Americas, and Africa

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... to cooperate and come to one anothers' defense, with the discontented Aztec overlords. ... Many new west African kingdoms were influenced by Islamic reforms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The First Global Age: Europe, The Americas, and Africa


1
Chapter 16
  • The First Global Age Europe, The Americas, and
    Africa
  • (1492-1750)

2
Section 1
  • Conquest in the Americas

3
First Encounters
  • 1492- Christopher Columbus landed in the West
    Indies. He encountered the Taino
  • Spanish conquistadors, or spanish conquerers,
    settled on Caribbean islands, seized the gold
    from the Tainos, and forced them to convert to
    Christianity
  • Diseaseas carried by the Europeans wiped out
    native villages since Native Americans had no
    immunity, or resistance, to such diseases.
  • Native American population of the Caribbean
    Islands declined by 90 in the 1500s

4
The Conquistador Cortes in Mexico
  • Hernan Cortes landed on the Mexican coast in
    1519 made alliances, or formal agreements
    between 2 or more nations or powers to cooperate
    and come to one anothers defense, with the
    discontented Aztec overlords.
  • Moctezuma Aztec emperor, thought Cortes might be
    a god.
  • Aztecs eventually drove the Spanish out of
    Tenochtitlan.
  • 1521 Cortes returned and captured and demolished
    Tenochtitlan

5
Conquistador Pizarro in Peru
  • Arrived in Peru in 1532.
  • Helped by Indian allies, he captured the king,
    Atahualpa.
  • Spanish demanded a ransom for the king, Incas
    paid it, but the spanish killed the king anyway.

6
Spanish Victorious
  • Spanish had superior military technology
  • There was division and discontent among the
    Indians
  • Disease brought by the Europeans weakened the
    Aztecs and Incas

7
Section 2
  • Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas

8
Ruling the Spanish Empire
  • Govt Spain maintained strict control
  • Empire divided into five provinces which were
    ruled by a viceroy- representative who rules a
    spanish province in the Kings name
  • The Catholic Church worked with the Govt. to
    convert Native Americans to Christianity
  • Church leaders helped regulate the activities of
    Spanish settlers
  • The Economy plantations- large estate run by an
    owner or overseer.
  • Economiendas- the right to demand labor or
    tribute from Native Americans in a particular
    area
  • At first, the spanish forced Native Americans to
    work under brutal conditions, but they later
    began shipping slaves from Africa to do their
    work.

9
Colonial Society
  • Peninsulares, people born in Spain, were at the
    top of society
  • Creoles, American-born descendents of Spanish
    settlers, were next
  • Mestizos, person of mixed Spanish and Native
    American descent
  • Mulattoes were people born of African and
    European descent.

10
Colonial Culture
  • Blending of Native American, African, and
    European people and traditions
  • Colonies built universities

11
Challenging Spanish Power
  • Spain had strict control over colonial trade, so
    smugglers traded illegally with Spanish colonists
  • Privateers- Dutch, English, and Frenchpirates who
    preyed on Spanish treasure ships

12
Section 3
  • Struggle for North America

13
Evolution of Traditions of Govt.
  • Pilgrim- English protestant who rejected
    practices of the church of England
  • Pilgrims at Plymouth signed the Mayflower
    Compact, in which they set out guidelines for
    governing their colony
  • Compact- an agreement among people
  • Each colony had its own representative assembly
    elected by propertied men

14
NOTES
  • Bartolome de las Casas Spanish priest who worked
    to end abuses against Native Americans
  • Spanish explorers traveled to the Americas to
    find gold
  • Europes middle class enjoyed a comfortable life
  • Brazil was influenced by Portuguese culture

15
New France
  • 1500s French fishing ships harvested fish off
    Newfoundland, but French did not build permanent
    settlements until 1608.
  • The french were helped by Native Americans in
    claiming vast territory
  • Population of New France grew slowly
  • French king began to exert greater control over
    political and economic activities in New France
  • Samuel de Champlain Found of French colongy of
    Quebec (Father of New France)

16
The 13 English Colonies
  • 1600 and 1700 English established 13 colonies.
    Some for commercial reasons (Virginia and New
    York) and other were set up as havens for
    persecuted religious groups (Mass, Penn., and
    Maryland)
  • English monarchs exerted control over their
    American colonies

17
Competition for Power
  • By the 1600s Spain, France, Britain, and the
    Netherlands were competing for colonies and trade
    around the world
  • 1700s Britain and France were involved in the
    Seven Years War. In North America, they battled
    each other in the French and Indian War.
  • Treaty of Paris officially ended the world-wide
    war made North America dominated by Britain

18
Section 4
  • Turbulent Centuries in Africa

19
Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Started in the 1500s to fill the need for labor
    in Spains American empire
  • Tens of thousands of enslaved Africans were
    shipped across the Atlantic each year
  • Europeans relied on African rulers and traders to
    seize captives in the interior and bring them to
    coastal trade posts and fortresses

20
Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade
  • By 1800s estimated 11 million enslaved Africans
    had reached the Americas. Another 2 million
    probably died during the Middle Passage.
  • Middle Passage- part of a trade network that sent
    enslaved people from Africa to the Americas
  • Slave trade caused some small states in Africa to
    disappear forever
  • Usman dan Fodio Fulani scholar who set up an
    Islamic state in west Africa

21
Battles for Power in Southern Africa
  • Many new west African kingdoms were influenced by
    Islamic reforms
  • Zulus emerged as a major force in southern
    Africa.
  • Shaka Zulu leader who waged war against nearby
    peoples in southern Africa
  • Boers Dutch leaders in southern Africa. Came
    into contact with the Zulus in 1830s and fighting
    broke out.
  • Zulus were defeated by the Boers.

22
Section 5
  • Changes in Europe

23
The Columbian Exchange
  • Columbus returned to the Americas in 1493 with
    some 1200 settlers and a collection European
    plants and animals
  • Columbus began a vast global exchange

24
A Commercial Revolution
  • Inflation- economic cycle that involves a rise in
    prices linked to a sharp increase in available
    money
  • Expanded trade and the push for overseas empires
    spurred the growth of European capitalism- the
    investment of money to make a profit

25
Mercantilism
  • Mercantilism- when a nations real wealth was
    measured in its gold and silver
  • Overseas empires and colonies existed for the
    benefit of the parent nation
  • European govts.
  • passed strict laws regulating trade
  • Exploited natural resources
  • Sold monopolies
  • Imposed tarrifs
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