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Nouns and Noun Phrases

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Title: Nouns and Noun Phrases


1
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • HS Sommersemester 2005
  • Prof. Dr. Wolf Paprotté

2
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Overview
  • Open and closed class items
  • criteria for defining noun
  • Semantic p.9
  • Syntactic German and English examples p. 13
  • Morphological, nominal inflection
  • NUMBER p 27
  • Spelling and pronounciation of inflected nouns
  • GENDER p. 32
  • CASE

3
Nouns and Noun Phrases
Languages have two components which serve
complementary functions component 1 the closed
class of lexical forms which serve a
structuring function (prepositions,
conjunctions, inflections, …) they give
structure to the content in discourse, and to
the conceptual inventory of language ?
their function giving structure
4
Nouns and Noun Phrases
component 2 the open class of lexical forms
they are numerous it is easy to create new
lexical entries they constitute the
conceptual content of discourse (stems of nouns,
verbs, adjectives, …) ? their function
determine the basic content of discourse
5
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • The stewards served a hot meal to the
    passengers.
  • Will the steward serve hot meals to the
    passenger?
  • 5 open class elements which determine the
  • referential content of the depicted situation -
  • i.e. steward, serve, hot, meal, passenger
  • closed class elements
  • ed occurring before the time of
    speaking
  • the entity known to the speaker and hearer
  • -s plurality of number

6
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • closed class elements (cont)
  • a entity not known to the hearer
  • to indicates who received sth
  • the object status indicates the recipient
  • if no new open class elements occur, the
    referential content of the depicted situation
    remains the same
  • new closed class elements cause
  • word order interrogative instead of
    declarative S
  • will epistemic modality / future tense
  • different assignments of number

7
HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • 1. Words are assigned to grammatical categories
    on the basis of their shared semantic, syntactic,
    morphological properties
  • semantic criteria
  • nouns denote entities (cat, dog, bank, hill)
  • verbs denote actions (read, study, listen,
    destroy)
  • adjectives denote properties (ill, rich,
    stupid, slow)
  • adverbs denote manner (painfully, slowly,
    badly) prepositions denote location (in, at,
    under, on)
  • Discuss the following words assassination, fast
    food, Münster, through abstract / concrete nouns

8
Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Open class forms are free to express any kind of
    meaning / any kind of conceptual content
  • Closed class forms are restricted in the kinds of
    concepts they communicate in many languages
  • inflection may indicate number(s) sg, pl, dual,
    paucal
  • lexical items can indicate any number
  • word formation may indicate large quantity or
    size, as in Gr.
  • big (bad) Wolf - (nice) little Wolf Wolfara
    Wolfaki
  • - no language inflects for colour, for
    countable, even, odd, dozen

9
HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Semantic properties for determining PoS
    membership
  • Referencedef The phenomenon by which some noun
    phrase in a
  • particular utterance or sentence is associated
    with some entity in the real or conceptual world.
  • Trask 1993, A Dictionary of grammatical terms
    in Linguistics. London p. 232
  • Referencedef the relationship which holds
    between an expression
  • and what that expression stands for on
    particular occasions of its
  • utterance.
  • Lyons, Semantics, Vol. I, p. 170
  • Reference is an utterance-dependent notion.

10
HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • In uttering Napoleon is a Corsican the speaker
    refers to a certain
  • Individual by means of a referring expression.
  • What is the speaker referring to by means of the
    expression X?
  • X definite NP proper name, personal pronoun,
    etc.
  • Singular definite reference referring to a
    specific individual or class of individual
  • Singular indefinite reference
  • Every evening, a heron flies over the chalet.
    It nests in the grounds of the chateau.

11
HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Distributive and collective general reference
  • Those books cost 15 dollars.
  • Non-referring definite NPs
  • Smiths murderer is insane
  • Generic reference
  • A lion is a friendly beast.
  • The lion is a friendly beast.
  • Lions are friendly beasts.

12
HS Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Sense Bedeutung
  • John referring expression is a fool
    functions predicatively
  • The criterion for substitutability in subject
    position in this construction is referential
    identity.
  • The criterion for substitutability in predicate
    position is identity of sense. Lyons 1977
    Vol I , p. 201
  • The victor of Jena and the loser of Waterloo

13
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Syntactic properties of nouns
  • distributional ( syntactic properties)
    occurrence in specific contexts
  • the _______
  • a_________
  • two, three _________
  • _______ N Npl
  • some______
  • every________

14
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Subclasses of N
  • Proper Nouns
  • Common Nouns
  • Count Nouns (Dts Individuativa,
    Gattungsnamen, Appellativa)
  • Noncount Nouns (Dts. Kontinuativa, Stoff- ,
    Substanz bezeichnungen)
  • Count and non-count (mixed class)
  • Test 1 for Count Nouns Sg _______
  • The ______ A _______
  • Every_______
  • Test 2 for Count Nouns Pl All (the)______
  • Some _______
  • _________ / N NPL

15
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Testframe group1 group 2 group3
    group 2 3
  • I saw ____ John car furniture
    brick
  • I saw the__ car furniture
    brick
  • I saw a___ car
    brick
  • I saw some__ car furniture
    brick
  • I saw ______ cars
    brick
  • proper nouns, common nouns, count nouns,
    (individual countable
  • entities), noncount nouns (undifferentiated mass
    or continuum)
  • Spree, Beethoven, cake, Puccini, Jerry, table,
    stone, bread, grass, lawn, bottle, chair, idea,
    paper, dog, music, warmth, stone

16
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Behaviour under determination (German nouns)
  • Common Nouns / Individuativa
  • Test countability
  • Number
  • Sing obligatory article
  • Pl optional article word
  • Hybrids
  • Test frames for German nouns
  • 1. ein ___ eine____ irgendein ____
  • jeder, jedes, jede_____ Kardinalzahl
    _______
  • 2. einige, etliche, wenige, manche keine, viele,
    alle ___
  • 3. test for hybrids in German?

17
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Note some common nouns occurring only as
    pluralia tantum take an obligatory article
  • Die Annalen / die Altforderen
  • some pluralia tantum cannot be quantified
    (uniqueness constraint)
  • Er schrieb zwei Memoiren
  • A mentioned common noun may occur without an
    article word
  • Gänsegeier ist ein Wort, das man häufig benutzt
  • A common noun occuring with separable particles
    of German verbs needs an article word
  • Ich freue mich über das Buch.
  • Wir ärgern uns über jeden Fehler.

18
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Common nouns denoting professions, titles,
    functions, status, nationality or origin etc.
    occur as subject complements without an article
  • Professor Unheimlich re-surfaced recently.
  • Er ist Bäcker / Lehrer / Student / Aktionär,
    Anfänger
  • ? Professorin Heimlich hält gerade ihre
    Vorlesung.
  • Frau Professor ….
  • ? Sie ist Tasse.
  • Er ist Angehöriger / Christ / Muslim /
    Flüchtling.
  • Test for other copula / AUX verbs (seem….)
  • Er ist Berliner.

19
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Non-count nouns, (Dts Kontinuativa)
  • without plural, a determiner may occur
  • the denotatum cannot be counted
  • denote quantities of substances if divided
    into smaller
  • quantities substance stays the same
  • may be quantified using alle, ein bißchen,
    mancherlei,
  • wenig,…
  • Test frames
  • ein bißchen ______ Anglistik / Fleiß / Gold
    Stroh
  • viel ______ Suppe Fisch
  • etwas ______ Humor

20
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • non-count nouns contd
  • allow plural Sortenplural Öle, Stähle,
    Zemente Fische
  • Fisch (sg.) Kontinuativum Nullartikel def.
  • indef article
  • (pl.) Fischarten or countable number (3
    Fische)

21
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Derived nouns (German), deverbal and deadjectival
  • (semantic criterion these nouns denote some
    state of affairs, i.e. a predicate plus 1 to n
    argument positions
  • Ich beobachte seine Änderung der Meinung.
  • Ich beobachte sein Ändern der Meinung.
  • Ich beobachte, dass er seinen Meinung ändert.
  • Ich beobachte die Änderungen der Meinung.
  • State of affairs as a dass-clause, infinitival
    clause, präpositional attribute, genitive
    attribute, or part of a compound
  • Test for Anwendung Beendigung Abschürfung

22
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • With respect to determination, the derived nouns
    of German fall into two classes
  • sg Kontinuativa,
  • pl Individuativa definite, indefinite and null
    article
  • Test frame 1
  • Ich bin gegen _______ Abrüstung, Abstinenz,
    Ausbeutung, Überdüngung, Übermüdung
  • Sg definite or indefinite determiner / article
  • Test frame 2
  • Ich bin gegen die / eine _______ Abfassung,
    Alarmierung, Anwendung, Auslagerung, Bedrohung,
    Überspielung, Überraschung
  • Er beobachtet Äußerung
  • ? Ich bin gegen Abfassung der Resolution.

23
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Nouns with null article
  • Übersee, Aids, Glasnost, Jahresfrist
  • Nouns plus attributive adjective, null-article
  • Schöne Pfingsten, fröhliche Weinachten, gutes
    Neues Jahr
  • Nominalised infinitives, null-article is
    possible no plural
  • Das Wandern ist ätzend. Ich genieße das Laufen
    das Üben macht den Meister

24
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Determination behaviour of nouns null article
    Individuative vs. Kontinuativa in German
  • Ich zahle per Scheck. Ich kaufe per Scheck.
  • Erarbeitet nur noch per Anweisung.
  • Er kommt als Seemann verkleidet zur Fete.
  • Sie erhielten viel als Entschädigung
  • Ich verstehe unter Berg etwas Anderes.
  • Ich leide unter dem Trainer. ___ unter
    Überarbeitung … durch (die)
    Abschnürung der Bißwunde
  • Er kauft den Tisch. Ohne Tisch sieht das kahl
    aus.

25
Nouns and the Nounphrase
  • Morphological criteria for POS membership the
    inflectional and derivational properties of nouns
  • inflectional
  • marking nouns for NUMBER SG or PL
  • ?? marking nouns for CASE GENITIVE
  • derivational
  • properties of the wordform, affixes -ness,
    -ion, -er
  • ?? Marking nouns for GENDER
  • Discuss
  • happier, lion, Loch Ness, sheep, geese, cats,
    singularia tantum, gold, Henry pluralia tantum
    binoculars, trousers, scales, shorts

26
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Inflection of nouns
  • A noun phrase (and its head) participates in a
    number system which contrasts 2 concepts
  • singular (sg) one vs plural (pl) more
    than one
  • 3 main classes
  • singular invariable (music, gold Jackie the
    unreal)
  • plural invariable people, scissors the rich,
    the poor
  • variable subclass regular dog, dogs, cat,
    cats,
  • subclass irregular mouse, mice

27
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Sg invariable nouns
  • noncount beer, wine, sirup, music, dirt,
    homework news
  • proper nouns, Henry, Ricky,
  • abstract adjective heads
  • nouns ending in ics acoustics, econmics,
    physics, classics,
  • phonetics, politics (also pl) statistics (also
    pl)
  • pl invariable nouns
  • summation plural scissors, glasses, goggles,
    pincers, tongs
  • pluralia tantum ending in s thanks, regards,
    ashes, brains, clothes, arms, amends, bowels,
    entrails, archives
  • some proper nouns the Alps, the Sahara
  • unmarked plurals people, the police, cattle,
    poultry, livestock
  • personal adjective heads the rich, the poor

28
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • regular plurals cat, cats, bag, bags,crew, crews
  • /-s/ has three realisations s, horse, horses
  • z, size, sizes iz bush, bushes
  • irregular plurals
  • voicing and s plural calf, calves
  • vowel change foot, feet,
  • zero plural sheep
  • -en plural child, children
  • foreign plurals stimulus, stimuli larva,
    larvae stratum, strata
  • matrix, matrices thesis, theses criterion,
    criteria, tempo, tempi cherub, cherubim

29
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • pronounciation of regular plurals
  • -s after bases ending in voiceless consonants
    other than sibilants
  • -z after bases ending in voiced consonants
    other than sibilants
  • -Iz after bases ending in sibilants
  • Voicing and s plural
  • word final consonants /-th/ as in path /T/,
    paths /Dz/
  • but regular in berth, berths, length /T/,
    lengths /Ts/

30
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Spelling of the regular plurals
  • /-s/ in most nouns including those ending in
    silent /-e/ as in book-s, hat-s, flower-s,
    college-s
  • /-es/ after nouns ending in sibilants which are
    spelled
  • -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh gas-es, box-es, buzz-es,
    church-es bush-es
  • /-os/ for nouns ending in o which is preceded by
    a vowel or consonant as in bamboos, folios,
    radios, studios, kangaroos
  • pianos, solos, quartos, kilos, memos, Eskimos,
    photos, Filipinos

31
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • /-oes/ plural only in /oes-/ dominoes, echoes
    embargoes, vetoes, potatoes, tomatoes, torpedoes
  • /-oes or -os/ banjos, buffaloes, tornados,
    volcanoes, mulattos, manifestoes, mottos,
    haloes,
  • /-ies/ nouns ending in -y, preceded by a
    consonant drop the -y and add -ies as in skies,
    ! but days!
  • note exceptions
  • - quy to -quies soliloquies
  • proper nouns ending in -y have plurals -ys the
    two Germanys, little Marys
  • doubling of final consonants as in quizzes, fezzes

32
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Proper nouns (Eigennamen propria)
  • - person, brand, product, location, nation etc.
    names
  • - semantic function denote and identify unique
    entities
  • (note vague meaning of unique)
  • - proper nouns occur with and without DET /
    article
  • - genitive sg without article, word final affix
    remains
  • Proper names with article some mountain, lake,
    river region, building etc. names need an
    article
  • die Türkei, die USA, die Schweiz, die Alhambra,
    die Bretagne, die Balearen.

33
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Politically correct speech/language makes
    sense or nonsense ?
  • Hidden assumption our Western societies are
    dominated by male (speakers) the use of gender
    marking in our languages proves it,
  • therefore substitute forms and linguistic signs
    that refer to male beings by forms that refer to
    females or at least by forms which are neutral
  • Flight attendant for airline hostess spokesman -
    spokesperson chairwoman - chairman
    chair(person)
  • s/he wo/man history - herstory
  • ?dual gender artist, doctor, scientist, guest,
    parent, teacher, singer, librarian, novelist,
    student, foreigner
  • higher animals buck, doe, bull, cow, stallion,
    mare, tiger, tigress, ram, ewe dog, bitch
  • Analyse the use of horse, dog, duck he-goat,
    she-goat

34
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Some German examples
  • Schüler(in), Student(in), Lehrer(in)
  • Der Schüler Horst Rohlings fehlt heute wg.
    Nasenbluten.
  • Für(einen) Lehrer unserer Schule ist das
    blamables Verhalten.
  • Schüler sind bessere Menschen.
  • Schülerinnen sind bessere Menschen.
  • Die Ente, die Gans, das Huhn, das Kaninchen sie
    sind alle durch den Vogelvirus bedroht.
  • ? Ganter sind aufmerksame Tiere, wie der/ein
    Hund…
  • Discuss the different uses !

35
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Liebe Bürgerinnen und Bürger liebe Wählerinnen
    und Wähler, liebe Bürgermeisterinnen und
    Bürgermeister
  • ? Ich danke allen Wählerinnen und Wählern und
    verspreche, dass ich den mir erteilten
    Wählerinnen- und Wählerauftrag gern annehme.
  • ? die Kandidatinnenfrage, die Kandidatenfrage
  • Regierungschefin
  • … in der Reihe der Bundeskanzlerinnen und
    Bundeskanzler …
  • ? Wir warnen vor Taschendiebinnen.
  • Nachahmer sind Diebe geistigen Eigentums
  • ? Nachahmerinnen sind Diebinnen geistigen
    Eigentums
  • ? Das Täterinnenprofil bitte an mich faxen!
  • What works what doesnt work and why?

36
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • GENDER def a grammatical classification of
    nouns and pronouns found in certain languages
    requiring different agreement forms on
    determiners, adjectives, verbs, according to or
    weakly related to the distinction of sex of the
    referent.
  • un vieux livre, une vielle maison versus
  • Prüfer, Prüferinnen, Prüferehrung
  • Discuss the notions of MALE and FEMALE vs
    MASCULINUM, FEMININUM, NEUTRUM
  • Gender languages typically function with notions
    as size, shape, animacy, humanness, sex also
    edibility, danger

37
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Biology (sex) versus grammar (gender)
  • It is a mistake to analyse GENDER as any
    lexical or grammatical distinction correlating
    with sex, such as
  • he, she, it or duke, duchess, lion, lioness
  • GENDER is a grammatical category sorting nouns
    into different classes, paradigms (i.e. German
    masculin, feminine, neuter)

38
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • English has no gender distinctions which are
    inflectionally marked. (Quirk et al 5.104)
  • Some pronouns (3rd person) and wh-pronouns
    express natural gender (sex) distinctions
  • personal who, whom / it, which
  • he, himself / she, herself masculine /
    feminine
  • Personal male / female nouns boy/girl,
    king/queen,monk
  • /nun uncle/aunt, brother/sister, man/woman,
    father/mother
  • morphologically marked for gender god godess
  • widower/widow

39
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Proper nouns Names
  • Generally they do not share the formal
    characteristics of common nouns
  • used regularly without article the Benedict
  • unique reference, lack number contrast
  • lack determination, except for reinterpretation
    as in
  • I used to know a Julia Roberts
  • his new Shakespeare
  • occur with descriptor multiword units!
  • Leicester Road President Bush

40
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • lack modification, no modifier insertions no
    change of inflection
  • Kings famous College the beautiful Münster
  • allow only nonrestrictive relative clause or
    nonrestrictive apposition
  • Boris Yeltsin whose daugther lives next door
  • Leonnard, a brilliant composer
  • with premodification (emotional coloring)
  • The gorgeous Miss Minnie

41
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • kinds of names (1) personal names first or
    Christian name family name
  • Ms mIz, Mr. and Mrs. Smith Marian S. Walter
  • Ms Waterhouse
  • with appositional title / or other appositive
  • General, Judge, Chancellor, Governor,
    Professor, Cardinal Brown Lord Nelson, Lady
    Chatterly the British architect Foster, King
    George, Chairman Mao, Doctor Jekyll

42
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Forms of vocatives
  • (person) names, first and last name, full name
    with or without a preceding title, pet name /
    nickname
  • Standard apellatives, usually without
    modification
  • family relationships, mother, father, son,
    granny mum, dad, …
  • titles of respect madam, sir, my Lord, Your
    Honour
  • marker of status president, prime minister, your
    majesty
  • Terms for occupations
  • Waiter, driver officer, nurse
  • Epithets favorable honey, darling, sweetie pie,
    love
  • unfavorable idiot, coward …
  • general nouns gentlemen, ladies

43
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Kinds of names (2) temporal names
  • Names of festivals, religious dates
  • Christmas Day, Independence Day Easter Sunday
  • New Year, Ramadan
  • Names of days, months, seasons
  • Monday, Tuesday, Friday, etc.
  • January, February, March, etc
  • Spring, Summer, Autumn / Fall / Winter
  • I hate Mondays
  • She will leave on Saturday.
  • She left on the following Sunday.
  • She left on a Sunday.

44
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Kinds of names (3) geographical names
  • Continents, countries,states, regions
  • America, Australia, Asia, Africa
  • Cities, towns, roads /streets
  • Berlin, Boston, Brussels, The Strand Park Lane.
  • Lakes, mountains
  • Lake Ladoga, Ben Nevis, Mount Snowdon
  • normally without the definite article but
  • The Sahara, the Yemen, the Punjab, the
    Everglades
  • Locative names consisting of proper noun common
    noun descriptor
  • Hampstead Heath, Golders Green, Finchley Road

45
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Numerous categories of names
  • Product names, company names
  • institution names, airports,museums, theatres
  • Forests, woods, hills, rivers, oceans, canals,
    islands
  • Hotels, restaurants, motels,
  • Hospitals ships
  • Task - find other categories of named entities
  • list their names
  • Determine the rules for the occurrence of a
    preceeding definite artiicle

46
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Case as a grammatical category Model 1
  • English nouns have two cases the common case
    and the genitive
  • Case as a grammatical category Model 2
  • English nouns are not marked for case
    distinctions
  • How to explain
  • (a) case marking in pronouns separate
    discussion (? relics of a complex former case
    system)
  • (b) use of s- genitive in relation to
    prepositional, post modifier of-construction

47
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Pronounciation of genitive /iz/, /s/,or /z/
    follows the rules of plural -s
  • Spelling of genitive
  • singular noun apostrophy plus s,
  • cats dogs mothers, childs
  • plural noun s plus an apostrophy
  • cats dogs ! childrens

48
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Argumentation for model 1
  • stays within the traditional model of grammar
    (Latin)
  • the present language is a result of history
    linguistic change which started in OE and
    consisted of the loss of inflectional forms
    marking case
  • its syntactic function marking for subject-hood
    or object-hood has been taken over by word order

49
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Argumentation for model 2
  • There is no inflectional marking for common case
    only the s plus an apostrophy
  • The fact that the marking of Subject and object
    functions is superfluous English word order
    determines the function of subject and object(s)
  • The re-interpretation of the apostrophy s as a
    preposition is supported by the fact that the
    genitive may determine a nounphrase, not just a
    single noun
  • The king of Englands hat

50
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Kinds of genitive
  • Possessive genitive
  • Ms Johnsons hat Ms J. has a hat
  • Subjective genitive, objective genitive
  • The boys resignation the boy has resignated
  • The boys release … released the boy
  • Partitive genitive
  • Genitive of origin, attribute, measure
  • The girls story the victims courage, five
    days absence
  • Descriptive genitive
  • A womens college

51
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Gender and genitive
  • tendency the genitive is favoured for classes
    which are highest on the gender scale
  • personal nouns (refer to human beings)
  • higher animals
  • Collective nouns geographical / national states
  • nouns in end focus
  • … damaged the ships funnel
  • Difficulties in generalising (cf. Quirk et al
    5.118 5.120)

52
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Genitive in determinative function
  • as determinative, it fills the slot occupied by
    the central determiner the, or by possessive
    pronoun his, her, a single noun, noun plus own
    determiners / modifiers
  • The / her / Jennys / my daughters new dress
  • my determinative to daughter NPs
    genitive NP
  • … many peoples ambition
  • Genitive construction interpreted as NP,
    embedded and functioning in a superordinate NP as
    a determinative
  • common genitive,
  • s equivalent to of-PreP genitive

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Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Genitive as modifier has a classifying role
  • There were ten farmers wives at the meeting / …
    farmers wives …
  • Model 2
  • s enclitic postposition because CASE applies
    to an NP, not just a single noun (group genitive
    in which the genitiv ending is affixed to a
    postmodifier)
  • the University of Münsters rector

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Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Independent genitive
  • My car is faster than Johns
  • Marys was the prettiest
  • Local genitive
  • Lets have dinner at Tiffanys
  • I am going to the dentists
  • Used for normal residences ( St. Pauls, St.James
  • For business locations (the grocers, the
    butchers

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Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Of-genitive vs genitive as case
  • often similar in function and meaning
  • constraints on acceptability /appropriateness
  • the cooks taste ? the taste of the cook
  • Johns school ?the school of John
  • the front of the house the houses front

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Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Some bits of terminology (source Wikipedia)
  • Als obliquus (lat. eigentlich) wird der Kasus
    bezeichnet, der nicht das Subjekt des Satzes
    markiert.
  • Oblique Kasus sind im Deutschen also
  • Genitiv
  • Dativ
  • Akkusativ
  • Der casus rectus, der Nominativ, markiert das
    Subjekt eines Satzes.

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  • Bsp Das moderne Russische kennt sechs Kasus
  • Nominativ, ???????????? ?????,
  • Genitiv, ??????????? ?????,
  • Dativ, ????????? ?????,
  • Akkusativ, ??????????? ?????,
  • Instrumental, ???????????? ????? und
  • Praepositiv, ?????????? ?????,

58
Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Die Kasus sind bei den deklinierbaren
    Substantiven an der Kasusendung als Einheit von
    Kasusbedeutung und Kasusform zu erkennen
  • Funktionen der einzelnen Kasus
  • 1. Nominativ Grundform aller Kasus,
    syntaktisch unabhängig, der casus rectus
    gegenüber den casus obliqui, oblique Kasus.
  • - markiert Subjekt, Prädikatsnomen oder
    Apposition.
  • - erscheint immer ohne, der Präpositiv immer
    mit Präposition.
  • - die obliquen Kasus kommen ohne (reine Kasus)
    oder mit Präposition vor (Praepositionalkasus).

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Nouns and Nounphrases
  • 2. Genitiv Der Genitiv steht meist in der
    Attributfunktion bei einem anderen Substantiv
    (adnominaler Genitiv, (Subjektgenitiv,
    Objektgenitiv, partitiver Genitiv etc.)
  • 3. Dativ bezeichnet oft den Adressaten der
    Handlung, den Empfänger, Nutznießer, Besitzer
    eines Objekts
  • 4. Akkusativ Der Akkusativ bezeichnet das
    direkte Objekt transitiver Verben, oder das
    Handlungsziel.
  • 5. Instrumental kennzeichnet das Werkzeug der
    Handlung. Hat syntaktische Funktion Objekt und
    semantische Bedeutung Subjekt in
    Passivkonstruktion.
  • 6. Praepositiv Der Praepositiv kombiniert
    Praeposition und Kasusform, was außer im
    Nominativ in allen Kasus vorkommt.

60
Nouns and Nounphrases
  • Elements and functions in the NP determiner
  • Determiners determine, i.e. restrict, the
    reference
  • of the NP in which they occur, typical
    determiners
  • 1. central determiners
  • - definite and indefinite article the, a, an
  • - demonstrative adjectives with number and
    - proximity indication this, that, these,
    those
  • - possessive pronouns my, his, her etc.
  • - every, each, no, which, what, some enough
  • Determiner is any element whose function it is to
    enter into the
  • structure of referring expressions and to
    determine their reference as
  • definite rather than non-definite
  • (Lyons 1977,p. 454)

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  • Test
  • anything that can substitute for a determiner
    without changing the syntactic properties of the
    NP is a determiner
  • central determiners do not co-occur within the
    same NP
  • a my car
  • my a friend
  • Central determiners have the same distribution as
    the definite or indefinite article

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  • A problem
  • delimiting quantifiers and determiners
  • all, some, each, every, many few, several
  • the lion , a lion specific or generic
    reference
  • Task generate / find expressions whose
    reference is determined in terms of size, of set,
    how many, how much

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  • Determining common nouns
  • count noun SG, count noun PL
  • Mass noun SG,
  • Closed system items, the, a, no, what, this,
    every, each, either
  • Predeterminers occur before central determiners
  • the sequence of det.s in the NP all, both,
    half
  • multipliers double, twice, three times
  • fractions one third, three fifths
  • such what

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  • All the many pretty intelligent students / All
    this junk
  • All of the overworked students / all the students
  • both his girls / both students / both the student
  • Half a liter of petrol … / Half this cake ….
  • All my life …,/ all my friends
  • Such a surprise / what a hot sauce
  • Double the sum
  • One-third the time

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