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Bruno, Giordano. On the Composition of Images, Signs and Ideas. 1540_1600. Trans. Charles Doria. Ed.


... an Introduction by D. B. Updike, a Letter from John T. McCutcheon and an Address ... followers were Bruce Rogers, Daniel B. Updike, and Frederic W. Goudy. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bruno, Giordano. On the Composition of Images, Signs and Ideas. 1540_1600. Trans. Charles Doria. Ed.

Bruno, Giordano.  On the Composition of Images,
Signs and Ideas. 1540_1600. Trans. Charles Doria.
Ed. and annotated by Dick Higgins. New York
Willis. 1991.
  • 1591
  • A precursor (of the graphic designers)
    communication in pictures, images as signs, non
    rational, an initiation into arcane mystery, Carl
  • Because the mind cannot analyze itself, the end
    of rationality
  • Light as 1) natural light and 2) other kind of
    light which is spiritual substance the light
    of revelation See the chiaroscuro of Caravagio
    (Higgins, intro Higgins as a founder of
    avant-garde Fluxus)
  • Yates (intellectual historian) as the major Bruno
    student of the 20th c.
  • Hermetic mysteries, tradition, and is a poetic
  • Against neo-Platonic rationalism
  • Against Reformations cleansing of images for
    understanding through the contemplation and
    associations of images thought gets lost in the
    beauty of the experience . . . xxii

Calvino, Italo.  The Castle of Crossed Destinies.
Trans. William Weaver. 1st ed. New York
Harcourt, 1977.
  • The untold stories within the deck correspond to
    the untravelled pathways in a hyperbook.
    Calvino's description of the Tarot has many
    affinities with electronic hypertext, providing a
    model for a graphic means of reading that stands
    in contradistinction with the signifying
    practices of The Book.
  • Calvino didnt get to the Motel of Crossed
    Destinies in which travelers would once again be
    struck dumb and find themselves only able to
    communicate by pointing to the pictures in a
    handy comic strip
  • Despite its claims for difference and the claims
    of a great deal of hypertext criticism for the
    same, I must say from the outset that it is not
    possible to locate a strict or fundamental
    difference in the metaphysical sense this mode
    of distinction must always be fated and any
    binary that is constructed between the analog and
    digital is bound to be unraveled or dissolved.
    There cannot be a metaphysical or ontological
    difference between the analog and the digital,
    and yet it cannot be denied that something
    different happens when one works with, even
    performs, hypertext the difference this
    difference makes is the problem that concerns me
    and hypertext itself.-Raley

Horace. Satires, Epistles and Ars Poetica, with
an English translation by H. Rushton. Trans.
Fairclough, H. Rushton. Cambridge, MA Harvard U
P, 1947.
  • Jean Hagstrum, The Sister Arts
  • MH The Horatian rationale for sugaring the
  • painting like poetry was an imitation of nature,
    by which they meant human nature, and human
    nature not as it is, but, in Aristotle's phrase,
    as it ought to be
  • A poem is like a picture one strikes your fancy
    more, the nearer you stand another, the farther
    away. P481.
  • Much about how bad poetry can be, how vain poets,
    how ignorant
  • Imitation They both not only represent the
    appearance of the world and the actions of beings
    in it, but also improve on Nature through the
    means of art
  • In the 16th to 18th centuries especially, the
    notion provided the principal starting point for
    discussion of the arts in Europe, notably in the
    17th_century French Academy. A closer study leads
    one to suspect that part of the complexity is
    based on nothing more than semantic laxity. In
    the 18th century Gothold Lessing argued, in
    Laokoon, that the doctrine had caused unnecessary
    confusion in the arts__a point that was taken up
    in the 20th century by the modernist Clement
    Greenberg in Towards a Newer Laocoön, when he
    argued that each art should address concerns
    proper to it, and not those of another art form.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Paragone A Comparison of the
Arts. London. New York Oxford UP, 1949.
  • figuratively, a test or trial
  • the order of precedence among them (the
    "paragone" of the arts)
  • Leonardo da Vinci's arguments for the supremacy
    of painting over the arts of poetry, music, and
  • Painting as science (geometry, astronomy,
  • Painting as truth (the eye is the least deceived
    sense) loss of the eye is the worst loss
  • The painter as poet
  • The painter measure distance, the musician
    measures intervals
  • The sculptor depends on light
  • take into account Leonardo's scientific
    terminology, the highly contrived form of his
    rhetorical argumentation, and the role played by
    his original editors.
  • Da Vinci elaborated on the relationship between
    painting and geometry in the first five sections
    of Paragone, (between 1500 and1505.) He said,
    the point is the first principle of geometry and
    no other thing can exist in nature or in the
    human mind from which the point can originate.
    He said the other principles of geometry are the
    line, the surface and the body clothed by these
  • recorded opinions that anticipate the modern
    classification of the fine arts, systematized in
    the 18th century
  • See questionnaire circulated by Varchi, published
    in 1550 along with (more) Neo-Platonizing
  • Paragoni continued as an an intellectual pastime.
    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing?s essay Laokoon (1766),
    long considered to be the last definitive
    contribution to the paragone, repeats many themes
    derived from Leonardo in this new setting
  • In the 18th century comparisons of the arts
    became a popular topic in England and Germany
  • At the Royal Academy in London such traditional
    topics as the distribution between the liberal
    and the mechanical arts, drawn in part from
    political theory, were reformulated to celebrate
    the values of an emergent bourgeois society

Leonardo, da Vinci. Paragone A Comparison of the
Arts. London. New York Oxford UP, 1949.
  • Hagstrum on Leonardo
  • The supreme apologist for painting (cf the power
    of his conviction)
  • Ancient notion that of the five senses the
    noblest is sight, the peculiar possession of the
  • Repeats the Neoplatonic notion that the painter
    resembles more closely than any other artist, the
  • L argument is at greatest force when he associate
    painting with scientific investiation and
    experimental acquisition of knowledge
  • Like science painting explored, rendered, and
    explained nature, the source of all truth
  • In this process it developed powers of sense and
    mind associated with scientific investigation
    honest discipline observation
  • Thus the painter who deals with things is
    superior to the poet who deals with words
  • Painter is lord of reality and need not speak (cf
    emblem tradition)

Moulthrop, Stuart. Victory Garden A Fiction.
Computer file. Cambridge, MA  Eastgate Systems,
  • As html
  • Victory Garden is a hypertext -- a story, or a
    web of stories, whose shape and movements can
    change every time you read it.
  • You can move smoothly through the text by
    clicking on the More button at the bottom of each
    page -- in most cases, this will carry you
    further along in the current
  • scene or story line. Click the Back button of
    your Web browser to review the previous moment,
    or to retrace your path through the story as
    you've seen it.
  • At most points you can also click on certain
    words and phrases (Michael Joyce calls them
    "words that yield") which will carry you to a
    different story line. In most
  • Web browsers, these words appear underlined and
    in color. Though yield-words often create
    discontinuities, they can also map connections.
  • Preamble
  • Whereas Hyperdocuments are not simply
    Collections of Nodes and Links, but Articulations
    of Nodes and Links in Space Whereas the Space of
    Hypermedia is not the Space of the Book ...
  • Whereas "When depth gives way to surface,
    under-standing becomes inter-standing. To
    comprehend is no longer to grasp what lies
    beneath but to glimpse what lies between" (Taylor
    and Saarinen) ...
  • Whereas We feel "the need to use computer
    networks as a means for creating new forms of
    collective intelligence, of getting humans to
    interact with one another in novel ways" (De
    Landa) ...
  • Whereas It's better to do it than to write about
    it ...
  • About the paranoia often noted in users of this
    technology, there is nothing remarkable. Like
    other sorts of paranoia, it is nothing less than
    the onset, the leading edge, of the discovery
    that everything is connected, everything in the
    Creation, a secondary illumination -- not yet
    blindingly One, but at least connected, perhaps
    a route In for those like us who are held at
    the edge....

Pitts_Moultis, Natanya, and Cheryl Kirk.  XML
Black Book. Albany, NY Coriolis Group Books,
  • How to write XML code
  • This demonstration uses XML, Data Binding, and
    Dynamic HTML to create a virtual dynamic poetry
    application. XML Poetry allows you to drag and
    drop a "poem" from a set of words and submit it
    to the server. Your poem is immediately published
    for viewing on the web. http//
  • Coming to us quickly is XML (Extensible Markup
    Language), a parent language like SGML, and both
    derived from and compatible with SGML. XML is
    designed to be much easier to deliver on the
    Internet than SGML has proved to be, and much
    easier for software developers to implement.
  • Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) - XML for TEI Lite
  • TEI Lite and Loose. TEI (Text Encoding
    Initiative) is the leading academic vocabulary
    for literature and is also used for professional
    reference publishing. It covers many areas
    books, plays, dictionaries, poetry. TEI defined a
    very large SGML vocabulary TEI Lite was a
    simpler one for many basic uses TEI Lite and
    Loose is an XML version. From Academia Sinica,
    Taipei. TEI) Lite and Loose DTD
  • This DTD can be used to distribute TEI Lite
    documents over the World Wide Web it is the TEI
    Lite DTD, loosened according to the requirements
    of XML. TEI is the Text Encoding Initiative you
    can make TEI DTDs to mark up all sorts of
    literature and reference material. Please note
    that this DTD may change over the next few
    months, in slight ways. (1999-02-10) (TEI) Lite
    and Loose is also available using DDML, see next
    entry. There is also a version in text/plain

Ray Gun Out of Control.  Introduction by Marvin
Scott Jarrett.  Essay by Dean Kuipers. New York
Simon, 1997.
  • Carson
  • "The message that the type sends, I feel, is as
    important as what it's saying. When those work
    together, you've got really strong communication.
    You cannot not communicate. If I make this page
    totally unreadable, that's communicating
    something. And it might be about the magazine, it
    might be about this group. It's sending a
    message. So that's much more powerful than
    leaving it blank, which also sends a message.
  • If you think it's hard to read or too weird,
    you're probably not the audience, and that's
  • "I believe now, if the type is invisible, so is
    your article, and it's probably not going to get
    read, because-- at least with this audience, and
    I think it's spreading out more-- they're seeing
    better TV, they're watching video screens. You
    give somebody a solid page of grey type and say,
    'Read this brilliant story,' and a lot of people,
    they're going to go, 'Doesn't look very
    interesting. Let's try and find something more
    interesting.' I think if it's invisible, it's
    just done a horrible disservice to what's
    potentially a really good article.

Ripa, Cesare. Iconology. Trans. George
Richardson. London Printed by G. Scott, 1779.
  • In the sixteenth century, the humanist Cesare
    Ripa published an Iconology, in which he drew
    parallels between the figurative archetypes of
    plastic art and translations in literary language
    intended to relate the emotions of the characters
  • Cesare Ripa Iconologia, Rome 1603 (Italian),
    London 1709 (English), Budapest 1997
  • The major encyclopaedia of Renaissance and
    Baroque iconography, published in eight
    languages, in more than forty editions from 1593
    until as late as the end of the 19th century.
    This CD contains the first annotated edition
    (with more than 2000 notes) of the first
    illustrated version (1603 548 pages, 152
    illustrations), and the single published English
    version of J. Tempest (1709 174 pages, 326
  • The subsequent editions will contain all the
    Italian editions (1593, 1602, 1603, 1611, 1613,
    1618, 1625, 1630, 1640, 1669), and the critical
    comparison of their texts a hitherto unpublished
    17th-century English translation in manuscript
    (British Library, MS Add. 23195) French, German,
    Dutch versions, and the single Russian (1803)
    edition as well as a detailed iconographic index
    of the Iconologia.
  • Our final goal is the publishing of a critical
    and annotated collection of all the editions of
    the Iconologia, as well as the full text of its
    sources and parallels which presents and
    interprets the most important Renaissance and
    Baroque iconographic motifs and their sources, in
    order to serve as a basic guide book to
    Renaissance iconography. http//
  • Cesare Ripas Iconology, proposed something
    called creative and fictional allegory, where the
    image functioned in such a way that, by reading,
    one would see and, by seeing, one would read.
    There is no room here to cite the descriptions he
    makes of Europe, personified by an extremely
    wealthy woman, of Asia, and her sensual
    attributes, and of the African Moorish woman,
    surrounded by a ferocious lion, snakes and
    vipers. But it is worthwhile to quote what he
    says about America . . . "a nude woman, of dark
    yellowish flesh, with terrifying features,
    wearing a striped veil of various colors, hanging
    from her shoulder and covering her shameful
    parts. Her hair is disheveled, and she wears
    around her body a kind of ornament made from
    colorful feathers. In her left hand she is
    holding a bow and in her right hand an arrow she
    carries a quiver full of arrows on her back, and
    under her foot is a human head pierced by an
    arrow. On the ground is an enormous lizard or
    reptile. These beasts devour humans and other
    animals . . . The modern writers have written
    about her they are barbaric people that eat
    human flesh."9 http//

American Institute of Graphic Arts. The Work of
Bruce Rogers, Jack of All Trades Master of One
A Catalogue of an Exhibition Arranged by the
American Institute of Graphic Arts and the
Grolier Club of New York, with an Introduction by
D. B. Updike, a Letter from John T. McCutcheon
and an Address by Mr. Rogers. New York Oxford
UP, 1939.
  • Morris had an enormous influence. Among his
    American followers were Bruce Rogers, Daniel B.
    Updike, and Frederic W. Goudy.
  • he designed the Oxford Lecturn Bible, set in
  • The 30 books he considered successful
    s/bookarts/1998/11/msg00228.html (xxxiv) of the
    800 he produced . . . .
  • Influenced by Nicolas Jensons types
  • In defense of fine editions, collecting, resale,
    limited editions, quality of ink, wet papers,
    handmade papers, (not necessarily letter press)
    and against modernist ugly type

Auping, Michael. Jenny Holzer. New York
Universe, 1992.
  • Auping essay and interview
  • Jenny Holzer is an abstract painter who turned to
    language to paint ideas. Her one-line works have
    appeared on posters, t-shirts, park benches,
    large-scale public spaces, and even commercial
  • anonymous tone voice of authority
  • billboards of Times Square, Caesar's Palace,
    Fenway Park
  • Words become art
  • Truism site, rewrite and contribute to the
    archive http//
  • Lustmord (Bosnian sex crimes)
  • I am not a poet I know very little about
    avant-garde poetry /the ironic?
  • Auping on Venice installation we see the artist
    critiquing . . . Her ability to communicate and
    those who would call her a poet . . . A kind of
    anti-poet, attaching language (64)

Birkerts, Sven.  The Gutenberg Elegies The Fate
of Reading in an Electronic Age.  Winchester,
MA  Faber, 1994.
  • Elegies
  • Note Only literary fiction concerns him
  • the story of how Sven Birkerts became a book
    reviewer, a passionate defense of reading and
    print culture, and an attack on electronic media
  • As a celebration of reading Gutenberg Elegies is
    an excellent book, staking out the vital place of
    reading in our culture. Birkerts's arguments
    against electronic mediaare neither insightful
    nor convincing, but I recommend reading them for
    the thoughts and counter-arguments they provoke.
  • "Every acquiescence to the circuitry is marked by
    a shrinkage of the sphere of autonomous
    selfhood." pg. 28 What others call a
    "community" or a "global village" created by
    electronic media and communication, Birkerts
    visualizes as a web of entanglement and
    entrapment. He fears the loss of privacy, peace
    and quiet, and self-sufficiency -- the world in
    which the act of reading takes place.
  • turning against some of the core premises of
    humanism--indeed, we are putting the idea of
    individualism itself under threat.

Birkerts, Sven.  . Readings.  St. Paul, MN 
Graywolf Press,  1999.
  • Readings
  • undifferentiated doom? "wholesale . . .
    deformation of consciousness" is being worked
    upon us by the electronic media.
  • maybe Birkerts's sense of culture shock is
    really a sense of raided privilege Kay Ryan
  • Literature rises up at Birkerts's tug authors
    and texts come to complex life. I took most
    pleasure in the last third of this collection,
  • up of essays on individual writers including
    Keats, Flaubert, Rilke, Robert Lowell, Seamus
    Heany, Elizabeth Bishop, up to Don DeLillo.
  • Often in these essays the delicious personal
    experience of reading is as forward in Birkerts's
    attention as the text itself. For example, he
  • describes how in reading one of Elizabeth
    Bishop's strangely static, unemotive prose
    narratives of her Nova Scotia childhood he
  • that he is somehow reading through it, as though
    it were a window to something even more
    fascinating-"as if I were in contact with the
  • self behind the sentences, almost as if the
    reverie induced by my reading were not merely
    adjacent to but contiguous with her own
  • language impulses." In the Bishop essay Birkerts
    draws himself up in a way I had missed in his
    more handwringing pieces and proclaims
  • that the way one expresses an idea may be the
    idea "A prose style is a metaphysics."

Bloom, Harold.  Sister Acts. Artforum S(SUM)
1996 9.
  • In Bloom's opinion, "The Romantic tradition is
    particularly vexed by the dangerous formula "Ut
    pictura poesis" Keats only seems to compose a
    speaking urn, and Turner does not paint silent
    poems. When criticism has been tempted by these
    analogies, it has ended in confusion, glorious as
    that can be in Ruskin or in Pater. The celebrated
    alliance between the New York Schools of painting
    and of poetry, with the best poets serving as art
    critics, has brought little clarification to the
    study of the poetry of John Ashbery, whatever it
    may have done to the reception of the Abstract
  • He also notes that "Compared to the darker
    complexities of interpoetic and intervisiual
    reference, language's and visual imagery's
    allusions to one another maybe relatively free of
    anxiety. Indeed, poems frequently employ
    paintings to fend off other poems, while visual
    works perhaps less often invoke poems in order to
    evade more direct ancestors."
  • Bloom chides Hollander in noting that Plato is
    missing from Hollander's index and comments at
    length "It is instructive how many of
    Hollander's poets modestly intimate a disavowal
    of their own ability to represent the Idea (of
    Bedness) confronted by the apparent immediacy of
    paintings, they pretend to yield place. But they
    then reassert their own freedom and priority by
    imploying their adherence to the Platonic critque
    of all mimesis. Painters thus are made to seem,
    if more magical than their poetic admirers, then
    also more naive."

Bloom, Harold.  Sister Acts. Artforum S(SUM)
1996 9.(continued)
  • His review also makes the following points
  • "Hollander's poets may seem to bow
    reverently before the paintings they seek to
    appropriate, but usurpation is not always a
    reverent process. Poets rather
  • ruthlessly want to write their poems, and
    pragmatically the gazer's spirit often reduces
    even the most awesome painting to so much materia
  • "As a poet and scholarly critic, he regards
    rhetoric as a mode more of invention than of
    aggression. Yet his book seems to me an eloquent
    exposition of a vast
  • minefield of influence struggles between
    "the sister arts" (as Jean Hagstrum continued to
    call them, in the best study before Hollander's).
  • "I find in The Gazer's Spirit a certain
    residual Idealism, a last vestige of Platonism,
    it is because Hollander has invested much of his
    own spirit in crusades of
  • learned interpretation against the prevalent
    political polemics that reduce all high art.
    ...Of his own poem upon Monet's Snow Effect,
    ...Hollander admits "This
  • poem acknowledges the problem of having to
    be spoken for." That is the sorrow of
    belatedness, wholly appropriate to our unhappy
    moment, not so much in
  • the arts as in the study and defense of
    greatness in art."

Charney, Davida.  The Effect of Hypertext on
Processes of Reading and Writing. Literacy and
Computers The Complications of Teaching and
Learning with Technology. Ithaca, NY Cornell UP,
1977. 238-264.
  • "Studies suggest that when readers are
    responsible for selecting what text to read
    hypertext navigation, they often omit
    significant information altogether, perhaps
    because they can't find it, they don't know it's
    there, or they don't think it's important.
  • She worked at Apple, how to design the manual for
    spreadsheet users
  • She hesitates to endorse the wonders of hypertext
  • hypertext may, in fact, inhibit real learning
    because the long-term memory of readers is
    designed to accept linear ideas as opposed to
    networked ones
  • people have developed schemas of the sort of
    style and type of text they are reading, they
    will draw upon their knowledge of those schema to
    help make sense of their current reading.
    Hypertext, however, does not yet, at least, seem
    to fit into a schema,
  • wonders whether or not designers of hypertext can
    create appropriate paths for readers at all.
    While she sees possibilities, as I've said
    earlier, for instruction manuals and other
    technical, informational readings, she hesitates
    to say that hypertext could ever be appropriate
    for works of literature, etc, because, as she
    says, "a text with closely interwoven points is
    not an easy or desirable candidate for conversion
    to hypertext because it destroys the subtle
    interconnections of theme, argument, metaphor,
    and word choice.
  • For skill instruction, such as typical computer
    applications, procedural elaborations are very
    beneficial. But conceptual elaborations are not
    particularly useful.
  • Lessing and linearity?

Drucker, Johanna.  The Visible Word Experimental
Typography and Modern Art, 1909_1923. Chicago U
of Chicago P, 1994.
  • Materiality of the text (of language Rita)
  • Vs Wardes invisible type
  • Logues Illiad (Apollo in 20 pt) materiality and
    (poetic) meaning
  • 4 avant-garde poets Marianetti, Apollinaire,
    Zdanevich, Tzara (modernist)
  • Question of authority the unmarked text of
    the Gutenberg Bible, Such a text appears to
    possess an authority which transcends the mere
    material presence of words on a page. (95)
  • Drucker's book is a brief for the poetics of the
    marked text. To make her case, she presents
    extended interpretations of the work of four
    representative modernist figures, each of whom
    used typography in strikingly innovative, but
    nonetheless dissimilar, ways. Her account moves
    from the militant Italian Futurism of Filippo
    Tomasso Marinetti to the vernacular lyricism of
    Guillaume Apollinaire and from the "hermetic
    esotericism" of Ilia Zdanevich (Iliazd), a
    Russian zaum poet who emigrated to Paris, to the
    highly rhetorical Dada subversions of Tristan
    Tzara. http//

Bagley, Ayers L., Edward M. Griffin, and Austin
J. McLean, eds.  The Telling Image Explorations
in the Emblem.  New York AMS Press, 1996.
  • Karl J. H?ltgen. "Francis Quarles's Emblemes and
    Hieroglyphikes Historical and Critical
    Perspectives. 128.
  • Michael Bath. "The Iconography of Time." 2968.
  • Ayers L. Bagley. "Hercules in Emblem Books and
    Schools." 6995.
  • Bernhard F. Scholz. "Learning from the Soldier's
    Helmet and the Windmill Artifacts in Emblematic
    Pictures." 97115.
  • Marilyn R. DeLong and Patricia A. Hemmis,
    "Historic Costume and Image A Factor in Emblem
    Analysis." 11738.
  • Michael Hancher. "Tenniel's Allegorical
    Cartoons." 13970. Abstract Examines ideological
    implications of certain gendered political
    cartoons that Tenniel drew for Punch in the
    tradition of Cesare Ripa's allegorical
    iconography identifies a strain of exclusionary
    caricature at odds with Tenniel's reputation for
  • Edward M. Griffin. "Cincinnatus and the 'Shaw
    Memorial' Monument as Emblem in Saint Gaudens,
    Dunbar, and Lowell. 171205.
  • Stephen Rawles. "French Emblem Books
    Facilitating Interpretive Scholarship via
    Bibliography." 20726.
  • Peter M. Daly. "What Happened to English Emblems
    During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries?"

Gombrich, E. H.  The Image and the Eye Further
Studies in the Psychology of Pictorial
Representation. Ithaca, NY Cornell, 1982.
  • "For the evolution of convincing images was
    indeed anticipated by nature long before human
    minds could conceive the trick" - E. H. Gombrich,
    The Image and the Eye
  • Esp from Hancher 8710 Image and code E. H.
    Gombrich, "Image and Code Scope and Limits of
    Conventionalism in Pictorial Representation"
    (1978), The Image and the Eye 27897 (on reserve
    in Wilson Library) W. T. J. Mitchell, Iconology
    Image, Text, Ideology (1987).
  • Emotional arousal is what visual images are best
    at achieving. They are much better suited to this
    function than to making rational statements or
    even, according to Gombrich, to the expression of
    feelings http//
  • "Ours is a visual age. Gombrich

Hagstrum, Jean H. The Sister Arts The Tradition
of Literary Pictorialism and English Poetry from
Dryden to Gray. Chicago U of Chicago P, 1975.
  • Mitchell It is also the moment when ekphrasis
    ceases to be a special or exceptional moment in
    verbal or oral representation and begins to seem
    paradigmatic of a fundamental tendency in all
    linguistic expression. This Is the point in
    rhetorical and poetic theory when the doctrines
    of ut pictura poesis and the Sister Arts are
    mobilized to put language at the service of
    vision. The narrowest meanings of the word
    ekphrasis as a poetic mode, "giving voice to a
    mute art object," or offering "a rhetorical
    description of a work of art,"6 give way to a
    more general application that includes any "set
    description intended to bring person, place,
    picture, etc. before the mind's eye."7
    Ekphrasis may be even further generalized, as it
    is by Murray Krieger, into a general "principle"
    exemplifying the aestheticizing of language in
    what he calls the "still moment."8 For Krieger,
    the visual arts are a metaphor, not just for
    verbal representation of visual experience, but
    for the shaping of language into formal patterns
    that "still" the movement of linguistic
    temporality into a spatial, formal array. Not
    just vision, but stasis, shape, closure, and
    silent presence ("still" in the other sense) are
    the aims of this more general form of
    ekphrasis.9 Once the desire to overcome the
    "impossibility" of ekphrasis is put into play,
    the possibilities and the hopes for verbal
    representation of visual representation become
    practically endless. "The ear and the eye lie /
    down together in the same bed," lulled by
    "undying accents." The estrangement of the
    image/text division is overcome, and a sutured,
    synthetic form, a verbal icon or imagetext,
    arises in its place.10
  • The doctrine can, of course, expand even further
    to become a general principle of effective
    rhetoric or even of scientific language, where it
    appears under the rubric of clear, "perspicuous"
    representation, modeled on perspectival,
    rationally constructed imagery. More typical,
    however, is the use of ekphrasis as a model for
    the power of literary art to achieve formal,
    structural patterns and to represent vividly a
    wide range of perceptual experiences, most
    notably the experience of vision. The graphic,
    pictorial, or sculptural models for literary art
    range from the quasi-scientific claims of
    perspectival realism, to the grand patterning of
    architecture, to the focusing of a literary work
    in a single image, whether an emblem, a
    hieroglyph, a landscape, or a human figure.
  • http//

Hagstrum, Jean H. The Sister Arts The Tradition
of Literary Pictorialism and English Poetry from
Dryden to Gray. Chicago U of Chicago P,
  • THIS BOOK approaches "the sister arts" (painting
    and poetry) from the side of literature it
    strives to illuminate neoclassical English poetry
    by using the methods of literary history and
    analysis to examine the pictorial imagery of that
    poetry. Rather than chase the Zeitgeist of this
    literary period, Hagstrums study of interart
    parallels examines where poetic imagery comes
    closest into relation with painting.
  • Correcting a limited notion of the picturesque,
    Hagstrum promises to reveal the pictorialism of
    English neoclassical poetry through four
  • 1) looking at individual poems, studied for their
    pictorial images
  • 2) comparing particular poems with particular
    works of visual art
  • 3) sketching the historical development of ut
    pictura poesis and
  • 4) assessing the neoclassical poets use and
    modification of the pictorialist tradition.
  • Hagstrum hypothesizes that pictorial imagery is
    most effective when it is in some way
    metaphorical rather than purely descriptive or
    imitative of visual reality.
  • He defines his most important term (pictorialism)
    as a description "which must be imaginable as a
    painting or sculpture." Also, the pictorial must
    be ordered in a picturable way the pictorial is
    not limited to one particular school of method
    the pictorial in text involved the reduction of
    motion and the pictorial implies some limitation
    of meaning. http//
  • . . . to the detailed analysis of literary
    rhetoric that is carefully arranged to evoke the
    reader's pictorial experience (the method of Jean
    Hagstrum).20 Given the variety of procedures
    available, any new study of the sister arts is
    obliged to declare its method at the outset.

Hollander, John.  The Gazer's Spirit Poems
Speaking to Silent Works of Art. Chicago U of
Chicago P, 1995.
  • Introduction and Preface to the Gallery
  • Origins Notional ecphrasis
  • Notional ecphrasis the short poem
  • The notional gallery
  • Actual ecphrasis
  • Unassessable actual ecphrasis
  • Emblems
  • Actual ecphrasis protraits
  • The capriccio
  • Actual ecphrastic poems by the artists themselves
  • Public monuments
  • Architechtural ecphrasis
  • Photographs
  • Prints generally
  • Varieties of ecphrasitic agenda
  • The Gallery
  • Hagstrumecphrasis "refers to that special
    quality of giving voice and language to the
    otherwise mute art object".3

Hollander, John.  The Gazer's Spirit Poems
Speaking to Silent Works of Art. Chicago U of
Chicago P, 1995.
  • Notional ecphrasis-or the description, often
    elaborately detailed, of purely fictional
    painting or sculpture that is indeed brought into
    being by the poetic language itself. Hollander
    notes the history of the notional ecphrasis
    beginning with the aniconic disposition of the
    Hebrew Bible, citing the earliest examples of
    notional ecphrasis in the digression of the
    Shield of Achilles from the Iliad (importantly
    the ecphrasis here is not what the shield looks
    like or what images go where on the object but
    instead how the shield was made, as famously
    discussed by Gotthold Lessing) citing passages
    from Virgil where Aeneas encounters the fall of
    Troy in wall paintings citing the narrated
    reactions to representations in Dante as Virgil
    guides Dante's gaze to carvings of scenes of the
    angel of the annunciation, David dancing before
    the arc of the covenant, and Trajan in
    conversation with a widow in tears at the death
    of her son from Chaucer the narrative report of
    mural paintings in the House of Fame, telling the
    story of the fall of Troy and etc. through the
    17th century when ecphrastic moments in narrative
    become a matter for the study of the novel. In
    extended fictions, the notional ecphrasis may be
    a described image that is imaginary. Hollander
    brings to mind Browning's "The Statue and the
    Bust," where a portrait in relief is commissioned
    to perpetuate the face of a fictional lady. In
    the poem the fictional lady has an actual lover
    (Ferdinand de Medici) who commissions his actual
    statue to stand in Florence. Hollander says "The
    actual statue and the poem's own supplement, the
    notional bust, watch each other eternally, but of
    course fictively." (22)JJ
  • . . . chronicles the history of ecphrasis from
    ancient to modern times, including ecphrastic
    poems in response to sculpture, monuments, and
    photography By definition, ecphrastic poetry
    requires the viewer/poet to "enter into" the
    spirit and feeling of the subject through a
    variety of poetic stances describing, noting,
    reflecting, or addressing. http//

Horn, Robert.  Visual Language Global
Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge
Island, WA MacroVU, Inc., 1998. Argumentation
Maps. 1 Mar. 00  
  • Argumentation maps For the past 5 years, our
    argumentation mapping project at Stanford has
    focused on building large visual diagrams of
    major philosophical arguments. In one sense, they
    represent at new genre of diagraming, in that
    they are conceptual "maps" of a major ongoing
    debates. In a wider sense, they present a new way
    of showing how world-wide, interdisciplinary
    debates are taking place, hence the name
    argumentation mapping. The maps are used for
    teaching, learning, and research. In teaching
    they provide the big picture overviews that are
    often very difficult to convey in any other way,
    especially in diffuse, sprawling,
    interdisciplinary arguments. The study of
    argumentation has been with us at least since
    Aristotle's Rhetoric. In modern times, Stephen
    Toulmin redirected the field by focusing
    attention on how debates are actually carried out
    rather than on the formal, deductive presentation
    of arguments. We have been building on his work.
  • Addressing the split between practical and fine
  • A new genre of art emerging the information
  • Split between words and images in the process of
    being bridged by a new language
  • Seeing narrative as an important component of
  • Information design answering the calls for
  • The Great Clip Art Debate
  • http//

Ivins, William M. Prints and Visual
Communication. 1953. Cambridge MIT P, 1969.  
  • See also Korean guy at Stanford? And the
    beginning of scientific illustration
  • .. I became aware . . . that many of the most
    characteristic ideas and abilities of our western
    civilization have been intimately related to our
    skills exactly to repeat pictorial statements and
    communications" (p. 1).
  • "Although every history of European civilization
    makes much of the invention in the mid_fifteenth
    century of ways to print words from moveable
    types, it is customary in those histories to
    ignore the slightly earlier discovery of ways to
    print pictures and diagrams, A book, so far as it
    contains a text, is a container of exactly
    repeatable word symbols arranged in exactly
    repeatable order. Men have been using such
    containers for at least five thousand years.
    Because of this it can be argued that the
    printing of books was no more than a way to do
    with a much smaller number of proof readings.
    Prior to 1501 few books were printed in editions
    larger than that handwritten one of a thousand
    copies to which Pliny the Younger referred in the
    second century of our era. The printing of
    pictures, however, unlike the printing of words
    from moveable types, brought a completely new
    thing into existence it made possible for the
    first time pictorial statements of a kind that
    could be exactly repeated during the effective
    life of the printing surface. This exact
    repetition of pictorial statements has had
    incalculable effects upon knowledge and thought,
    upon science and technology, of every kind. It is
    hardly too much to say that since the invention
    of writing there has been no more important
    invention than that of the exactly repeatable
    pictorial statement" (pp. 2_3).
  • the accepted report of an event is of greater
    importance than the event, for what we think
    about and act upon is the symbolic report and not
    the concrete event itself.p. 180
  • in Prints as Visual Communication, William Ivins
    speaks of the "tyranny of the engravers nets of
    rationality" (88) and says that the "webbing of
    lines was an incident of manufacture" (168).
    Under Rubens system, all copied artworkbe it
    oil painting or technical drawing or sculptural
    copycame out of the engravers shop looking very
    similar in style, thus the prejudice against the
    "mechanick" nature of engraving, which made art
    over in its own image (Ivins 73). Like the dot in
    a modern half-tone screen, the engraved line is a
    reductive element that has no capacity for
    meaning when taken by itself (Eaves, "Machine"
    905). The line meant something entirely different
    to engravers, then, than it did to artists, and
    the split in line use is representative of the
    split in the two professions artists created
    art, while engravers merely copied it.

Ivins, William M. Prints and Visual
Communication. 1953. Cambridge MIT P, 1969.  
  • See also Korean guy at Stanford? And the
    beginning of scientific illustrationhttp//
  • William Ivins' reputation rests largely on
    Prints and visual communication, a slender volume
    that makes large claims on behalf of the
    importance of printing technologies for the
    development of science and technology. Originally
    delivered as a series of lectures at the Lowell
    Institute in Boston, this 1953 book contends that
    the development of woodcuts, engravings,
    lithography, and finally photography were
    essential to the development of the modern
    sciences, particularly the biomedical and field
    sciences. Words, he notes, can accurately be
    copied and recopied by hand, but hand_drawn
    copies of pictures always contain distortions as
    originals are copied (and then those copies are
    copied again), the errors multiply rapidly. As a
    result, Ivins notes, "prior to the Renaissance...
    there was no way of publishing a picture as there
    was of a text," and reliable botanical
    illustrations, landscapes, and the like could
    only be shared with a few people. The role of the
    printing press in the Renaissance is well
    established (so well that historians fiercely
    debate it) Ivins argues that the development of
    woodcuts, of which thousands of copies could be
    made, was an essential precondition to the birth
    of modern science. Wider communication of visual
    scientific facts was now possible, but there were
    still problems. Most important, engravings and
    etchings could never be true facsimiles of
    nature, for they imposed their own syntax of
    lines and crosshatchings on pictures, and their
    quality depended heavily on the skill of the
    artists executing them. These limitations were
    finally transcended, Ivins concludes, with the
    invention of photography and the relief halftone.
    Photography allowed exact reproduction of scenes
    of nature, and the relief halftone allowed exact
    reproduction of those photographs, opening the
    way to the mass_production of "visual reports
    that had no interfering symbolic linear syntax of
    their own."14 Even after forty years, the
    brilliance of Ivins' insights, the entertaining
    (even combative) style of his argument, and the
    power of his simple questions make Prints and
    visual communication a pleasure to read. Ivins
    does us a great service by arguing for the
    importance of printing technology in the history
    of scientific images, and demonstrating the
    complexity of the relationship between original
    images and reproductions. However, his belief
    that photography and halftone printing solved
    centuries of problems in representation now
    obviously seems misplaced.

Joyce, Michael.  Of Two Minds Hypertext,
Pedagogy, and Poetics. Ann Arbor U of Michigan
P, 1995. 
  • Co creator of Storyspace (with Jay Bolter)
  • The essay argues, as the whole of this
    collection in some sense does, that in the late
    age of print the topography of the text is
    subverted and reading is design enacted. Thus,
    the choices a text presents depend upon the
    complicity of the reader in creating and shaping
    meaning and narrative. As more people buy and do
    not read more books than have ever been published
    before, the book is merely a fleeting, momentary
    marketable, physical instantiation of the
    network. Readers face the task of re_embodying
    reading as movement, as an action rather than a
    thing, network out of book.(11)
  • "We are the children of the aleatory convergence.
    Our longing for multiplicity and simultaneity
    seems upon reflection an ancient one, the sole
    center of the whirlwind, the one silence.

Krieger, Murray.  Ekphrasis The Illusion of the
Natural Sign. Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.
  • Mimetic take on ecphrasis
  • From Lessings general position, Murray Kreiger
    writes, What is being described in ekphrasis is
    both a miracle and a mirage a miracle because a
    sequence of actions filled with befores and
    afters such as language alone can trace seems
    frozen into an instant's vision, but a mirage
    because only the illusion of such an impossible
    picture can be suggested by the poem's words.
  • as if to look into the illusionary representation
    of the unrepresentable, even while that
    representation is allowed to masquerade as a
    natural sign, as if it could be an adequate
    substitute for its object
  • What is stated in all these diverse attempts at
    ekphrasis is the semiotic status of both space
    and the visual in the representational attempt by
    the verbal art-an ultimately vain attempt-to
    capture these within its temporal sequence, which
    would form itself into its own poetic
    object"semiotic desire for the natural sign"
    and, on the other, "the rejection of any such
    claim to the 'natural,
  • To create enargeia is to use words to yield so
    vivid a description that they - dare we say
    literally? - place the represented object before
    the reader's (hearer's) inner eye
  • the history of epigram to ekphrasis to emblem

Krieger, Murray.  Ekphrasis The Illusion of the
Natural Sign. Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.
  • 1) "The movement from epigram (with the word as
    subsidiary to the object it accompanies) to the
    minimal notion of ekphrasis (with the word
    attempting an equivalence to a described
    object) achieves its ultimate claim in the
    poem_as_emblem (with the word as itself the
    primary object). It is in the latter that the
    ekphrastic principle would most fully realize
    itself. Thus I see the ekphrastic principle,
    which I have traced here from the "visual
    epistemology" of Plato and the consequent call
    for enargeia, as completing itself in the verbal
    emblem of the Renaissance. This development from
    Plato's enargeia to the Renaissance emblem is
    for me the first major extended moment__and the
    most complex_in the history of my subject."(23)
  • 2) " the late seventeenth century and
    through the first half of the eighteenth, the
    well_ordered semiotics of the untransforming
    mirror, differently sponsored by rationalism
    and by empiricism, restores the dominance of the
    doctrine of a literalistic imitation and with it,
    thanks to the continued appeal to "visual
    epistemology," the authority of the ut pictura
    poesis. this second moment in the history of my
    subject, a more uncomplicated moment that treats
    poetry as verbal painting....the medium of the
    verbal arts is to be thinned to utter
    transparency in their effort, as a disadvantaged
    relation, to emulate the natural sign arts, now
    restored to primacy as the model for all the
    arts." (23)
  • 3) "...of those occasions on which language,
    as if discovering and exploiting its
    other_than_natural sign function, permits the
    poet not only to gain effects beyond the reach
    of the painter but even to 'get the better of
    nature.' In valorizing the "sublime" at the
    expense of the "beautiful," Burke would have us
    break through the finite dimensions of the
    merely pictorial to the limitless potentialities
    of unpictural emotions. this shift from the
    externally directed natural sign to internal
    human expression creates a third moment for my
    narrative, one that springs from an anti_formal
    impulse." (25)
  • 4) "...a different notion of what it is to
    emulate nature....under New Criticism...the
    paradox of an internal ekphrasis can flourish a
    new as the mark of a spatial form that can
    coexist with the flowing character of words as an
    aesthetic medium. ...The poem as emblem, under
    the ekphrastic principle, seeks to create itself
    as its own object. And yet no object." (25)
  • 5) "...our current moment, the negative
    postmodern skepticism ...the various literary
    movements, have, in their anxiety to press their
    own antiformalism, clearly declared such claims
    to be deceptive self_mystification resulting form
    the sacralizing or fetishizing impulse of a long
    reactionary moment...arguing for a rhetoric of
    temporality that would dissolve the would_be
    emblem_that ekphrastic gesture_and let the string
    of allegories, like life's unrepeatable moment,
    keep running." (27)

Krieger, Murray.  Ekphrasis The Illusion of the
Natural Sign. Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.
  • The point of Kriegers 1967 article was to trace
    his own development in treating the literary/art
    historical genre ekphrasis, but also to suggest
    some application of the ekphrastic principle "to
    what we used to call primary literary works." In
    this article then, through a discussion of
    mechanical, golden, earthly birds turned
    ledgenday (Keats, Yeats, Wordsworth), and urns
    presented as aesthetic jars, Krieger resolves the
    temporal/spatial duality of text/image, to a
    topos where poetic language takes on plasticity
    as well as spatiality. Krieger has it both ways
    with the temporal/spatial duality affirmed by
    Lessing by suggesting that in poetry we recognize
    here_and_now unique concreteness making ritual
    motions of aesthetic pattern, echo and
    repetition, becoming "forever_now motions."
    Krieger presents the possiblity of a simultaneous
    perception of motion and stasis, and he confronts
    the Lessing tradition, with its neat separateness
    of the mutually delimiting arts, and sees a
    time_space breakthrough in the plasticity of the
    language of poetry. This language tries to become
    an object with as much substance as the medium of
    the plastic arts, the words thus establishing a
    plastic aesthetic for themselves, sometimes using
    the ekphrastic object as their emblem. His
    discussion concludes with inclusion of this
    "still movement" ekphrastic agenda into his
    aestheic theory "I would give the special
    liberating license to our best poetry, insisting
    on its ekphrastic completeness that allows us to
    transfer the human conquest of time from the
    murky subjective caverns of phenomenology to the
    well_wrought, well_lighted place of aesthetics."

Landow, George P.  Hyper/Text/Theory. Johns
Hopkins UP, 1994.  
  • George Landow was amongst the early few to spot
    the similarities between modern literary theory
    and thetechnological possibilities of hypertext
    programmes. This isthe third of his publications
    which explore connexionsbetween them. The general
    argument he makes is that thedigitization of text
    coupled with the associative links ofhypertext
    represents a development of revolutionary
    potential. It makes new literary forms available,
    blurs distinctions between existing genres
    'boundary erasure'and makes possible anything
    from multimedia compilations started by authors
    but completed by their readers, to texts which
    are 'unreproducible' because of their size and
    their constant revision. His introductory essay
    is an invigorating mixture of reports on
    hypertext projects and visionary ideas of the
    kind promoted by Jay Bolter and
  • Developing Intermedia, a hypertext system 
  • IntroHypertext, an information technology
    consisting of individual blocks of text, or
    lexias, and the electronic links that join them,
    has much in common with recent literary and
    critical theory. For example, like much recent
    work by poststructuralists, such as Roland
    Barthes and Jacques Derrida, hypertext
    reconceives conventional, long_held assumptions
    about authors and readers and the texts they
    write and read. Electronic linking, which
    provides one of the defining features of
    hypertext, also embodies Julia Kristeva's notions
    of intertextuality, Mikhail Bakhtin's emphasis
    upon multiivocality, Michel Foucault's
    conceptions of networks of power, and Gilles
  • Deleuze and Felix Guattari's ideas of rhizomatic,
    'nomad thought.' The very idea of hypertextuality
    seems to have taken form at approximately the
    same time that poststructuralism developed, but
    their points of convergence have a closer
    relation than that of mere contingency, for both
    grow out of dissatisfaction with the related
    phenomena of the printed book and hierarchical
    thought. For this reason even thinkers like
    Helene Cixous, who seem resolutely opposed to
    technology, can call for ideas, such as
    l'ecriture feminine,that appear to find their
    instantiation in this new information
    technology. (1)

Lanham, Richard A.  The Electronic Word
Democracy, Technology, and the Arts. Chicago U
of Chicago P, 1993.
  • Humanist
  • Lanham believes that the current shift toward
    electronic text (with its capacity to incorporate
    sound, video, text, animation, and graphics)
    together with the changes in the means of
    communication (data highways, etc.) are not so
    much driving change in the age as providing the
    means for the incarnation within the everyday
    world of the postmodern ideals of plurality and
    democracy. Also, he anticipates a fusion of oral
    and literate culture in the multimedia nature of
    computer communications.
  • Lanham locates the possibility for a flexible
    centrality (connected to the periphery) in
    adopting the study of rhetoric in the first two
    years of University. This study would,
    presumably, equip the student with skills to
    approach the reading and writing of texts of many
    sorts. It would also equip the student for
    navigating the world of electronic text. One of
    the more profound aspects of Lanham's vision of
    rhetoric is that it would unite two different
    approaches to knowledge the oral and the
  • The Extraordinary Convergence Democracy,
    Technology, Theory (chapter 4)
  • Orality (rhetoric as as a general theory of
    knowledge) Rather than experiencing a complete
    return to an oral-based culture, the electronic
    media of our time reintroduce elements of oral
    culture into our consciousness and will fuse
    strangely with print literacy.
  • Throughout, Lanham argues that the dichotomy
    between a fixed, authoritative printed text and
    the dynamic, negotiable electronic word reenacts
    a much older opposition, the ancient debate
    between the philosophers and the rhetoricians.
    The computer, an "intrinsically rhetorical
    device," enfranchises the free play and
    experimentation that pervade postmodern arts and
    letters. It embodies the new kind of seriousness
    that is now replacing nineteenth-century cultural

Lessing, Gotthold E.  Laocoön An Essay on the
Limits of Painting and Poetry. 1766. Trans.
Edward A. McCormick. Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP,
  • Gotthold Lessing in Laokoon (1766), attacked the
    old notion of Ut Pictura Poesis as is painting
    so is poetry as confusing. He famously separated
    literature as an art of time from painting as an
    art of space. The visual arts are seen as forms
    existing in space being apprehended
    instantaneously. The verbal arts take up little
    space but unfold during time.
  • Mitchell (Iconology) "Space and Time Lessing's
    Laocoon and the Politics of Genre,"
  • ... nothing requires the poet to concentrate on
    one single moment. He takes up each of his
    actions, as he likes, from its very origin and
    conducts it through all possible modifications to
    its final close. Every one of these
    modifications, which would cost the artist an
    entire separate canvas or marble block, costs the
    poet a single line. G. E. Lessing, Laocoon.
  • Lessing's Laocoon sets out the poet's ideas
    defining the differences and appropriate
    potentials of poetry, painting and sculpture in
    regard to their representation of historical
    narrative subjects. It defines the end of the
    period, beginning in the Renaissance, which
    sought to establish painting as equivalent or
    rival to poetry as a form of presenting histories
    (1). Lessing's differentiation rests on his
    observation that poetry is most able to represent
    actions whilst only suggesting the appearances of
    physical bodies, whereas painting and sculpture
    are more suitable to the representation of bodies
    whilst only suggesting action. Following
    Aristotle's statement that it is through actions
    that we can better aprehend moral virtues (2),
    Lessing stakes the claim for poetry as the
    superior mode in representing the fuller meaning
    of histories and denigrates painting and
    sculpture to the representation of beauty .

Lunenfeld, Peter. Snap to Grid A User's Guide to
Digital Arts, Media, and Cultures. Cambridge MIT
P, 2000.
  • Title? Snap to Grid means . . . The command
    "snap to grid" derives from a process in computer
    graphics whereby freehand composition is
    quantized, or "snapped," to an imaginary
    Cartesian grid. (His seduction by machine onto
    the grid of theory.)
  • Cybernetic tools . . . are not simply consumed
    instead, they produce new commodities and new
    work . . . This exchange relationship grows out
    of but remains distinct from the so-called
    'high-tech gift economy
  • For hypertext, Lunenfeld recommends a neat
    duality of the ancient multum in parvo and mise
    en abyme as ways of thinking about lexia.
  • For photography, the text urges an understanding
    of the developing work of photographic art as
    energetically interactive, integrating the
    audience into the process of image recreation.
  • Dialectic . . . grounds the insights of
    theory in the constraints of practice?was my way
    to move past what I've elsewhere discussed as
    'vapor' theory, a dialectical immaterialism that
    was so prevalent throughout this decade in the
    pages of Wired, on trade show floors, and in
    academic seminars on cyberculture.
  • His argument is that is primarily
    conceptual. "If we can indeed speak of schools in
    a medium just a few years old," he writes, "then
    the '' movement has indeed led the way
    towards a conceptually provocative practice for
    work on the World Wide Web
  • http//

Morison, Stanley.  Four Centuries of Fine
Printing Two Hundred and Seventy_Two Examples of
the Work of Presses Established Between 1465 and
1924.   2nd ed. London E. Benn, 1949.
  • Times New Roman, designed by Morison himself for
    The Times (London), whose staff he joined in
    1930. The last has been called the most
    successful type design of the 20th century, a
    result of its economy and legibility when used on
    high-speed presses.
  • In typography, the printers of the 16th century
    abandoned the calligraphy- inspi