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Nouns and Noun Phrases


Languages have two components which serve complementary functions: ... I used to know a Julia Roberts. his new Shakespeare. occur with descriptor: multiword units! ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nouns and Noun Phrases

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • HS Sommersemester 2005
  • Prof. Dr. Wolf Paprotté

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Overview
  • Open and closed class items
  • criteria for defining noun
  • Semantic p.9
  • Syntactic German and English examples p. 13
  • Morphological, nominal inflection
  • NUMBER p 27
  • Spelling and pronounciation of inflected nouns
  • GENDER p. 32
  • CASE

Nouns and Noun Phrases
Languages have two components which serve
complementary functions component 1 the closed
class of lexical forms which serve a
structuring function (prepositions,
conjunctions, inflections, …) they give
structure to the content in discourse, and to
the conceptual inventory of language ?
their function giving structure
Nouns and Noun Phrases
component 2 the open class of lexical forms
they are numerous it is easy to create new
lexical entries they constitute the
conceptual content of discourse (stems of nouns,
verbs, adjectives, …) ? their function
determine the basic content of discourse
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • The stewards served a hot meal to the
  • Will the steward serve hot meals to the
  • 5 open class elements which determine the
  • referential content of the depicted situation -
  • i.e. steward, serve, hot, meal, passenger
  • closed class elements
  • ed occurring before the time of
  • the entity known to the speaker and hearer
  • -s plurality of number

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • closed class elements (cont)
  • a entity not known to the hearer
  • to indicates who received sth
  • the object status indicates the recipient
  • if no new open class elements occur, the
    referential content of the depicted situation
    remains the same
  • new closed class elements cause
  • word order interrogative instead of
    declarative S
  • will epistemic modality / future tense
  • different assignments of number

HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • 1. Words are assigned to grammatical categories
    on the basis of their shared semantic, syntactic,
    morphological properties
  • semantic criteria
  • nouns denote entities (cat, dog, bank, hill)
  • verbs denote actions (read, study, listen,
  • adjectives denote properties (ill, rich,
    stupid, slow)
  • adverbs denote manner (painfully, slowly,
    badly) prepositions denote location (in, at,
    under, on)
  • Discuss the following words assassination, fast
    food, Münster, through abstract / concrete nouns

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Open class forms are free to express any kind of
    meaning / any kind of conceptual content
  • Closed class forms are restricted in the kinds of
    concepts they communicate in many languages
  • inflection may indicate number(s) sg, pl, dual,
  • lexical items can indicate any number
  • word formation may indicate large quantity or
    size, as in Gr.
  • big (bad) Wolf - (nice) little Wolf Wolfara
  • - no language inflects for colour, for
    countable, even, odd, dozen

HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Semantic properties for determining PoS
  • Referencedef The phenomenon by which some noun
    phrase in a
  • particular utterance or sentence is associated
    with some entity in the real or conceptual world.
  • Trask 1993, A Dictionary of grammatical terms
    in Linguistics. London p. 232
  • Referencedef the relationship which holds
    between an expression
  • and what that expression stands for on
    particular occasions of its
  • utterance.
  • Lyons, Semantics, Vol. I, p. 170
  • Reference is an utterance-dependent notion.

HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • In uttering Napoleon is a Corsican the speaker
    refers to a certain
  • Individual by means of a referring expression.
  • What is the speaker referring to by means of the
    expression X?
  • X definite NP proper name, personal pronoun,
  • Singular definite reference referring to a
    specific individual or class of individual
  • Singular indefinite reference
  • Every evening, a heron flies over the chalet.
    It nests in the grounds of the chateau.

HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Distributive and collective general reference
  • Those books cost 15 dollars.
  • Non-referring definite NPs
  • Smiths murderer is insane
  • Generic reference
  • A lion is a friendly beast.
  • The lion is a friendly beast.
  • Lions are friendly beasts.

HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Sense Bedeutung
  • John referring expression is a fool
    functions predicatively
  • The criterion for substitutability in subject
    position in this construction is referential
  • The criterion for substitutability in predicate
    position is identity of sense. Lyons 1977
    Vol I , p. 201
  • The victor of Jena and the loser of Waterloo

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Syntactic properties of nouns
  • distributional ( syntactic properties)
    occurrence in specific contexts
  • the _______
  • a_________
  • two, three _________
  • _______ N Npl
  • some______
  • every________

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Subclasses of N
  • Proper Nouns
  • Common Nouns
  • Count Nouns (Dts Individuativa,
    Gattungsnamen, Appellativa)
  • Noncount Nouns (Dts. Kontinuativa, Stoff- ,
    Substanz bezeichnungen)
  • Count and non-count (mixed class)
  • Test 1 for Count Nouns Sg _______
  • The ______ A _______
  • Every_______
  • Test 2 for Count Nouns Pl All (the)______
  • Some _______
  • _________ / N NPL

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Testframe group1 group 2 group3
    group 2 3
  • I saw ____ John car furniture
  • I saw the__ car furniture
  • I saw a___ car
  • I saw some__ car furniture
  • I saw ______ cars
  • proper nouns, common nouns, count nouns,
    (individual countable
  • entities), noncount nouns (undifferentiated mass
    or continuum)
  • Spree, Beethoven, cake, Puccini, Jerry, table,
    stone, bread, grass, lawn, bottle, chair, idea,
    paper, dog, music, warmth, stone

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Behaviour under determination (German nouns)
  • Common Nouns / Individuativa
  • Test countability
  • Number
  • Sing obligatory article
  • Pl optional article word
  • Hybrids
  • Test frames for German nouns
  • 1. ein ___ eine____ irgendein ____
  • jeder, jedes, jede_____ Kardinalzahl
  • 2. einige, etliche, wenige, manche keine, viele,
    alle ___
  • 3. test for hybrids in German?

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Note some common nouns occurring only as
    pluralia tantum take an obligatory article
  • Die Annalen / die Altforderen
  • some pluralia tantum cannot be quantified
    (uniqueness constraint)
  • Er schrieb zwei Memoiren
  • A mentioned common noun may occur without an
    article word
  • Gänsegeier ist ein Wort, das man häufig benutzt
  • A common noun occuring with separable particles
    of German verbs needs an article word
  • Ich freue mich über das Buch.
  • Wir ärgern uns über jeden Fehler.

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Common nouns denoting professions, titles,
    functions, status, nationality or origin etc.
    occur as subject complements without an article
  • Professor Unheimlich re-surfaced recently.
  • Er ist Bäcker / Lehrer / Student / Aktionär,
  • ? Professorin Heimlich hält gerade ihre
  • Frau Professor ….
  • ? Sie ist Tasse.
  • Er ist Angehöriger / Christ / Muslim /
  • Test for other copula / AUX verbs (seem….)
  • Er ist Berliner.

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Non-count nouns, (Dts Kontinuativa)
  • without plural, a determiner may occur
  • the denotatum cannot be counted
  • denote quantities of substances if divided
    into smaller
  • quantities substance stays the same
  • may be quantified using alle, ein bißchen,
  • wenig,…
  • Test frames
  • ein bißchen ______ Anglistik / Fleiß / Gold
  • viel ______ Suppe Fisch
  • etwas ______ Humor

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • non-count nouns contd
  • allow plural Sortenplural Öle, Stähle,
    Zemente Fische
  • Fisch (sg.) Kontinuativum Nullartikel def.
  • indef article
  • (pl.) Fischarten or countable number (3

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Derived nouns (German), deverbal and deadjectival
  • (semantic criterion these nouns denote some
    state of affairs, i.e. a predicate plus 1 to n
    argument positions
  • Ich beobachte seine Änderung der Meinung.
  • Ich beobachte sein Ändern der Meinung.
  • Ich beobachte, dass er seinen Meinung ändert.
  • Ich beobachte die Änderungen der Meinung.
  • State of affairs as a dass-clause, infinitival
    clause, präpositional attribute, genitive
    attribute, or part of a compound
  • Test for Anwendung Beendigung Abschürfung

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • With respect to determination, the derived nouns
    of German fall into two classes
  • sg Kontinuativa,
  • pl Individuativa definite, indefinite and null
  • Test frame 1
  • Ich bin gegen _______ Abrüstung, Abstinenz,
    Ausbeutung, Überdüngung, Übermüdung
  • Sg definite or indefinite determiner / article
  • Test frame 2
  • Ich bin gegen die / eine _______ Abfassung,
    Alarmierung, Anwendung, Auslagerung, Bedrohung,
    Überspielung, Überraschung
  • Er beobachtet Äußerung
  • ? Ich bin gegen Abfassung der Resolution.

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Nouns with null article
  • Übersee, Aids, Glasnost, Jahresfrist
  • Nouns plus attributive adjective, null-article
  • Schöne Pfingsten, fröhliche Weinachten, gutes
    Neues Jahr
  • Nominalised infinitives, null-article is
    possible no plural
  • Das Wandern ist ätzend. Ich genieße das Laufen
    das Üben macht den Meister

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Determination behaviour of nouns null article
    Individuative vs. Kontinuativa in German
  • Ich zahle per Scheck. Ich kaufe per Scheck.
  • Erarbeitet nur noch per Anweisung.
  • Er kommt als Seemann verkleidet zur Fete.
  • Sie erhielten viel als Entschädigung
  • Ich verstehe unter Berg etwas Anderes.
  • Ich leide unter dem Trainer. ___ unter
    Überarbeitung … durch (die)
    Abschnürung der Bißwunde
  • Er kauft den Tisch. Ohne Tisch sieht das kahl

Nouns and the Nounphrase
  • Morphological criteria for POS membership the
    inflectional and derivational properties of nouns
  • inflectional
  • marking nouns for NUMBER SG or PL
  • ?? marking nouns for CASE GENITIVE
  • derivational
  • properties of the wordform, affixes -ness,
    -ion, -er
  • ?? Marking nouns for GENDER
  • Discuss
  • happier, lion, Loch Ness, sheep, geese, cats,
    singularia tantum, gold, Henry pluralia tantum
    binoculars, trousers, scales, shorts

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Inflection of nouns
  • A noun phrase (and its head) participates in a
    number system which contrasts 2 concepts
  • singular (sg) one vs plural (pl) more
    than one
  • 3 main classes
  • singular invariable (music, gold Jackie the
  • plural invariable people, scissors the rich,
    the poor
  • variable subclass regular dog, dogs, cat,
  • subclass irregular mouse, mice

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Sg invariable nouns
  • noncount beer, wine, sirup, music, dirt,
    homework news
  • proper nouns, Henry, Ricky,
  • abstract adjective heads
  • nouns ending in ics acoustics, econmics,
    physics, classics,
  • phonetics, politics (also pl) statistics (also
  • pl invariable nouns
  • summation plural scissors, glasses, goggles,
    pincers, tongs
  • pluralia tantum ending in s thanks, regards,
    ashes, brains, clothes, arms, amends, bowels,
    entrails, archives
  • some proper nouns the Alps, the Sahara
  • unmarked plurals people, the police, cattle,
    poultry, livestock
  • personal adjective heads the rich, the poor

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • regular plurals cat, cats, bag, bags,crew, crews
  • /-s/ has three realisations s, horse, horses
  • z, size, sizes iz bush, bushes
  • irregular plurals
  • voicing and s plural calf, calves
  • vowel change foot, feet,
  • zero plural sheep
  • -en plural child, children
  • foreign plurals stimulus, stimuli larva,
    larvae stratum, strata
  • matrix, matrices thesis, theses criterion,
    criteria, tempo, tempi cherub, cherubim

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • pronounciation of regular plurals
  • -s after bases ending in voiceless consonants
    other than sibilants
  • -z after bases ending in voiced consonants
    other than sibilants
  • -Iz after bases ending in sibilants
  • Voicing and s plural
  • word final consonants /-th/ as in path /T/,
    paths /Dz/
  • but regular in berth, berths, length /T/,
    lengths /Ts/

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Spelling of the regular plurals
  • /-s/ in most nouns including those ending in
    silent /-e/ as in book-s, hat-s, flower-s,
  • /-es/ after nouns ending in sibilants which are
  • -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh gas-es, box-es, buzz-es,
    church-es bush-es
  • /-os/ for nouns ending in o which is preceded by
    a vowel or consonant as in bamboos, folios,
    radios, studios, kangaroos
  • pianos, solos, quartos, kilos, memos, Eskimos,
    photos, Filipinos

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • /-oes/ plural only in /oes-/ dominoes, echoes
    embargoes, vetoes, potatoes, tomatoes, torpedoes
  • /-oes or -os/ banjos, buffaloes, tornados,
    volcanoes, mulattos, manifestoes, mottos,
  • /-ies/ nouns ending in -y, preceded by a
    consonant drop the -y and add -ies as in skies,
    ! but days!
  • note exceptions
  • - quy to -quies soliloquies
  • proper nouns ending in -y have plurals -ys the
    two Germanys, little Marys
  • doubling of final consonants as in quizzes, fezzes

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Proper nouns (Eigennamen propria)
  • - person, brand, product, location, nation etc.
  • - semantic function denote and identify unique
  • (note vague meaning of unique)
  • - proper nouns occur with and without DET /
  • - genitive sg without article, word final affix
  • Proper names with article some mountain, lake,
    river region, building etc. names need an
  • die Türkei, die USA, die Schweiz, die Alhambra,
    die Bretagne, die Balearen.

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Politically correct speech/language makes
    sense or nonsense ?
  • Hidden assumption our Western societies are
    dominated by male (speakers) the use of gender
    marking in our languages proves it,
  • therefore substitute forms and linguistic signs
    that refer to male beings by forms that refer to
    females or at least by forms which are neutral
  • Flight attendant for airline hostess spokesman -
    spokesperson chairwoman - chairman
  • s/he wo/man history - herstory
  • ?dual gender artist, doctor, scientist, guest,
    parent, teacher, singer, librarian, novelist,
    student, foreigner
  • higher animals buck, doe, bull, cow, stallion,
    mare, tiger, tigress, ram, ewe dog, bitch
  • Analyse the use of horse, dog, duck he-goat,

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Some German examples
  • Schüler(in), Student(in), Lehrer(in)
  • Der Schüler Horst Rohlings fehlt heute wg.
  • Für(einen) Lehrer unserer Schule ist das
    blamables Verhalten.
  • Schüler sind bessere Menschen.
  • Schülerinnen sind bessere Menschen.
  • Die Ente, die Gans, das Huhn, das Kaninchen sie
    sind alle durch den Vogelvirus bedroht.
  • ? Ganter sind aufmerksame Tiere, wie der/ein
  • Discuss the different uses !

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Liebe Bürgerinnen und Bürger liebe Wählerinnen
    und Wähler, liebe Bürgermeisterinnen und
  • ? Ich danke allen Wählerinnen und Wählern und
    verspreche, dass ich den mir erteilten
    Wählerinnen- und Wählerauftrag gern annehme.
  • ? die Kandidatinnenfrage, die Kandidatenfrage
  • Regierungschefin
  • … in der Reihe der Bundeskanzlerinnen und
    Bundeskanzler …
  • ? Wir warnen vor Taschendiebinnen.
  • Nachahmer sind Diebe geistigen Eigentums
  • ? Nachahmerinnen sind Diebinnen geistigen
  • ? Das Täterinnenprofil bitte an mich faxen!
  • What works what doesnt work and why?

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • GENDER def a grammatical classification of
    nouns and pronouns found in certain languages
    requiring different agreement forms on
    determiners, adjectives, verbs, according to or
    weakly related to the distinction of sex of the
  • un vieux livre, une vielle maison versus
  • Prüfer, Prüferinnen, Prüferehrung
  • Discuss the notions of MALE and FEMALE vs
  • Gender languages typically function with notions
    as size, shape, animacy, humanness, sex also
    edibility, danger

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Biology (sex) versus grammar (gender)
  • It is a mistake to analyse GENDER as any
    lexical or grammatical distinction correlating
    with sex, such as
  • he, she, it or duke, duchess, lion, lioness
  • GENDER is a grammatical category sorting nouns
    into different classes, paradigms (i.e. German
    masculin, feminine, neuter)

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • English has no gender distinctions which are
    inflectionally marked. (Quirk et al 5.104)
  • Some pronouns (3rd person) and wh-pronouns
    express natural gender (sex) distinctions
  • personal who, whom / it, which
  • he, himself / she, herself masculine /
  • Personal male / female nouns boy/girl,
  • /nun uncle/aunt, brother/sister, man/woman,
  • morphologically marked for gender god godess
  • widower/widow

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Proper nouns Names
  • Generally they do not share the formal
    characteristics of common nouns
  • used regularly without article the Benedict
  • unique reference, lack number contrast
  • lack determination, except for reinterpretation
    as in
  • I used to know a Julia Roberts
  • his new Shakespeare
  • occur with descriptor multiword units!
  • Leicester Road President Bush

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • lack modification, no modifier insertions no
    change of inflection
  • Kings famous College the beautiful Münster
  • allow only nonrestrictive relative clause or
    nonrestrictive apposition
  • Boris Yeltsin whose daugther lives next door
  • Leonnard, a brilliant composer
  • with premodification (emotional coloring)
  • The gorgeous Miss Minnie

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • kinds of names (1) personal names first or
    Christian name family name
  • Ms mIz, Mr. and Mrs. Smith Marian S. Walter
  • Ms Waterhouse
  • with appositional title / or other appositive
  • General, Judge, Chancellor, Governor,
    Professor, Cardinal Brown Lord Nelson, Lady
    Chatterly the British architect Foster, King
    George, Chairman Mao, Doctor Jekyll

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Forms of vocatives
  • (person) names, first and last name, full name
    with or without a preceding title, pet name /
  • Standard apellatives, usually without
  • family relationships, mother, father, son,
    granny mum, dad, …
  • titles of respect madam, sir, my Lord, Your
  • marker of status president, prime minister, your
  • Terms for occupations
  • Waiter, driver officer, nurse
  • Epithets favorable honey, darling, sweetie pie,
  • unfavorable idiot, coward …
  • general nouns gentlemen, ladies

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Kinds of names (2) temporal names
  • Names of festivals, religious dates
  • Christmas Day, Independence Day Easter Sunday
  • New Year, Ramadan
  • Names of days, months, seasons
  • Monday, Tuesday, Friday, etc.
  • January, February, March, etc
  • Spring, Summer, Autumn / Fall / Winter
  • I hate Mondays
  • She will leave on Saturday.
  • She left on the following Sunday.
  • She left on a Sunday.

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Kinds of names (3) geographical names
  • Continents, countries,states, regions
  • America, Australia, Asia, Africa
  • Cities, towns, roads /streets
  • Berlin, Boston, Brussels, The Strand Park Lane.
  • Lakes, mountains
  • Lake Ladoga, Ben Nevis, Mount Snowdon
  • normally without the definite article but
  • The Sahara, the Yemen, the Punjab, the
  • Locative names consisting of proper noun common
    noun descriptor
  • Hampstead Heath, Golders Green, Finchley Road

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Numerous categories of names
  • Product names, company names
  • institution names, airports,museums, theatres
  • Forests, woods, hills, rivers, oceans, canals,
  • Hotels, restaurants, motels,
  • Hospitals ships
  • Task - find other categories of named entities
  • list their names
  • Determine the rules for the occurrence of a
    preceeding definite artiicle

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Case as a grammatical category Model 1
  • English nouns have two cases the common case
    and the genitive
  • Case as a grammatical category Model 2
  • English nouns are not marked for case
  • How to explain
  • (a) case marking in pronouns separate
    discussion (? relics of a complex former case
  • (b) use of s- genitive in relation to
    prepositional, post modifier of-construction

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Pronounciation of genitive /iz/, /s/,or /z/
    follows the rules of plural -s
  • Spelling of genitive
  • singular noun apostrophy plus s,
  • cats dogs mothers, childs
  • plural noun s plus an apostrophy
  • cats dogs ! childrens

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Argumentation for model 1
  • stays within the traditional model of grammar
  • the present language is a result of history
    linguistic change which started in OE and
    consisted of the loss of inflectional forms
    marking case
  • its syntactic function marking for subject-hood
    or object-hood has been taken over by word order

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Argumentation for model 2
  • There is no inflectional marking for common case
    only the s plus an apostrophy
  • The fact that the marking of Subject and object
    functions is superfluous English word order
    determines the function of subject and object(s)
  • The re-interpretation of the apostrophy s as a
    preposition is supported by the fact that the
    genitive may determine a nounphrase, not just a
    single noun
  • The king of Englands hat

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Kinds of genitive
  • Possessive genitive
  • Ms Johnsons hat Ms J. has a hat
  • Subjective genitive, objective genitive
  • The boys resignation the boy has resignated
  • The boys release … released the boy
  • Partitive genitive
  • Genitive of origin, attribute, measure
  • The girls story the victims courage, five
    days absence
  • Descriptive genitive
  • A womens college

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Gender and genitive
  • tendency the genitive is favoured for classes
    which are highest on the gender scale
  • personal nouns (refer to human beings)
  • higher animals
  • Collective nouns geographical / national states
  • nouns in end focus
  • … damaged the ships funnel
  • Difficulties in generalising (cf. Quirk et al
    5.118 5.120)

Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Genitive in determinative function
  • as determinative, it fills the slot occupied by
    the central determiner the, or by possessive
    pronoun his, her, a single noun, noun plus own
    determiners / modifiers
  • The / her / Jennys / my daughters new dress
  • my determinative to daughter NPs
    genitive NP
  • … many peoples ambition
  • Genitive construction interpreted as NP,
    embedded and functioning in a superordinate NP as
    a determinative
  • common genitive,
  • s equivalent to of-PreP genitive

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Genitive as modifier has a classifying role
  • There were ten farmers wives at the meeting / …
    farmers wives …
  • Model 2
  • s enclitic postposition because CASE applies
    to an NP, not just a single noun (group genitive
    in which the genitiv ending is affixed to a
  • the University of Münsters rector

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Independent genitive
  • My car is faster than Johns
  • Marys was the prettiest
  • Local genitive
  • Lets have dinner at Tiffanys
  • I am going to the dentists
  • Used for normal residences ( St. Pauls, St.James
  • For business locations (the grocers, the

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Of-genitive vs genitive as case
  • often similar in function and meaning
  • constraints on acceptability /appropriateness
  • the cooks taste ? the taste of the cook
  • Johns school ?the school of John
  • the front of the house the houses front

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Some bits of terminology (source Wikipedia)
  • Als obliquus (lat. eigentlich) wird der Kasus
    bezeichnet, der nicht das Subjekt des Satzes
  • Oblique Kasus sind im Deutschen also
  • Genitiv
  • Dativ
  • Akkusativ
  • Der casus rectus, der Nominativ, markiert das
    Subjekt eines Satzes.

  • Bsp Das moderne Russische kennt sechs Kasus
  • Nominativ, ???????????? ?????,
  • Genitiv, ??????????? ?????,
  • Dativ, ????????? ?????,
  • Akkusativ, ??????????? ?????,
  • Instrumental, ???????????? ????? und
  • Praepositiv, ?????????? ?????,

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Die Kasus sind bei den deklinierbaren
    Substantiven an der Kasusendung als Einheit von
    Kasusbedeutung und Kasusform zu erkennen
  • Funktionen der einzelnen Kasus
  • 1. Nominativ Grundform aller Kasus,
    syntaktisch unabhängig, der casus rectus
    gegenüber den casus obliqui, oblique Kasus.
  • - markiert Subjekt, Prädikatsnomen oder
  • - erscheint immer ohne, der Präpositiv immer
    mit Präposition.
  • - die obliquen Kasus kommen ohne (reine Kasus)
    oder mit Präposition vor (Praepositionalkasus).

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • 2. Genitiv Der Genitiv steht meist in der
    Attributfunktion bei einem anderen Substantiv
    (adnominaler Genitiv, (Subjektgenitiv,
    Objektgenitiv, partitiver Genitiv etc.)
  • 3. Dativ bezeichnet oft den Adressaten der
    Handlung, den Empfänger, Nutznießer, Besitzer
    eines Objekts
  • 4. Akkusativ Der Akkusativ bezeichnet das
    direkte Objekt transitiver Verben, oder das
  • 5. Instrumental kennzeichnet das Werkzeug der
    Handlung. Hat syntaktische Funktion Objekt und
    semantische Bedeutung Subjekt in
  • 6. Praepositiv Der Praepositiv kombiniert
    Praeposition und Kasusform, was außer im
    Nominativ in allen Kasus vorkommt.

Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Elements and functions in the NP determiner
  • Determiners determine, i.e. restrict, the
  • of the NP in which they occur, typical
  • 1. central determiners
  • - definite and indefinite article the, a, an
  • - demonstrative adjectives with number and
    - proximity indication this, that, these,
  • - possessive pronouns my, his, her etc.
  • - every, each, no, which, what, some enough
  • Determiner is any element whose function it is to
    enter into the
  • structure of referring expressions and to
    determine their reference as
  • definite rather than non-definite
  • (Lyons 1977,p. 454)

  • Test
  • anything that can substitute for a determiner
    without changing the syntactic properties of the
    NP is a determiner
  • central determiners do not co-occur within the
    same NP
  • a my car
  • my a friend
  • Central determiners have the same distribution as
    the definite or indefinite article

  • A problem
  • delimiting quantifiers and determiners
  • all, some, each, every, many few, several
  • the lion , a lion specific or generic
  • Task generate / find expressions whose
    reference is determined in terms of size, of set,
    how many, how much

  • Determining common nouns
  • count noun SG, count noun PL
  • Mass noun SG,
  • Closed system items, the, a, no, what, this,
    every, each, either
  • Predeterminers occur before central determiners
  • the sequence of det.s in the NP all, both,
  • multipliers double, twice, three times
  • fractions one third, three fifths
  • such what

  • All the many pretty intelligent students / All
    this junk
  • All of the overworked students / all the students
  • both his girls / both students / both the student
  • Half a liter of petrol … / Half this cake ….
  • All my life …,/ all my friends
  • Such a surprise / what a hot sauce
  • Double the sum
  • One-third the time

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