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Aviation Security

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Title: Aviation Security


1
Aviation Security
  • ?? ? ?? ? ???? ? 911…

2
Aviation Security
  • ? Introduction
  • ? Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? Regulatory Movement
  • ? International Influences
  • ? Review of Security technologies
  • ? APB Aviation Security

3
1. Introduction
  • ? it is important to realize a fundament
    difference between
  • Safety usually refers to measures taken against
    the threat of an
  • accident
  • Security refers to protection from threats
    motivated by hostility
  • or malice
  • ? While the end objective of safety and security
    is to minimize risk by preventing injuries and
    loss of lives and property!
  • ? The core safety practices are designed to
    prevent unintentional acts whereas security
    practices are designed to avert intentional acts.

4
?????????
  • ? ????,?????????????(flight safety)?????(aviation
    security)??????
  • ???????????????????,????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????(???????
    ?)

5
2. Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? The first attack on civil aviation dates back
    to 1930 when Peruvian revolutionaries seized a
    Fokker F-7 aircraft in South America.
  • ? little attention and never resulted in any
    international effort
  • to combat potential threats to
    international aviation
  • ? Until the Mid-1960s, airlines and airports gave
    security matters little attention.
  • ? Low-technology security applications, such as
    airport fences,
  • were intended as a safety measure to
    separate aircraft from
  • wildlife rather than terrorists.

6
Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? However, attackers against civil aviation rose
    rapidly in the 1967-1976 decade.
  • ?while there were only 32 worldwide hijackings
    from 1961 through 1967, there were 290 hijacking
    attempts (successful and unsuccessful) worldwide
    during the following 4 years after 1968.
  • ? In U.S., from 1930 to 1967, only 12 hijackings
    were attempted, the climax occurred in 1969 when
    33 regularly scheduled airliners were hijacked.
  • ? led to much money being spent on security by
    the air carriers and the FAA on x-ray systems,
    magnetometers, training programs for screening
    personnel, and air marshals.

7
Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? Consequently, the threat of hijacking in U.S.
    and the actual incidences of hijackings
    diminished over time.

8
Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? From Fig.1, all three major forms of attacks
    against on airliners display almost the same
    trend over time, rising steeply in 1967-1976
    decade and then declining.

9
Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? From 1947-1996 there were 1,098 total incidents
    of attacks on airliners, compared with 129
    attacks on airports and 249 attacks on airline
    offices.
  • ?With regard to the modes of attack, hijackings
    were by far the most common form of attack on
    commercial aviation. Hijackings constituted 87
    of all incidents on airliners during this 50-year
    period. ( the other were bombings, armed
    assault,…)
  • ? While the number of attacks was on the decline,
    the severity of these attacks demonstrated a
    different trend.
  • ? the decade of the 1980s was a disastrous one
    for aviation, confirmed the existence of
    dangerous trend toward greater violence against
    air transportation. Overall, 25 planes were
    sabotaged by explosives, causing 1,237
    casualties.

10
Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
  • ? By comparison, there were 650 deaths in the
    1970s and 286 deaths in the 1960s.
  • ? things cooled off in the 1990s only the events
    of September 11, 2001, when 3,247(including
    onboard passengers, crew, and people on the
    ground) were killed in four separate terrorists
    acts on the same day
  • ? The increase in severity of aviation attacks
    were the results of terrorists changing their
    tactics and philosophies and making use of new
    technologies.
  • ? more sophisticated and lethal technologies,
    such as automatic weapons and deadly plastic
    explosives, innocuous-looking suitcases and radio
    into lethal bombs,…
  • ? The character of airline hijackings also
    changed from lone hijacker (personal or political
    point ) of early 1960s to the 1970s as an
    organized terrorist tactic.

11
3. Regulatory Movement
  • ? Prior to the formation of the Transportation
    Security Administration (TSA) in 2001, for
    protecting the users against terrorist and other
    criminal acts belonged to the FAA.
  • 1. Airport Security
  • 2. Air Carrier Security
  • 3. Anti-hijacking or Air Transportation Security
    Act of 1974
  • 4. Air Carrier Standard Security Program (ACSSP)
  • 5. Indirect Air Carrier Security
  • 6. Air Marshal Program
  • 7. Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990
  • 8. Antiterrorism Act of 1996
  • 9. White House Commission on Aviation Safety and
    Security, 1996
  • 10. Aviation and Transportation Security Act of
    2001

12
Regulatory Movement
  • 1. Airport Security
  • Under FAR (Federal Aviation Regulations) Part
    107 (1972), airport were intend to prevent
    inadvertent entry of unauthorized persons or
    vehicles to the aircraft movement area and
    prevent damaging collisions with wildlife other
    than birds through fencing or other means
  • ? Improve or establish protection against
    unauthorized access to air operations areas
  • ? Establish authorized access to air operations
    areas through a suitable identification system
  • ? Identify vehicles operating in air operations
    areas

13
Regulatory Movement
  • 2. Air Carrier Security
  • Part 121 (1972), air carriers were required
    to adopt and implement a screening system that
    would detect weapons and explosives in carry-on
    baggage or on the person of passengers
  • ? Prevent or deter unauthorized access to its
    aircraft
  • ? Ensure that a responsible agent or
    representative of the certificate holder would
    check in baggage
  • ? Prevent cargo and checked baggage from being
    loaded aboard its aircraft unless they were
    handled in accordance with the certificate
    holders security procedures

14
Regulatory Movement
  • 3. Anti-hijacking or Air Transportation Security
    Act of 1974
  • this Act promulgated in 1974, contained two
    titles rules requiring carriers to institute
    100 screening of passenger and carry-on items,
    and at least 1 law enforcement officer at each
    passenger checkpoint during boarding and
    preboarding
  • ? Title?, Anti-hijacking Act (punitive provisions
    for hijackers and security standards for foreign
    air transportation and services)
  • ? Title?, Air Transportation Security Act
    (security regulations for U.S. airports and
    carriers)

15
Regulatory Movement
  • 4. Air Carrier Standard Security Program (ACSSP)
  • Application of the regulations varied greatly
    across the airlines. Regulatory requirements were
    not implemented consistently across the industry.
  • ? In early 1975 the Air Transportation
    Association sought to work out a Standard
    Security Program (ACSSP), which attempted to
    bring some structure to the diverse
    interpretations of the new rules.
  • ? In 1976, all but a few of the carriers accepted
    the program, which is mandatory today.

16
Regulatory Movement
  • 5. Indirect Air Carrier Security
  • FAR 109 regulations (1979) govern indirect
    air carrier security and provide additional
    protection against criminal activity.
  • ? prescribes aviation security rules governing
    each air carrier, including air freight
    forwarders, food service, and cooperative
    shipping associations engaged indirectly in air
    transportation of goods
  • ? each indirectly air carrier is required to have
    a security program designed to prevent or deter
    the unauthorized introduction of explosives or
    incendiary devices into any package cargo

17
Regulatory Movement
  • 6. Air Marshal Program
  • this statute authorized Federal Air Marshals
    to carry firearms on board and to make arrest
    without warrant
  • ? the increase hijacking resulted in the
    establishment of the Anti-Hijacking Program of
    the Federal Aviation Administration, one element
    of this program was the federal Air Marshal
    Program
  • ? FAAs armed federal Air Marshal Program aboard
    international flights for U.S. air carriers.
  • ? In 1985, Congress enacted Public Law 99-83, the
    International Security and Development
    Cooperation Act, which established the explicit
    statutory basis for the FAA-Federal Air Marshal
    Program

18
Regulatory Movement
  • 7. Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990
  • this Act implemented the most comprehensive,
    far-reaching legislative initiative designed to
    improve all aspects of aviation security
  • ? It mandates many regulatory actions affecting
    several agencies, requires new reports, creates
    new organization and staffing requirements, and
    empowers the FAA to promote and strengthen
    aviation security, more focused research and
    development (RD) program.
  • 8. Antiterrorism Act of 1996
  • an amendment required the FAA to ensure that
    the same security measures (not merely similar
    ones) used by U.S. carriers on routes into or
    from the U.S. would be implemented by non-U.S.
    air carriers on those routes

19
Regulatory Movement
  • 9. White House Commission on Aviation Safety and
    Security, 1996
  • the commission set aggressive agenda for
    reviewing the safety of the air transportation
    system and issued initial recommendations
  • ? Special attention was given to an action plan
    to deploy new high-technology machines
    (explosives detection, human factors, aircraft
    container hardening, trace explosives detectors)
    to detect the most sophisticated explosives.
  • ? The working groups recommendations were passed
    on to the White House Commission on Aviation
    Safety and Security, had a major impact and given
    the force of law and financing by ensuring
    Congressional action

20
Regulatory Movement
  • 10. Aviation and Transportation Security Act of
    2001
  • the 911 terrorist events of 2001 changed the
    face of aviation forever while fundamentally
    modifying the thinking and approach to security
  • ? On November 19, 2001, Congress enacted the
    Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA),
    which established the Transportation Security
    Administration (TSA) as an operating
    administration within the Department of
    Transportation (DOT)
  • ? The measure, was expected to dramatically
    improve airport security by promoting the
    development and use of cutting-edge technologies,
    such as biometric authentication, Global
    Positioning System applications, enhanced
    communication systems, and database integration
    protocols.

21
4. International Influences
  • ? The cost-benefit ratio of current U.S. security
    efforts is insular. There is little or no overall
    economic benefit to improving aviation security
    inconsistently.
  • ? If the terrorist were to acquire
    shoulder-launched missiles (a perfectly realistic
    scenario), present security measures would become
    pointless.
  • ? National and international security concerns
    arise because such economic and technological
    integration is not accompanied by political
    integration.
  • ? There is no central authority in world
    politics, much less one with power to enforce its
    mandates.

22
International Influences
  • ? the security measures produced two obvious
    economic effects
  • 1. increased costs, arise from such procedures
    as increased inspections, patrol, expanded
    screening measures, overtime payrolls, and
    enforcing new parking restrictions.
  • 2. loss of revenue, allowing only ticketed
    passengers past screening points reduces
    concession revenues, and packing lot closures
    reduce cash revenues.

23
International Influences
  • ? Critical point out that it would be better to
    spend the money on intelligence to get an
    accurate fix on real threat.
  • ? U.S. carriers frequently rely on the host
    government to provide security at least to the
    degree that outlined in ICAO Annex 17.
  • ? The International Security and Development
    Cooperation Act of 1985 gives the FAA authority
    to assess security measures at foreign airport in
    accordance with ICAO Annex 17 standards.
  • ? The U.S. DOT also issues public warnings about
    the level of security at foreign airports if it
    falls below international standards.

24
5. Review of Security technologies
  • ? Commercial aviation can be protected from the
    threat of explosives in two ways
  • ? By Preventing explosives from reaching aircraft
    (by using explosives detection technologies)
  • ? By mitigating the effects of an explosive by
    protecting the aircraft from an onboard explosion
    (via aircraft hardening and hardened containers)
  • ? Combined these two approaches may provide the
    best protection of commercial aviation

25
Security technologies- Imaging Technologies
  • ? Imaging Technologies
  • imaging technologies work either by sensing
    the natural radiation emitted by the human body
    (passive imaging) or by exposing subjects to a
    specific type of radiation and then measuring the
    radiation reflected by the body (active imaging)
  • ? it can detect metallic weapons or plastic
    explosives by sensing the differences in
    reflected radiation between the human body and
    the weapons or explosives
  • ? X-Ray Imaging
  • X-ray units used for inspecting carry-on
    luggage and people use low-dosage, low-energy
    radiation. Higher-dosage units are used for
    checked baggage.

26
Security technologies- Imaging Technologies
  • ? newer X-ray device display images in different
    colors according to the level of energy
    radiation, thickness, density, to differentiate
    among materials are metallic, organic, and so on.
  • ? Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging
  • based on the principle that any object not at
    absolute zero temperature will emit
    electromagnetic energy at all wavelengths
  • ? Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging
  • uses low-energy, low-intensity reflected
    x-rays to scan an object to generate an image,
    this technique require radiation, which raises
    some health concerns.

27
Security technologies- Imaging Technologies
  • ? Sample imagine systems currently being marketed
  • 1. American Science and Engineering (ASE)
  • BodySearch Personnel Inspection System
  • ASEs 101ZZ system
  • PalletSearch Cargo Inspection System
  • 2. Heimann System
  • 3. Secure 1000 Nicolet Imaging System/Teledyne
  • 4. Portable X-Ray Imaging System

28
Security technologies- Trace Detection
Technologies
  • ? Trace detection technologies
  • based on the direct chemical identification
    of either particles of explosive material or
    vapor-containing explosive material.
  • ? two distinct steps in trace detection are
    sample collection and chemical identification,
    more commonly used for baggage screening (as
    opposed to people screening) in aviation security
  • ? Sample 1. Thermedics EGIS 3000 2. Barringer
    Ionscan 400
  • 3. Ion Track Itemiser
    4. CTX-5000SP

29
Security technologies- Explosive Detection
Systems (EDSs)
  • ? Explosive Detection Systems
  • includes any device or system that remotely
    senses a physical or chemical property of an
    object to detect the presence of an explosive
    concealed in a container
  • ? the critical performance metrics for explosives
    detection equipment include the probability of
    detection Pd, the probability of false alarm
    Pfa, and the throughput rate
  • ? Samples 1. CTX 9000 InVision Technologies
  • 2. Vivid CT30
  • 3. Examiner 3DX 6000

30
Security technologies- Metal Detectors
  • ? Metal Detectors
  • are used broadly around all the airports and
    the most important source of security, involve
    metal detection portals for screening passengers
    and x-ray imaging systems for hand-carried
    baggage
  • ? metal detectors vary from portals to handheld
    systems depend on the application, and not as
    effective as other systems, and their weakness is
    that they do not detect metals incapable of being
    magnetized, (newer generation can search for
    ferrous and nonferrous objects)
  • ? Samples 1. Body Orifice Security Scanner
    (B.O.S.S.)
  • 2. Sentrie Omni
  • 3. PM200HD (Portal Type)

31
Security technologies- Biometrics
  • ? Biometrics
  • Biometrics technology devoted to identifying
    individuals by using biological traits and use of
    physiological or behavioral characteristics to
    determine or verify identity (so that security
    personnel can focus on smaller category
    high-risk passengers)
  • ? Biometric systems are basically of two types
    verification and recognition.
  • ? Biometric measurement variables include
  • Fingerprint Facial recognition
    Voice recognition
  • Iris scan Retina Scan
    Hand geometry
  • Signature scan Keystroke scan
    Palm scan
  • ? Samples FaceIT Identix Corporation
  • HandKey Recognition System

32
Security technologies (another approach )
  • ? Strengthening Aircraft and Baggage Containers
  • another approach to aviation security is to
    try to strengthen aircraft frames and to plan
    redundancies in vital systems such as controls,
    electrical systems, and hydraulics, to mitigate
    the effects of bomb blasts in flight
  • ? Cockpit Door Reinforcement
  • On January 10, 2002, the FAA published new
    standards to protect cockpits from intrusion and
    small-arms fire or fragmentation devices, such as
    grenades.
  • ? Computer-Assisted Passenger Screening System
    (CAPS)
  • about in 1997 several major carriers
    developing and testing CAPS, which permits the
    airlines computer reservation system to use
    information in the passenger name record to
    exclude most passengers from further security
    measures

33
Non-technological Approaches
  • ? High-technology detection methods can yield
    results, but it is clear that these results are
    expensive and are not perfect.
  • ? There are alternative technological and
    tactical approaches to airport security.
  • ? One might be able to divert some level of
    resources from hardware applications toward
    improved intelligence gathering to intercept
    terrorists long before they arrive at the
    airport.
  • ? From an economic point of view, the use of
    resources to gather intelligence is more
    attractive than elaborate security technology.
  • ? In spite of all that has been accomplished to
    ensure the safety and security of the traveling
    public, the terrorist, always has the upper hand.
    While we must protect every element of the
    transportation system at all times, the terrorist
    has the luxury of being the only one who know the
    time, the place, and the method of the next
    attack.

34
6. APB Aviation Security
  • ? ???? -- ???????????????????19???????????????????
    ????,????????????????(???)??????????????,?????????
    ?????????????????(????)???(????)???!
  • ? ???????????
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  • ?????!
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35
APB Aviation Security
  • ? ????????????
  • ??????????????????????,??????????????????????????
    ,??????????????????????????
  • ? ????????????????????????,???????????,???????????
    !????????(IATA)??????????,??????

36
??????????????
  • ? ?1980-2003?????????????????
  • 1. 1981.08.31, Middle East Airlines,B720????5???
    ?????????,82????
  • 2. 1987.11.28, South African Airways,B747???????
    ?????????????????,?????,159????
  • 3. 1987. Korean Air,B707???????????,??????,115??
    ??
  • 4. 1988. 12.21, Pan Am,B747?????????270????
  • 5. 1989.09.19, Union des Transport Aerins,
    DC-10??????????????,171????
  • 6. 1989. 11.27, ??????B727???????,107????

37
??????????????
  • ? ?1980-2003?????????????????
  • 7. 1994.12.11, Philippine Airlines,
    B727???????,??1????
  • 8. 1995.07.12, Miline Bay Air Gumey, DHC-6 Twin
    Otter ????????,?????????,15????
  • 9. 1996.05.11, ValuJet Airlines(????),DC-9??????
    ??????????????,?????????110????
  • 10. 1997.07.09, TAM Brazil, Fokker F-100,
    ?????????,1??????????
  • 11. 1999.08.24, Uni-Airlines, MD-90??????????????
    ???,1????(1989????????CCK)

38
??????????
  • ? ????????????
  • ? 1950???????????????(?????????Restricted
    Articles)??????,?????????1952?????????????????????
    ???????????
  • ? 1956 ???IATA?????????????
  • ? 1972 IATA????(??)???,?????????????
  • ? 1976 ??????(International Civil Aviation
    Orgnization,
  • ICAO) ???????????????????
  • ? 1977 ICAO??????????????,??????????
  • ???????,?????????????????
  • (Technical Instructions,
    TI)???????
  • ? 1982 IATA????????????,??????ICAO????
  • ?????????,???????????

39
??????????
  • ? Dangerous Goods Regulations, DGR,
    ??????????????????????????
  • 1.????????????????????????????
  • ????
  • 2. ????????????(International Atomic Enrergy
    Agency,
  • IAEA) ?????????????????????
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  • ? ????????????
  • ? ??????????????,?? ??????43???,????????????????
    ?(???????????)??????????????????,???????????(IATA)
    ????

40
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41
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42
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43
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44
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45
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46
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47
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