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MANAGING DUAL CAREERS

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Review of research on personality dynamics of the dual career couple ... Maori strategy design. 30/7/2003. 11. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MANAGING DUAL CAREERS


1
MANAGING DUAL CAREERS STRESS
2
DUAL CAREER COUPLES
3
DUAL CAREER COVERAGE
  • Dual careers role play
  • Review of research on personality dynamics of the
    dual career couple
  • Divide into groups and discuss chapter 20
  • Case Elizabeth Fisher (A), (B), (C)
  • Other research on dual careers Life stages,
    organizational responses, the comparative
    dimension
  • Review of geographical separation how to cope
    with it
  • Class discussion of the dual career lesbian
    couple stress

4
DUAL CAREERS ROLE PLAY
  • Form 3 person groups
  • Conduct 1st role play
  • Conduct 2nd role play
  • Within the group discuss the observers
    observations
  • Class discussion

5
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
  • What was the range of solutions arrived at by
    couples?
  • To what extent were these solutions satisfactory
    to both members of the couple?
  • Would you characterize the various couples as
    superordinate, synchronized, synthetic, severed?
  • What behaviors helped couples reach mutually
    satisfactory decisions? What behaviors
    restricted their ability to reach such decisions?

6
PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
  • Prominent need for achievement
  • Each needs strokes from the other
  • Task persistence single-mindedness
  • Competitive each keeps score

7
GROUP WORK FOCUS
  • Work-family conflict
  • Is WF conflict more likely to occur for you than
    FW conflict? Do women experience more conflict?
  • Work-family integration
  • Where does the balance lie between conflict
    enhancement? Which is more salient status
    enhancement or personality enrichment?
  • Positive negative linkages between work and
    family roles
  • Relate experiences encountered in your roles, the
    level of involvement invested in your roles,
    the attitudinal reactions to participation in
    your roles
  • Where is the balance between positive negative?

8
ELIZABETH FISHER (A)
9
WHAT FACTORS SHAPE ELIZABETHS JOB SEARCH IIN THE
BEGINNING OF THE CASE?
10
WHAT WAS ELIZABETH AND PAULS INITIAL STRATEGY
Maori strategy design
11
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
  • Successful in generating job opportunities for
    herself through on-campus resources
  • Elizabeth creates some limits
  • Not very creative in generating offers through
    other means
  • Job search too broad
  • Does not consider the effect that MTS has on her
    job search
  • Communication as a couple is lacking

12
WHAT WOULD A GOOD DUAL CAREER JOB SEARCH LOOK
LIKE?
13
WHAT SHOULD ELIZABETH DO?
14
WHAT IS YOUR ASSESSMENT OF ELIZABETHS NEW SEARCH?
15
OBSERVATIONS OF DUAL CAREER JOB SEARCHES
  • A clear focus on the job search is important,
    but not sufficient, to the avoidance of potential
    problems.
  • Time must be set aside for the sole purpose of
    discussing job search.
  • Remain open to new learnings.
  • Do not avoid talking about the difficult
    trade-offs.
  • Be aware of forces that may suppress the act of
    open dialogue
  • Recognize that your partner is not on the MBA
    cycle

16
OTHER RESEARCH ON DUAL CAREERS
  • Life stages
  • Organizational response
  • The comparative framework

17
LIFE STAGES RESEARCH
18
CAREER LIFE STAGES PERSONAL ENHANCEMENT
THEIR LINKAGES
  • Study by Uma Sekaran in CJAS
  • Career stages exploration establishment
    advancement growth, maintenance or stagnation
    ultimate decline
  • Family life cycle stages from launching dual
    career family to the empty nest
  • Personal enhancement stages
  • Linkages among family life style, personal
    enhancement career development stages
    employee needs

19
LIFESTYLE STAGES LINKAGES
  • Stage 1 finding their identity
  • Stage 2 establishing becoming secure
  • Stage 3 asymmetrical, forced choice stage
  • Stage 4 asymmetrical burn-out stage
  • Stage 5 the problematic pre-retirement years

20
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN SUGGESTIONS
  • Examine recruitment policies to ensure that they
    are conducive to the employment of dual career
    couples.
  • Install sensible parenting leave policies
    on-site child care facilities or pooled child
    care facilities close to the place of work
    alternative work patterns offered
  • Revise promotion policies to take account of
    longer lives allow multiple career paths more
    choice of time for career advancement

21
ORGANIZATIONAL STUDIES
22
ORGANIZATIONAL STUDIES
  • Organizations do respond in a calculated manner
    positively to work-family issues when there are
    strong institutional pressures and when benefits
    from providing work-family programs are high.
  • The higher the proportion of women managers the
    higher the probability that the organization will
    respond positively.
  • The more visible the organization, the more
    positive the response.
  • The lower the female unemployment in an industry,
    the greater the tendency for a positive response.

23
EFFECT OF POSITIVE HR POLICIES ON FIRM-LEVEL
PERFORMANCE
  • Study found that the presence of a bundle of
    work-family policies is positively associated
    with perceived firm-level performance.
  • Organizational performance, market performance,
    profit-sales growth
  • Weak finding for the proportion of women
    interaction
  • The relationship between work-family firm
    performance does not appear to be moderated by
    firm size.

24
COMPARATIVE STUDIES
25
COMPARATIVE STUDIES EXAMPLE OF CHINA
  • Article in AMJ last year comparing sources of
    work-family conflict in China the United States
  • National differences in orientations to self
    family
  • Studied China and the States found that this
    hypothesis was supported.
  • Also found that there was a limit work ethic
    may not sustain employees if work pressure
    continuously results in work-family conflict

26
GEOGRAPHICAL SEPARATION
27
GEOGRAPHICAL SEPARATION CHARACTERISTICS OF
COUPLES
  • well educated affluent professionals
  • Mean age mid to late 30s
  • Over half married for more than 9 years
  • The longer couples are married the less stressful
    is the separation
  • The length of time couples commuted varied from
    months to 14 years
  • Distance ranged from 40-2700 miles
  • Half were apart less than one week at a time

28
DILEMMAS OF THE COMMUTING LIFESTYLE
  • Personal psychological dilemmas (most
    important)
  • Identity dilemma
  • Emotional support dilemma
  • Intimacy dilemma
  • Social dilemmas
  • Work career dilemmas
  • Situational dilemmas

29
HOW TO SURVIVE GEOGRAPHICAL SEPARATION
  • Be clear about your identity
  • Close communication emotional support
    established for a long time prior to establishing
    a commuter relationship
  • Be accommodative of each others absences
    preoccupations conflicting work schedules
    priorities
  • When reuniting dont waste time on other
    obligations than investing in yourselves
  • See the positive side to separation
  • Form network of relationships supporting the
    commuting lifestyle

30
SUCCESSFUL COMMUTER COUPLES
  • Older
  • Long marriages
  • One already has an established career
  • No children at home
  • Other aids
  • Adequate or high financial resources
  • Both enjoy intense career motivations
  • Weekly reunions
  • View separation as temporary (even though it is
    not)

31
LESBIAN DUAL CAREER COUPLE STRESS

32
COMPARISON OF LESBIAN HETEROSEXUAL DUAL CAREER
COUPLES
  • Lesbian couples emphasized the maintenance of
    equity in terms of financial matters
  • Distinct gender differences in the spillover
    between work family roles, with the husband
    still identifying primarily with the breadwinner
    role the wives with the homemaker role
  • One similarity in all the couples one member is
    more work-centered the other more relationship
    centered (but alternates in the lesbian
    relationship)

33
STRESS DUAL CAREER COUPLES
  • Lesbian dual career relationships role
    overload, equity issues time-based conflict
    most important sources of stress
  • Heterosexual dual career relationship role
    conflict ambiguity important also role
    overload time-based conflict
  • Disclosure at work this stressor was not
    present in heterosexual couples
  • Only some organizations have employment policies
    to lessen some of the problems of dual career
    couples

34
STRESS THE WOMAN MANAGER
35
MECHANISMS USED BY WORKING WOMEN TO COPE WITH
STRESS
  • POSITIVE
  • Talk to a friend (56)
  • Take action (50)
  • Exercise (36)
  • Blow off steam (33)
  • Engage in a hobby (27)
  • Get away from it all (21)
  • NEGATIVE
  • Drink coffee or soda or eat more (42)
  • Keep it to myself (35)
  • Act as if nothing much happened (30)
  • Smoke cigarettes (23)
  • Drink alcohol (15)

36
COPING WITH THE STRESS OF DUAL CAREERS
  • Support system
  • Equity
  • How to cope with work overload issues
  • Work at allowing oneself to experience leisure
  • Examples holidays, weekends out of town
  • Work on lessening household chores
  • Provide adequate care for child rearing
  • Modify your work to be more in tune with your
    partners work

37
ASSIGNMENT FOR 11 AUGUST
  • TOPIC AFFIRMATIVE ACTION THE IMPACTS OF
    DIVERSITY WORK-LIFE INITIATIVES IN
    ORGANIZATIONS
  • Reading chapters 22-23
  • Class Activity
  • Gender Diversity in the Workplace of the Future
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