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Alterations in Metabolism

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Rare in African Americans, Japanese and Jewish populations. Inborn Errors of Metabolism ... peaks occur 10-12 girls, 12-14 boys. Diabetes Mellitus. Description ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alterations in Metabolism


1
Alterations in Metabolism
  • Wong, pp 320-325 Chapter 38

2
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Phenyketonuria
  • Galactosemia
  • Routine neonatal screening

3
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism-condition present from
    birth
  • 14000 live births
  • Untreated HC leads to mental retardation

4
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Phenyketonuria inherited disorder
  • 110,000 to 25,000 live births
  • Rare in African Americans, Japanese and Jewish
    populations

5
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Galactosemia rare autosomal recessive disorder
  • 150,000 live births

6
Pituitary Disorder
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Pituitary Hyperfunction
  • Precocious Puberty
  • Diabetes Insipidus

7
Pituitary Disorder
  • Precocious Puberty in boys, secondary sexual
    characteristics 9 years in girls, onset of
    breast development before 8 years

8
Pituitary
  • Diabetes Insipidus excretion of large amounts
    of dilute urine due to insufficient function of
    antidiuretic hormone

9
Hypothyroidism
  • Congenital or acquired metabolic disorder
    resulting in absent or insufficient production of
    thryoxin by thyroid gland
  • Affects multiple systems may nonspecific signs
    and symptoms severity depends on age of onset
    and degree of thyroid deficiency

10
Hyperthyroidism
  • Excessive production and secretion of thyroid
    hormone by thyroid gland resulting in increased
    basal metabolism, goiter, autonomic nervous
    system disorder, and problems with creatinine
    metabolism

11
Parathyroid Disorder
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism

12
Adrenal Disorders
  • Acute Adrenocortical Insufficiency
  • Addisons disease
  • Cushing Syndrome
  • Congenital Hyperplasia

13
Adrenal Disorders
  • Acute Adrenocortical Insufficiency inadequate
    production and secretion of adrenal hormones
  • Adrenal crisis may be life-threatening

14
Adrenal Disorders
  • Cushing Syndrome Excess cortisol secretion by
    adrenals (hypercortisolism)
  • S/S slowed growth and development, obesity,
    emotional lability, delayed puberty, easy bruising

15
Diabetes Mellitus
  • IDDM, Type 1 destruction of beta islet cells of
    pancreas uncommon in infancy and toddlerhood
  • Peaks occur between 5 and 7 years and at time of
    puberty peaks occur 10-12 girls, 12-14 boys

16
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Description
  • Etiology
  • Assessment
  • Diagnosis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Interventions
  • Medication Therapy
  • Family Education

17
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Description
  • Etiology
  • Assessment
  • Diagnosis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Interventions
  • Medication Therapy
  • Family Education

18
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Description
  • Etiology
  • Assessment
  • Diagnosis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Interventions
  • Medication Therapy
  • Family Education

19
Medications
  • Humalog
  • Regular
  • NPH
  • Lente
  • Ultralente
  • Insulin storage

20
Developmental Issues
  • Preschoolers
  • School-age
  • Adolescents

21
Hypoglycemia
  • Causes too much insulin, inadequate or missed
    meals, strenuous exercise without increased
    intake
  • S/S blood glucose levels drop below normal,
    diaphoresis, tremors, hunger, weakness, pallor,
    dizziness, coma and convulsions, death

22
Hyperglycemia with Ketoacidosis
  • Causes insufficient insulin, infection or other
    illness may contribute to the development
  • S/S blood glucose 250, glycosuria and
    ketonuria, kussmaul respirations, acetone breath,
    dehydration, weight loss, tachycardia, decreased
    level of consciousness, death
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